Prince Provost Berchtesgaden
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|Prince Provost Berchtesgaden|
|coat of arms|
|Core area of the prince provostie Berchtesgaden 1789|
|Alternative names||Berchtesgadener Land|
|Arose from||Berchtesgaden monastery, from 1380 imperial prelature, 1559 prince provosty|
|Form of rule||Electoral Principality|
|Ruler / government||Prince Provost|
|Today's region / s||DE-BY|
|Parliament||1 virile vote on the ecclesiastical bench in the Reichsfürstenrat|
|Capitals / residences||Berchtesgaden|
|Denomination / Religions||Roman Catholic|
|Language / n||German , Latin|
|Incorporated into||1803 in the Electorate of Salzburg , 1805 in the Austrian Empire , 1809 in the First Empire (Napoleon) , from 1810 in the Kingdom of Bavaria
The monastery monastery Berchtesgaden (berthercatmen) in the extreme south-east of today's Bavaria , first mentioned in a document in 1102 , was raised as a scepter fief to the imperial prelature of Berchtesgaden and finally in 1559 to the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden . Even the Stiftspröpste the old Augustinian canons - pin had from 1194 spiritual and temporal power held. From 1380 they were represented as Reich prelates in the Reichstag with seats and votes. As a prince provost, the state of Berchtesgaden or Berchtesgadener Land formed an independent, imperial principality until 1803 . The residence of the monastery and prince provosts was the monastery building, expanded over the years, in the main and original place of Berchtesgaden . The state rule was exercised by the provost, besides also had the canons big impact. In 1156, the monastery was granted forest sovereignty and the associated freedom to mine salt and metal. While the domestic agriculture and livestock farming remained poorly profitable until recently, salt and metal extraction ensured economic upswing and jobs that secured a livelihood for some of the “part-time farmers”. However, the salt also gave rise to political intrigues and even armed conflicts. In particular, the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg, which almost completely encompassed its core area, tried again and again to restrict the independence of the monastery monastery.
Another source of income for the people of Berchtesgaden has been the Berchtesgadener War since the end of the 15th century. As a wooden toy modeled on Ammergau, it soon found its way to “the most distant parts of the trading world”. This contrasted with the luxurious and “unworthy” way of life of the Augustinian canons , which had been criticized again and again since the end of the 14th century , which led to large debts and thus to decades of pledging of the monastery's own salt pans .
Closed forest district as the core area
Since the 10th century as a forest reserve of victory Hardinger that of recognized Count first "domination moderate" was Irmgard of Sulzbach shortly before her death († 1101) ausersehene a Klosterstiftskirche area is very sparsely populated. Widowed after her first marriage to a Sieghardinger, Irmgard had brought this inherited property into her marriage with Gebhard II von Sulzbach († 1085) as a morning gift.
Already in its beginnings around 1101 the monastery monastery and its first provost Eberwin by Irmgard's son Count Berengar I with the self-contained land around Berchtesgaden and u. a. the possessions in Niederheim im Pinzgau . In 1125 Berengar I also gave “omnem silvam ad locum Grauingaden dictum pertinentem” , d. H. the complete forest area of St. Leonhard bei Grödig, which was still called Grafengaden at the time. The border of this forest was determined by historians as follows: It led over the Diezzenbach (Dießbach; probably named after the von Dießen , based in Reichenhall ) along the Sala ( Saalach ) to the village of Waliwes ( Wals ), then to the marshland Uilzmos (Viehausermoos ) and to Anava ( Anif ), from there Salzach up to the upper Scrainpach (Schrainbach) on to the Farmignekke (Fahreneck?) and to the Swalwen (Ecker Sattel?), then up to the Gelichen ( Hoher Göll ), to the origin of the Cuonispach (Königsbach) , further Ouzinsperch and Pochisrukke (ridge on the Schneibstein ?), to the lake at Phafinsperch ( Seeleinsee ), through the Langtal to the Viscuncula ( Fischunkel ) down; so much lay in the area of the Archdiocese of Salzburg , so that arguments were inevitable.
On May 8th 1155 there was an exchange of goods between Archbishop Eberhard I of Salzburg and Provost Heinrich I ; for a farm in Landersdorf near Wölbling , the monastery monastery area expanded to include the “pratum Bisvolfeswisen” ( Bischofswiesen ).
The core area of the state of Berchtesgaden thus comprised the "closed original forest area" within the Berchtesgaden valley basin . In addition, the monastery was endowed with “larger and smaller gentlemen” in Grödig , Reichenhall , on Schönberg and in the mountains by the “Counts of Rot , Wasserburg and Plaien ” as well as from “the House of Andechs and Dießen ”. Up to the 13th century, other properties such as vineyards, mills and country estates were added, including in Lower Bavaria , northern Upper Bavaria , Upper Palatinate , Middle Franconia , Swabia and Austria , as well as residences ("courtyards") in Salzburg, Munich, Regensburg and Klosterneuburg .
A few years after its founding, the monastery monastery was already "master of the entire property" of that precisely delimited area, which roughly corresponded to that of the later prince provosty. As its owner, it was also solely responsible for the clearing and settlement of the cleared open spaces, to which the imperial regalia and jurisdiction were linked in the 12th and 13th centuries - according to Dieter Albrecht, “a central requirement” for the later state sovereignty “in Berchtesgadener Country".
Around the main towns of the Berchtesgaden heartland, the central market in Berchtesgaden and the market in Schellenberg , the eight original notations Au , Salzberg , Bischofswiesen , Ettenberg , Gern , Ramsau , Scheffau and Schönau were grouped, probably shortly after Provost Ulrich Wulp's land letter of 1377 , in the first Tax book of the Berchtesgadener Land from 1456 are notarized by name. These were divided into a varying number of Gnotschafter districts, in which the farmers living there each elected a Gnotschafter (other spelling Gnotschäfter ) for one or two years . In 1802, a year before secularization , the eight Gnotships were divided into 32 Gnotships districts.
Domains as prince provosts
The Berchtesgadener Land , raised to the status of prince provosty in 1559, was the only and smallest principality within the Bavarian Empire with its own viril vote. Some properties had to be pledged or sold in part due to the steadily increasing debts or were exchanged as part of a reconciliation of interests.
At the end of the 16th century, in addition to the heartland or the "closed district" with its Gnotships , properties in the following regions were included in the sphere of influence and rule of the prince provosty:
- beyond the Berchtesgadener Ache towards Hallein
- in the Grafengaden zu St. Leonhard office
- in the Reichenhall office
- in the Frohnwiese office between Lofer and Saalfelden
- in the Propstei Niederheim am Heuberg in Pinzgau and Pongau
- in the offices of Eging and Mauerheim
- in the Lamprechtshausen office
- in Lower Bavaria, among other things, the court marks of the Provost Office Jettenstätten, the Provost Office Weidenbach, the Court of Griesbach (Office Rottal) and several within the Care Office Wasentegernbach
- She was also responsible for the rule of Eisenthür zu Krems in Lower Austria and the caste office in Linz in Upper Austria
Early history, naming and first mention
For the early or prehistory of the region around Berchtesgaden, there are only scattered finds (predominantly hole axes ) from the Neolithic Age , which document the stay of fishermen and hunters 4000 years ago. A coin find from the Latène period (5th to 1st century BC) could also be explained by deportation, as no remains of settlements from this time have been found so far.
In the early Middle Ages the area of Berchtesgadener Land belonged to the Baier tribal duchy . In 700 , Duke Theodo II gave the alpine pastures Gauzo (Götschen) and Ladusa (Larosbach) in what is now Marktschellenberg to the first bishop of Salzburg and “Apostle of Bavaria” Rupert . The former Salzburggau was divided into several counties, one of which was Grafengaden . The Berchtesgaden forest area belonged to it, in which the noble-free family of the Aribones lived in the 10th and 11th centuries .
The first part of the name could be derived from either the Perchta or a settler named Perther , the second part from Gaden , a fenced-in residence. According to Helm and Feulner , this Perther could also have been an Aribone who had a one-story house or a hunting lodge there, near which there were also some huts for servants. From the end of the 12th century, documents often refer to "berhtersgaden" . Another source names the spelling “Berchtersgadmen” for 1106 (in contrast to the incorrect spelling “Berthercatmen” of a papal chancellery), for 1121 “Perehtgeresgadem” ; other spellings in the 12th century were "Perhtersgadem" , "Perthersgadem" and "Berhtersgadem" . In the 1456 copy of a document from 1266, today's spelling "Berchtesgaden" is included for the first time . From the 18th century at the latest, Brechtolsgaden is (also) mentioned , in historical treatises of the Royal Bavarian Academy from 1807 about the "former Bertholdsgaden monastery". And in Herder's Conversations Lexicon from 1854, corresponding to a Berchtesgaden legend , there are the alternating keywords “Berchtesgaden” and “Berchtoldsgaden” .
Berchtesgaden was first mentioned in a document in 1102. Its founding was probably in the spring of 1101, but possibly also far earlier, preceded by a vow made by Countess Irmgard von Sulzbach , who made her co-founder of the Augustinian Canons of Berchtesgaden. According to the legend, she wanted to donate a monastery as a thank you for saving her husband, Count Gebhard II von Sulzbach after a hunting accident near the rock on which the Berchtesgaden collegiate church now stands.
Irmgard brought the Berchtesgaden property from her first marriage with the Sieghardingen Count Engelbert V. in Chiemgau as a widow's gift and decreed in her vow that a clerical community based on the idea of “communal life” (“congregatio clericorum communis vite”) should arise there . Irmingard was no longer able to initiate the founding of the monastery himself "held up by various worldly affairs". Therefore, shortly before her death, she commissioned her son Berengar I von Sulzbach to promote the founding of the monastery for “her and his soul's salvation”.
Founded as a proponary office
Berengar I von Sulzbach , a close confidante of Emperor Heinrich V and supporter of a church reform group , began to put her vows into practice soon after the death of his mother Irmgard on June 14, 1101. He founded the Berchtesgaden monastery and appointed canon Eberwin to the post of provost . Under his leadership, he sent three Augustinian canons and four lay brothers from the Rottenbuch monastery , which at the time was the mother monastery of the Augustinians in Old Bavaria, pioneering canon reform , to Berchtesgaden. Together with his half-brother Kuno von Horburg- Lechsgemünd , Berengar I then campaigned for the papal confirmation of the founding of the monastery. Probably in 1102 (1105 at the latest) Kuno von Horburg traveled to Rome with Eberwin on behalf of Berengar II. Pope Paschal II "very likely" placed the count's own monastery berthercatmen under his protection on April 7, 1102 and confirmed this " privilege " to Berengar I and Kuno von Horburg in writing.
Berengar I also founded the reform monastery Kastl in 1102/03 ; the Berchtesgadener Stift did not get beyond one cell . According to the Fundatio , the Augustinians found "the lonely wilderness of Berchtesgaden, the terrifying mountain forest and the horrific experience of constant ice and snow" to be very inhospitable and therefore looked for a more suitable place. Presumably, however, Berengar I was simply unable to adequately equip several monasteries at the same time. In addition, between 1104 and 1106 he was involved in the fierce battles between Henry V and his father, Emperor Henry IV .
In 1107/09 Eberwin and his monks were finally withdrawn for the Baumburg monastery, also founded by Berengar, in the north of what is now the Traunstein district . According to a “Baumburger announcement”, Berengar I finally submitted to the pressure of his ministerials against his will to fulfill the obligations of his mother Irmgard and his first wife Adelheid by expanding Baumburg to include the founding estates of Berchtesgaden, making it at least one good equipped pen made.
But neither Berengar nor Eberwin gave up on Berchtesgaden - according to Weinfurter, however, it is not certain who of the two, "already working together in religious zeal", gave the first impetus to return.
Eberwin returned around 1116 (according to Helm between 1106 and 1112, according to Feulner probably around 1116, according to Albrecht and Weinfurter between 1116 and mid-1119) to Berchtesgaden, which was now better equipped and possibly already had access to the first brine springs . The post of the abbey caused the first major clearing and the Augustinian canons finally settled there. As an inscription indicates, at least one part of the collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist was consecrated in 1122 by Archbishop Konrad I of Salzburg .
At the same time , an Augustinian nunnery was set up in the Nonntal below the Lockstein , as was customary according to the Augustinians in the early 12th century , which was used until his relocation around 1400. Subsequently, the women's monastery in the new Am Anger building existed until 1564 and then, having become meaningless and almost orphaned, was dissolved by Prince Provost Wolfgang II. Griesstätter zu Haslach . From 1694, its premises were expanded into a Franciscan monastery with its own church.
But the regained "former freedom" of Berchtesgaden was not yet secured. The new and “first” provost of Baumburg Gottschalk (approx. 1120–1163), who regarded Eberwin as a “renegade” and deleted him from the provost's list, was not prepared to accept the loss of Berchtesgaden's equipment. After Berengar's death (December 3, 1125), he challenged the legality of the separation and turned to the responsible bishop, Archbishop Conrad I of Salzburg (1106–1147), for an order for the reunification. Only after an arbitration by Konrad in 1136 was the coexistence of the two pens in the sense of Berengar confirmed and confirmed again in 1142 by Pope Innocent II . The Baumburger demands, however, were rejected as "the opinion of certain simple-minded brothers".
Between 1125 and 1136 the first founding report of the Berchtesgaden monastery was recorded in the Fundatio monasterii Berchtesgadensis , which historians use as the primary source for the period covered in this article section.
On May 8th 1155 there was an exchange of goods between Archbishop Eberhard I of Salzburg and the provost of the monastery monastery Berchtesgaden Heinrich I. The archbishop received a court in Landersdorf near Oberwölbling for the " pratum Bisvolfeswisen " . After this exchange of goods, the core area of the Berchtesgadener Land or the lands in the immediate vicinity of the monastery comprised the "closed original forest area" within the Berchtesgaden valley basin.
Regalia and first economic boom
Witnessed and initiated by Count Gebhard III. von Sulzbach , the son and successor of Berengar I , and negotiated by Provost Heinrich I (1151–1174), Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa confirmed in his freedom letter of 1156 the monastery monastery the right to elect and, if necessary, to deselect his governors and grandfather for the size of the area of the monastery , which in the meantime was incorporated into the Baier tribal duchy as a small spiritual territory . He also granted the Klosterstiftskirche with this Golden Bull , the forestry authority . The guarantees contained in the imperial privilege and the increasing salt mining - initially for personal use - ensured an initial economic boom.
Provost Dietrich (1174–1178) was the first to not only mine salt, but also began to trade with it. Under Friedrich I (1178–1188), the salt trade started by his predecessor Dietrich finally “aspired to get rich”. Not least because, according to more recent historical research, Friedrich also had the Golden Bull supplemented in 1180 to include the freedom to mine salt and metal ( salt shelf ) - an interpolation that was by no means uncommon at the time or subsequently expanded falsification ( defamation ) of such a document .
The first salt eruptions
When Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa died in 1190, there were raids on the Berchtesgadener Land that same year. It was the beginning of the “Salzirrungen” that dragged on for decades. They had their cause in the salt mining sanctioned by the emperor, which "undoubtedly" was practiced far earlier by prehistoric settlers on the so-called Tuval near Schellenberg and on the Gollenbach. It had been forgotten and was only revived by the pen. The Salzburg Archbishop Adalbert III. saw it as a competition to the salt mine in Dürrnberg and to the then still Salzburg saltworks in Reichenhall . Shortly after the emperor's death, residents from Kuchl in the Salzach valley invaded the mining area and occupied the salt deposits on the Tuval . Friedrich's successor Heinrich VI. Salzburg threatened severe punishments; But as early as 1193 armed Reichenhallers penetrated the area of the monastery over the pass, which the following year was secured with the Hallthurm as part of a fortification , walled up the mountain tunnels on the Gollenbach and destroyed the salt pans. In addition, Reichenhall refused the monastery the interest on its well shares. Almost at the same time as the Hallthurm , the Schellenberg Tower, first mentioned in a document in 1252 , was built on the Hangendenstein Pass on the border with Salzburg as a further defense or pass tower to protect the salt deliveries.
The emperor intervened again, and the Salzburg archbishop then had a document forged, with which a predecessor of his had allegedly given the Tuval to the Salzburg cathedral chapter in 1123 . This ruse was successful and the Tuval seemed to be lost to the pen. But Provost Wernher I obtained from Pope Celestine III in Rome . a severe reprimand against the archbishop with the demand for complete satisfaction. In 1198 there was finally a settlement that was advantageous for the Salzburg population, in which the shares in the Tuval salt camp went to the Archbishop, the Salzburg Cathedral Monastery and Berchtesgaden in three equal parts. Nevertheless, there was a dispute between the two opponents on this matter for centuries.
High jurisdiction and sovereignty
Four years before this settlement, the provost's office achieved an “enormous increase in power” in 1194 thanks to a document that was referred to as the “Magna Charta of the Berchtesgaden Regional Authority”. In it, Emperor Heinrich VI decreed that Wernher and his successors, as sovereigns and judges, could not only have the lower but also the high jurisdiction exercised by a bailiff of their choice. All cleared areas and their farmers were now freed from any power of land judges and counts and were subject to the monastery only.
In 1209 the right of free jurisdiction over all lay people within his area of immunity was also granted by Pope Innocent III. approved. Pope Alexander IV also confirmed these privileges, but went one step further in 1255 - he infuled Provost Heinrich III. and at the same time granted the following provosts to wear the insignia miter , ring and sandals "for all time" , which in turn put them almost on a par with the bishops. However, in the pastoral field ( spirituality ) they remained subordinate to the Archbishop of Salzburg as a full professor . It was not until 1455 that the monastery managed to free itself from the metropolitan power of Salzburg; afterwards they were subordinate to the Pope alone in spiritual matters.
Berchtesgaden as the central capital of the provost's office was raised to a parish as early as 1201 , which was soon expanded with branches in Ramsau , Grafengaden and Schellenberg . A few decades later it was a market , albeit always with close reference to the monastery monastery. After a saline and in 1292 a salt office led by a “ Hallinger ” (salinarius) had been set up there, Schellenberg developed into the second capital and probably also soon received market rights; a first princely appointed market judge can only be proven for 1334. The first “Hallingers” were still lay people, but by the end of the Middle Ages this salt office had developed into the most important administrative post of the provost and was filled from the ranks of the canons.
In 1294, under provost Johann Sax von Saxenau , later Bishop von Brixen , the secular independence of the Stiftspropstei manifested itself through the acquisition of blood jurisdiction for serious offenses. With this "formation of sovereignty" a little later in 1306 the area of the Stiftspropstei Berchtesgaden was also called "lant ze berthersgadem". A purchase contract with provost Johann from 1295, in which a "Heinrich von Ramsau (in Hinterberchtesgaden)" is listed as a witness, is, according to von Koch-Sternfeld, "the first German document from Berchtesgaden".
Right at the beginning of the reign of Provost Eberhard Sachs (1305-1317), renewed inconsistencies between the monastery and the Archdiocese of Salzburg began. 1306 "Suddenly a crowd of Berchtesgaden people fell out of the archbishopric on Untersberg and committed great violence". Eberhard Sachs then “restored calm and order and peace”. In 1314, Archbishop Weichart von Polheim confirmed the tradition that only every tenth ship and every tenth wagon was allowed to export salt from Schellenberg, after having had numerous people sworn to them the year before.
In 1332 the citizens of Hallein attacked the Schellenberg salt pans belonging to the provost and overturned Berchtesgaden salt wagons. In response to the complaints of the Provost Konrad Tanner , the Archbishop of Salzburg , Friedrich III. to that the production and export of the Schellenberger salt through the area of the archbishopric may proceed unhindered.
Provost Greimold Wulp (1368-1377) was able to obtain from Salzburg Archbishop Pilgrim II von Puchheim that after his Berchtesgaden subjects were rejected in breach of the contract, every fifth ship could be loaded with the provost Schellenberger salt.
When the monastery monastery rose to scepter fief and thus to the imperial prelature in 1380 , the Berchtesgadener Stiftspröpste gained renewed power. From then on they were represented with a seat and vote in the Reichstag and were treated as equal to the Reich prelates.
However, the canons lived in great luxury, so that even the rich income of the monastery monastery was not enough for their expenses. The debt burden reached a “fantastic level” and the country was becoming increasingly impoverished. Provost Ulrich I. Wulp tried to counter this when he took office in 1377 with a land letter by offering his serf subjects the estates and fiefs of the monastery for sale. Although it was used extensively, the finances could not be reorganized. When Wulp also wanted to reduce the expenses of the monastery and restore the rules of the order to more validity, these reform efforts met with fierce resistance from some of the Augustinian canons .
Schism and incorporation
In 1382 there was a schism . The Canons Heinrich Rordorfer and Johann Steinsberger were closely connected to the Archdiocese of Salzburg. They accused Wulp of hunting more than church and of not having a sufficient command of Latin. On behalf of the Archbishop, the Bishop of Chiemsee , Friedrich , investigated these allegations, but came to a different conclusion and instead reprimanded the accused. They attacked Wulp and threw him in the monastery dungeon . Archbishop Pilgrim II of Puchheim obtained his release, but forced Wulp to give up his office because of new charges and had the convent elect his confidante Sieghard Waller as the new provost. But this was not recognized by Wulp; the “little” schism in Berchtesgaden lasted two years.
The Bavarian Duke Friedrich , who was asked for support by Wulp , and his soldiers on April 16, 1382 invaded the Berchtesgadener Land via Hallthurm and the Wachterl and gave it up for plunder . But also the Archbishop of Salzburg did not remain idle and, after heavy fighting and losses on both sides, first occupied the tower in front of Schellenberg and finally Berchtesgaden. After mediation by the Bishop of Freising , Berthold von Wehingen , these battles and the schism in 1384 ended in a compromise, according to which Ulrich I. Wulp and Sieghard Waller were confirmed as provosts and then deposed at the same time. The successor Konrad Torer von Törlein was officially responsible for the Reich Prelature Berchtesgaden until 1393, but from 1391 he was also administrator of the orphaned diocese of Lavant . Already since the appointment of the first provost Eberwin because of mutual territorial claims in conflict, the nearby Archdiocese of Salzburg was able to incorporate the Schellenberg saltworks as a pledge as a creditor of the abbey and finally, from 1393 to 1404, the lucrative lands of the abbey propstei . The Archbishop of Salzburg, however, guaranteed Konrad the income from the provost until he finally obtained the episcopal dignity of Lavant, which he received in 1397.
Restoration of independence
When Peter II. Pinzenauer took office in 1404, despite the protest of Salzburg's Archbishop Eberhard III. von Neuhaus restored the independence of the Berchtesgaden Imperial Prelature. However, there should be limits to their sovereignty: Pinzenauer had to “be obedient and present to the Archbishop of Salzburg” and was not allowed “to sell any goods, jewels or books that belonged to the Berchtesgaden church without his advice and will”. In addition, the Schellenberg, belonging to the provost's office, including the saltworks, was to remain pledged to the prince-bishopric until his high debts of 44,000 gold ducats were repaid . Nevertheless, Pinzenauer found "ways and means to bring his pen up again."
Under the 1446 to 1473 acting provost Bernhard II. Leoprechtinger the debt were already nearly repaid in half and 1449 which although still pre bonded to Salzburg was Schellenberg with its Saline back transferred to the management of the monastery pen. He also succeeded in liberating the provost from 1455 from the “metropolitan authority” of the Prince Archbishopric of Salzburg and thus subordinating it directly to the Pope in matters of spirituality .
Since the pledges were not sufficient, Erasmus Pretschlaiffer sold foreign monastery property during his tenure from 1473 to 1486 and began to raise high taxes from the Berchtesgaden farmers. In it he also became a model for the provost Ulrich II. Pernauer and Balthasar Hirschauer . The farmers lodged a complaint with the imperial court in Innsbruck against Hirschauer's tax levies . Although their demands were rejected by the commissioned Captain von Kufstein , Degen Fuchs von Fuchsberg , in a letter from 1506, the unified appearance of the "subjects" in this legal dispute gave the " Fuchsbrief " the character of a legally binding contract in writing between the rulers and " Landscape".
Second economic boom
Gregor Rainer commissioned the sacristy of the parish church of St. Andrew in 1508 and that of the collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist in 1510 . 1512 he left for the Ramsauer Gnotschaftsbezirke the Church of St. Sebastian build and pastoral care of Berchtesgaden from. (It was not until 1657 that a canon who was specifically responsible for the Ramsau Gnotships was assigned as vicar .) According to Feulner, the Franciscan Church was also completed in 1519 during Rainer's reign due to the year on the side portal .
Most economically, however, Rainer's explorations of a salt mining option in the immediate vicinity of his seat of government were. They came to a successful conclusion in 1517 with the construction of the Petersberg tunnel and the founding of the Berchtesgaden salt mine, which is still profitable today
With the beginning of his reign he was also the first provost of Berchtesgaden to receive the "tenders" for district and Reichstag. On the other hand, there were also costly obligations because of his rank as Reich prelate. After Reichsmatrikel the Diet of Worms in 1521 he had to provide the first Berchtesgaden Regent two men on horseback and 34 men on foot. (For comparison: the Bavarian and Salzburg contingents each comprised 60 knights and 272 foot soldiers.) Ten years later, twice as many mercenaries were to be held. Nevertheless, Rainer had managed to pay off many of the monastery monastery's debts.
Peasants' war and first craft regulations with the force of law
In the course of this peasant uprising, the monastery was also plundered. Documents and writings were shredded and the treasures hidden in barrels in the Graf-Wicka pond on Lenberger's instructions became the welcome prey of the rebels. A large number of Berchtesgaden peasants followed the rebels and moved with them to the siege army in Salzburg. In the end, however, they had to ask Provost Lenberger - like all the other regents - for forgiveness and pay compensation, for which they were contractually guaranteed pardon and impunity. The claims for compensation negotiated with the Archbishop of Salzburg were limited for the monastery monastery and, in contrast to Salzburg, it survived the Peasants' War relatively lightly.
After the Peasants 'War, Lenberger devoted himself to the internal administration of the Stiftspropstei and in 1529 issued a written forest code and a code of law for the woodworkers' guild ( Sebastiani brotherhood) . Anyone wishing to join this guild required the approval of the provost and the guild master. The publishers or buyers of the Berchtesgadener War were forbidden to pay for finished goods with raw materials or natural products.
Elevation to the prince provosty
In 1559, under the reign of Emperor Ferdinand I, Wolfgang Griesstätter zu Haslach was raised to prince provost and the monastery to prince provosty. Griesstätter and his successors now sat as prince representatives of the smallest principality and the only prince-provosty of the Bavarian Reichskreis in the Reichstag and took part in the Salzburg Landtag until the 17th century.
As Wolfgang II, Griestätter presided over a chapter of eleven Bavarian and Salzburg nobles from 1541. The annual income of the monastery land at that time comprised 900 guilders from interest payments from the farmers as well as their tithes from their harvest yields with 90 shepherds of grain and 7000 large wheels of cheese, which were used for the monastery monastery’s own household and for alms. After the loss of profitable areas in the Upper Palatinate and Franconia , only the income from other possessions in Bavaria and Austria remained with a total of 550 guilders and 340 shepherds of grain. After a first complaint in 1540, Griesstätter, still as a "simple" provost, was successful together with the other princes from Bamberg, Freising, Passau, Regensburg and Salzburg with the lawsuit against a double assessment of their Austrian properties for Turkish aid . On May 26, Ferdinand I undertook to exempt their possessions in the hereditary lands from this tax for that year.
After a salt spring was discovered in Bischofswiesen an der Tann and rock salt was discovered at the Gmünd Bridge , Griesstätter signed a contract with Duke Albrecht of Bavaria in 1555 that was advantageous for the Berchtesgadener Land. After that, all of the salt mined there was to go exclusively to Bavaria at a fixed price, the hem to 14 kreuzers and customs duties of one white pfennig . This secured the sale of the salt for a long time. The Berchtesgaden Propstei alone had to take care of the transport routes and the necessary bridges and to maintain them. In return, Bavaria had to protect these salt deposits from the Archbishopric of Salzburg . The transport of the salt and the income from it were reserved for the residents of Berchtesgadener Land alone. As a result, a saltworks was built in the village of Berchtesgaden on Gut Frauenreut (also Fronreut ; today Salinenplatz , previously Am Güterbahnhof ), which was also withdrawn from Salzburg's access and which created new jobs. The two Bischofswieser saltworks, however, had not proven to be worthwhile. Instead, brought the Griesstätter 1517 by Gregor Rainer whipped Petersberg and 1558 in the Salt Mine newly whipped Fraunberg into the contract with the Duchy of Bavaria.
1556 was also the year in which Griesstätter was able to pay off the remainder of the debt to Salzburg that had existed for 167 years and thus was able to free Schellenberg from the Salzburg pledge. The contract with the participation of the Bishop of Eichstätt is known as the Eichstätter Compromise and was also to be understood as a peace treaty with Salzburg. Nevertheless, Griesstätter had financial worries, as as imperial prince he was still obliged to make a significant contribution to armaments and the Turkish tax .
In 1564 he closed the now meaningless and almost orphaned convent on the Anger . However, he was no longer able to implement his plan to build a hospital for the poor there. Shortly before his death, under the motto: “Be rich and superfluous in all good works”, he founded the Griesstätter Fund Foundation , which he provided with 10,000 guilders, for “poor, sick and crippled people” as well as for grants to “two young men of moral character Change ”, which could thus be“ learned ”in“ Universali Studio catholico Germaniae ”in Ingolstadt, Freiburg or Vienna. In addition, scholarships were to be given to “three born country daughters” who, as “virtuous Junck women”, were to be granted twenty guilders each for entering into marriage.
In the 16th century, Martin Luther's teaching found a growing following in the Berchtesgadener Land, whose fate was very closely linked to events in the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg . Around 1521 Jacob Strauss appeared as a Protestant preacher in Berchtesgaden, accompanied by Christoph Söll, a "companion priest" and later Strasbourg preacher who had belonged to the Berchtesgaden Abbey.
Local salt and wood traders spread Reformation thoughts and writings with which they had come into contact on their travels to the Protestant cities of Augsburg, Nuremberg and Regensburg. The neighboring Dürrnberg in Salzburg was an important nucleus of Protestantism . There met Berchtesgaden miners from the Gnotschaften Au and Scheffau on immigrant miners from the Lutheran Saxons and were very open to their religious instruction and deals for edification. The Saxon miners met secretly at night to pray, sing, and read the Bible, especially when preachers passing through interpreted the scriptures for them. The canons, who were more concerned with administrative tasks and guided by private interests, exercised pastoral care only to a limited extent and had delegated it to two chaplains for the residents who were scattered in the prince's provosty.
While the persecution of the Protestants had already started in the diocese of Salzburg at the beginning of the Reformation under Archbishop Matthäus Lang , the prince provost did little or nothing to counter these developments on their territory. The possession of Lutheran writings, which were often fined after “visitations”, and the first expulsion of Protestants on the Dürrnberg, initiated by Prince Provost Jakob Pütrich in 1572, did not prevent the spread of the new teaching. It found supporters first in the gnotships Au , Scheffau , Schellenberg and Gern , a little later in Bischofswiesen and occasionally "even" in Schönau and Ramsau .
Salzburg's renewed attempt at incorporation
In 1587 the newly elected Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau made a new attempt to incorporate the Berchtesgadener Land and its benefices into his diocese of Salzburg. To do this, he first increased the price of salt and then invited the Prince Provost Jakob Pütrich (1567–1594) to "negotiations". Captured, he should “think” within three days about whether he would approve the price increases or accept the suspension of the salt transport from Schellenberg . After the signed contract, Pütrich in Berchtesgaden immediately revoked it and found support from the young Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria . Against the will of part of the population and the capitulars, who had already moved to Salzburg as newly won supporters of the archbishop and were later no longer allowed to return, he put twelve-year-old Ferdinand as coadjutor in 1591 . When the archbishop and his troops invaded Berchtesgaden to take possession of it, Pütrich had already fled to Munich. Ferdinand's father, Duke Wilhelm V , drove the Salzburg residents out of his son's future property in 1591, because after Pütrich's death the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden came under his electoral Cologne administration as agreed .
Under the administration of the Electorate of Cologne
From 1594 to 1723, the prince's provost was under the administration of the Electorate of Cologne from the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach , which was the first of three regents to represent Ferdinand of Bavaria for more than 50 years. As the elector and archbishop of Kurköln , Ferdinand could not take care of the affairs of the prince- provosty.
Ox War and Thirty Years War
The attempt by the Archdiocese of Salzburg to acquire the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden escalated in the ox war in 1611 . Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau came into conflict with Bavaria, on the one hand because of the income from the Hallein mine, and on the other when Maximilian I wanted to double the tariffs on Salzburg goods. Thereupon Wolf Dietrich occupied Berchtesgaden on the night of October 7th to 8th, 1611. After a brief campaign by Bavaria, Wolf Dietrich fled, but was soon caught, had to abdicate and remained in the dungeon at the Hohensalzburg Fortress until his death .
During Ferdinand's reign, the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), in which Berchtesgaden “miraculously” was spared destruction. But it was "repeatedly asked to pay up" in order to be able to repair the war-related damage in Cologne. However, according to the realm register of 1663, the services to be provided after 1521 were reduced to 2 horsemen, 20 foot soldiers and 104 guilders . In 1521 there were still 2 horsemen, 34 foot soldiers and 90 guilders.
Occupation during the War of the Spanish Succession
In the War of the Spanish Succession in 1704, Austrian troops occupied the prince provosty ruled by Joseph Clemens of Bavaria . Joseph Clemens took the side of his brother Maximilian II. Emanuel , who wanted to establish a Bavarian kingdom with the help of France. As a result of the resulting war against the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , both were ostracized at the Reichstag in Regensburg in 1706 . During this time, Emperor Karl VI. the "dear devout dean and chapter of Berchtesgaden" the land as an imperial fief . With the Rastatt Peace of 1714, the pardoned electors got their possessions back.
Restoration of independence
Due to the rare presence of the administrators from the Electorate of Cologne , especially recently under Joseph Clemens von Bayern, the monastery “got on a sloping path”. His successor had to take over a debt of 120,000 guilders . These debts were based not least on the luxurious and “unworthy” way of life of the Augustinian canons .
The break only came when Joseph Clemens von Bayern excluded the canon dean Julius Heinrich von Rehlingen-Radau from the Berchtesgaden government because of his and his fellow capitulars ' loose lifestyle. When he also insisted on more spiritual discipline (disciplinam religiosam) of the entire monastery, the chapter decided, because of its chartered right to free choice, not to elect a foreigner and above all a Wittelsbach prince as its regent. Von Rehlingen was only elected as coadjutor and after the death of Joseph Clemens in 1723 as prince provost, according to the principle: “following the Holy Spirit, no longer following the spirit of the Bavarian court”. Thereupon the offended Bavaria stopped the grain export to Berchtesgaden and reduced the salt price. When von Rehlingen said in return that he would rather close the Berchtesgaden salt mine than continue to be depressed in price, Bavaria gave in.
During Rehlingen's term of office and reign as prince provost, three pilgrimage churches in the Rococo style were built in the course of the Counter-Reformation : in 1725 the pilgrimage church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary in the current Marktschellenberg district of Ettenberg and the Hilgerkapelle , formerly also Maria Dorfen, on the northeast slope of the Lockstein on the Berchtesgadener side called. In 1731 the construction of the Maria Himmelfahrt church (also known as Maria Kunterweg ) began in Ramsau and was completed in 1733 under Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein .
After a comparison on August 8, 1730 between Salzburg and Berchtesgaden about the titulary of the two regional offices, Berchtesgaden was officially only allowed to call itself princely and imperial monastery and no longer as high princely and bishopric .
Counter-Reformation, expulsions and emigration
After around 70 men and women around Joseph Schaitberger had been expelled from Dürrnberg in 1686 and their children had been distributed to Catholic families, house searches in the Berchtesgadener Land increased a year later. In 1687 156 people in the Au alone were subjected to severe interrogation. Those convicted of the "wrong" belief were fined and had to swear again by the "correct" creed. From one is known to have locked up because of a forbidden book several days on bread and water, to which after the Sunday service pillory was placed and then "sentenced" to a pilgrimage.
After the brutal expulsion of around 21,000 Protestants from Salzburg and Dürrnberg in 1731/32, which was arranged at very short notice, the Berchtesgaden Protestants tried to get accepted into a Protestant-ruled country. Supported by the Corpus Evangelicorum recognized within the Regensburg Reichstag , 2000 Berchtesgaden residents had the courage to publicly profess the Protestant denomination and to ask to leave the country in September 1732. A letter from the Corpus Evangelicorum made them heard by the Chancellor, but conditions were imposed on those wishing to leave the country, which amounted to a complete loss of belongings .
So that the Protestants could not secretly leave the country, the Alpine passes were occupied. At the same time they were banned from meeting and practicing their profession. Those so oppressed demanded the freedom to practice their religion, the rededication of the Maria Gern church and the employment of a clergyman of her confession, which the prince provost rejected. The Protestants then openly demanded free departure. The recently elected prince provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein saw himself threatened by an uprising before his inauguration and therefore - like Salzburg's Archbishop Leopold Anton von Firmian - issued an emigration patent on October 26, 1732 . After that, all Protestants had to leave Berchtesgaden within three months - a deadline which, however, was extended to April due to the approaching winter. This decree was linked to the payment of five guilders for ransom from serfdom and to the demand to move to Hungary. The latter should prevent the woodworkers from competing in their new home. However, after violent protests by those wishing to leave the country, this demand was changed to a settlement ban in Nuremberg.
Kurhannover and Prussia were the only ones who willingly paid the fee of five guilders for the inept among the Protestants and thus formed the focus for their resettlement. From April 18, 1733, 84 Bischofswieser moved overland to Prussia. An art turner was held back by the Franciscans, and the other woodworkers had to swear not to settle in Nuremberg. When they arrived in Berlin on June 1, 1733, they were inspected by Gerold's Privy Council and Domain Director and then sent on to East Prussia . On April 22nd, 800 Auer, Scheffauer and Gerer (from Maria Gern ) set off via Hallein by ship to Regensburg and from there on foot to Kurhannover. In total, more than 1,100 out of around 9,000 residents left the prince's provosty at that time. Their property was confiscated and sold by the monastery, the proceeds flowing into a so-called emigrant fund . Quite a few of the emigrants, also called exiles , came to prosperity and wealth abroad. Thanks to the skills of the former carvers and turners of the Berchtesgadener War , who later mostly moved there despite the oath they had taken, the Nuremberg toy industry enjoyed a great boom.
In the year of the move, the Maria Himmelfahrt church (also known as Maria Kunterweg ) was consecrated in Ramsau , in which a ceiling painting triumphantly documents this emigration. In the lower chronogram of two cartouches , translated from Latin, you can read:
- At the intercession of the Immaculate Virgin and Mother
- is the corrupting misconception here of this one
- Church has been driven out. (1733)
But after the bloodletting of more than ten percent of the population, as well as of "able and strong character" farmers and craftsmen, the prince prevented any further emigration. During the Counter Reformation , the Berchtesgaden Franciscan Reformates in particular stood out as re-missionaries. When the remaining Protestants also wanted to leave, their passports were blocked again. In 1788 it was said that “every shadow of suspicious belief” had disappeared from the principality. But economic power was also severely weakened, and income, especially in the woodworking sector, fell.
Ludwig Ganghofer dealt with this topic in his novel The Great Hunt .
Accrued debts and the end of the prince's provosty
During the term of office and reign of his successor Michael Balthasar von Christalnigg (1752–1768), the debts of the monastery amounted to 250,000 guilders . When he had to raise a further 69,000 guilders in order to cover the current expenses, his new financiers included monasteries, privateers and, according to Koch-Sternfeld, "also the Bavarian cabinet". It is therefore all the more astonishing that Christalnigg built the “ Calvarienberg ” in Berchtesgaden and the Fürstenstein Castle halfway up the Kälberstein in 1758 , which also included a castle chapel and other buildings such as a Meierhof . Despite the lack of money, Christalnigg is said to have expanded the monastery library, of the beginnings of which only little is known. At the end of the 18th century it could have comprised around 10,000 volumes. With the successor Franz Anton Josef von Hausen-Gleichenstorff (1768-1780) the debts of the monastery grew to 300,000, the current debts to 100,000 guilders .
It was only Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös who tried to pay off the high debt burden and to increase the economic power of the prince provosty. In particular, his thrift at his own court was highly valued by the inhabitants of the Berchtesgadener Land. However, his efforts were almost wiped out again in 1786 and 1787 by the flooding of the Schellenberg and Frauenreut salt pans and the partly completely destroyed trift systems and water caves. Nevertheless, he successfully took on the education system with his winter and corner schools and had a first secondary school or normal school set up in 1792 and a cotton spinning school in 1793. Relations with Bavaria also improved under him. In order to put the country on an economically secure footing, he signed a contract with Bavaria on April 28, 1795, according to which Bavaria was given all of the Berchtesgaden saltworks against payment of 50,000 guilders and 200 guilders for each capitular . Ahead was instrumental in this contract Joseph Utzschneider , who then operated for the first administrator of the castle Adelsheim main salt Berchtesgaden Office was appointed newly established Electoral.
As a result of the political upheavals caused by secularization , Schroffenberg lost his domain as prince provost and prince-bishop of Freising and Regensburg . The prince-provost of Berchtesgaden came to the Duchy of Salzburg in 1803 , so that he was the last prince-provost of the then independent Lentell Berchtesgaden .
With the secularization and the associated end of the provincial rule in 1803, the newly founded Electorate of Salzburg was ruler of the Berchtesgadener Land, after the Peace of Pressburg in 1805 the Empire of Austria and in 1809 France for a short time under Napoleon. With the reorganization of Europe in 1810, the Kingdom of Bavaria came together with Salzburg and remained there, unlike Salzburg, which returned to Austria in 1816. With its integration into the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Berchtesgadener Land was now administered by the newly established Berchtesgaden Regional Court , which had its seat in Berchtesgaden from 1811. At the same time, from 1810 it was first assigned to the Salzach district and from 1817 to the newly created Isar district , which was renamed " Upper Bavaria " in 1838 . In 1862 the whole of Bavaria was restructured and the Berchtesgadener Land with its five municipalities today, together with the municipalities of the former Reichenhall Regional Court, came under the jurisdiction of the Berchtesgaden District Office , which had its seat in the same building as the former Berchtesgaden Regional Court.
In terms of church, the area is now assigned to the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . In 1818 the now royal palace became the summer residence of the Wittelsbach family . After the end of the monarchy in Bavaria, the castle was part of the Wittelsbach Compensation Fund . Some of its rooms can be visited, others are still used by members of the Wittelsbach family as an apartment for stays in Berchtesgaden. The Collegiate Church is the main and Parish Church of the Parish of St. Andrew.
The term Berchtesgadener Land still refers to a region within the historical boundaries of the prince-provost's heartland, which is culturally and socio-culturally a . a. the neighboring Chiemgau and within the district Berchtesgaden from the former Duke of Bavaria Bad Reichenhall and the once the Archbishopric of Salzburg belonging Rupertiwinkel demarcates. In relation to this region Berchtesgadener Land were u. a. In 1925 the United Christmas Shooters of the Berchtesgadener Land and in 1928 the United Trachtenvereine in the Berchtesgadener Land were founded.
According to Koch-Sternfeld , in the “closed district of Berchtesgaden”, i.e. the heartland of the prince's provosty, at the end of the 13th century 3500, at the end of the 16th century already around 7500 and shortly after the end of its independence in 1803 around 10,000 “souls” have lived. In the meantime, however, the Berchtesgaden country experienced a slump of its population development, as from that time, about 9,000 residents in the wake of the April 1733 more than 1100 counter-reformation forced saw to leave virtually no belongings, the prince provost.
From 1201 onwards, only the Berchtesgaden parish was incorporated into the monastery, but the branches Ramsau , Grafengaden and Schellenberg were soon added. From 1255 the provosts led the pontificals . In 1455 the monastery area was withdrawn as an independent archdeaconate from the spiritual jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Salzburg and was therefore directly subordinate to the Pope in Rome.
Founded as a monastery and elevated over the centuries to an ecclesiastical principality or a prince provosty, the Berchtesgadener Land as a whole has always been closely associated with the church. Before the Reformation , this only meant the Catholic Church (una sancta ecclesia) . After the Reformation, the reign of the Prince Provosty remained loyal to the Pope and integrated into the Roman Catholic church hierarchy . Analogous to the legal principle " Cuius regio, eius religio ", which was binding in the empire , the population was almost one hundred percent Roman Catholic, especially after the expulsion of 1,100 Protestants and the re-missioning of their fellow believers in Berchtesgadener Land from 1732/33. Only after the abolition of the prince's provosty in secularization did the edicts of King Maximilian I Joseph of 1808 and 1809 permit the establishment of an Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria and thus a revival of Protestantism in Berchtesgaden . It then formed also analogous to the in local communities converted Gnotschaften independent Protestant and Roman Catholic parishes whose catchment areas today which correspond approximately to the municipalities. (See also the article sections: Reformation and Counter-Reformation, expulsions and emigration )
Nothing is known of members of other religious communities such as Judaism for the Stiftsland, and there were no pogroms . In its 700-year history, the Berchtesgaden monastery may have had a similar attitude as in the rural areas of the neighboring Duchy of Bavaria , according to which Jews were not allowed to settle, required a pass to pass through and were not allowed to spend the night at any location more than once.
Nothing is known of the persecution of witches in the Berchtesgadener Land, although it had joined the Codex Juris Bavarici Criminalis of Wiguläus von Kreittmayr of 1758, which was still "too much of the past" with the retention of torture and death sentences against "heretics, witchers and superstitions" .
Prince provost of Berchtesgaden
There were a total of 50 prince provosts in Berchtesgaden, all of whom are referred to as prince provosts in standard historical works , despite their gradually increasing powers and autonomy . The count begins at the beginning of the 12th century with Eberwin as the first and ends with Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös as the last prince provost , who had to abdicate in 1803 in the course of secularization in Bavaria .
The first 16 were "simple" pen tips . However, Heinrich I, as the third provost of the monastery, was already under the protection of Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa , who had confirmed the size of the monastery in a golden bull in 1156 and granted him forest sovereignty and the freedom to mine salt and metal. In 1194, Wernher I, as the sixth provost for himself and his successors, achieved a further "enormous increase in power". In that year, Emperor Heinrich VI. that the Berchtesgadener Stiftspröpsten now also had the high level of jurisdiction that they could exercise through a Vogt . As rulers of the state and the courts, all cleared areas of the monastery and their farmers were subordinate to them.
From 1294 10 officials followed, who were already legally equal to the imperial princes by exercising blood jurisdiction . The next 14 were also represented in the Imperial Council of Princes as Reich prelates from 1380 onwards . Three of them were Salzburg archbishops from 1393 to 1404 in connection with the incorporation . From 1455 six of the Berchtesgaden Empire prelates were completely freed already from the "metropolitan authority" Salzburg and in spiritual things ( Spiritualien subordinated directly to the Pope). The last ten finally held the status of provosts between 1559 and 1803. In the years 1594 to 1723 three of the ten belonged to the House of Wittelsbach as higher-ranking Archbishops of Cologne or as administrators in the Electorate of Cologne .
The provenance of the provosts, unless they ruled the state of Berchtesgaden as Salzburg archbishops or as electors and archbishops of Cologne , can only rarely be proven. Most of the provosts probably came from Bavarian or Austrian knight families. In Provost Friedrich von Ortenburg († 1239) a man of higher nobility was suspected. In the 17th century after the administration of the Electorate of Cologne , the successors all had a title of nobility in their names; their fathers were councilors , barons , counts and keepers .
Apart from the administrators from Salzburg and Electorate of Cologne, all the provosts, imperial prelates and prince provosts resided in Berchtesgaden until 1803 and were mostly elected from within the monastery monastery.
17 Stifts- or prince provosts were in Berchtesgaden buried and 13 of these tombs tombs are even smaller floor plates or larger than life in the form of high relief - Epitaphe obtained. One of them, that of Wolfgang II. Griesstätter zu Haslach († July 14, 1567), is in the Franciscan Church , all the others are in the collegiate church or in the cloister between the collegiate church and the former Augustinian canons . The oldest tomb of a provost is that of Hartung von Lampoting († August 18, 1306), the youngest that of the last prince-provost Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös († April 4, 1803).
Provost and collegiate dean
Except during the incorporation by Salzburg and the administration of the Electorate of Cologne , the provost elected for life by the resident canons was at the head of the Augustinian canons of Berchtesgaden. He exercised all of the sovereign and spiritual powers to which he was entitled, but, as the ruling prince provost, was dependent on the approval of the collegiate capital for essential decisions. The canons were presided over by the dean of the monastery , who was often elected successor to the provost.
If a canon wanted to become a prince provost or dean and thus a successor to a prince provost, he had to negotiate an election surrender with the other canons. For example, on August 9, 1732, the following “surrender points” were set for the future prince provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein : The provost was only supposed to receive 600 guilders “Chatoullgeld” and use everything else “for the benefit of the monastery”. The candidates had to be able to prove 16 ancestors , eight each on the paternal and maternal side. Each capitular should be given 200 guilders pocket money, two “Maxdor's” on their name day, a quarter of wine and three cans of beer every day, plus two quarters of wine every week. In the event of illness, he was given two quarters of wine and two quarters of beer with each meal, with which he could honor the nurse. With bloodletting , three quarters of wine and three quarters of beer were all due. The Weinviertel was replaced with 15 Kreuzers. Furthermore, the privileges of the chapter should be maintained, such as B. the formation of the " Consistorium ", the free choice of the monastery dean, the admission of novices, the allowance of 50 guilders for clothing, alternate trips to Wasentegernbach, Heuberg and Krems as well as holidays in St. Bartholomä . The capitulars had to agree to the employment and remuneration of officials and take part in important administrative decisions. The court marshal should be subordinate to the capitulars and superior to the domicellaries . Although more than well cared for by the monastery monastery, the capitulars maintained a way of life that did not meet the requirements of clerics , especially in the opinion of reform prelates like Ferdinand of Bavaria .
Offices and administration
At the beginning of the 18th century, according to Koch-Sternfeld, the functions and offices within the prince-provincial office included: government, court master's office, salt offices (Schellenberg and Frauenreut), brewing office, building office, toll office, hunting and fishing.
In the beginning up to the 14th century lay brothers ( conversations ) are attested. One knows that in 1295 he was even appointed "Hallinger" or head of the important salt office in Schellenberg . As a rule, however, it was the canons who, in addition to their spiritual duties within the monastery, exercised economic offices such as the Salt Office or the Building Office.
On July 11, 1715, the following internal administrative hierarchy was established: Chancellor, court master, court counselor (according to Koch-Sternfeld a new office), chamber counselor, titular counselor, regional court administrator, government secretary, court clerk, salt official to Frauenreut, court clerk, chief hunter, registrar, two "salt counter clerks "," Mautner "and two" pulpit lists ".
Admission requirements for canons
In the first 400 years or so there were seven canons, from the 16th century the number had risen to 10 to 14.
As far as the conditions for their admission and equipment as canons are concerned, Koch-Sternfeld says: According to the statutes of the chapter from around 1750, preconditions for the eight ancestors of the Berchtesgaden "pen size" as well as scientific education and "moral dispositions" were prescribed. The minimum age for novices was set at 22 years of age. The novitiate lasted a year in which the novice had to copy the rule of the order, a quarto volume , by hand. During the novitiate he was “given a table and choir clothes”. Before taking the vow, the novice had to deposit 2500 Rhenish guilders, including all expenses and gifts . He could have an annuity paid out from his remaining assets, but not more than 300 guilders per year . If the newcomer wanted to leave his property to the monastery, he was granted six percent interest up to an amount of 300 guilders. Some of the capitulars had brought “strange treasures” into the monastery as novices. After the probationary year, the novice became domicellar with an annual salary of 300 guilders and received a seat and vote in the chapter. A “real capitular” received an annual salary of 500 guilders as well as 50 on the election day of a prince provost and 50 when a candidate entered. In addition, he received the not inconsiderable “measurement and stool fees”. Neglected attendance at the choir, which was “prescribed to be very tolerable anyway”, reduced income. Council offices increased allowances and the election gift to double. A “senior” received 700 guilders, the “sub-senior” 600 guilders, and a “temporary dean” received double benefices. Every three years the monastery gave each capitular a "church gown from a fine black witness", they had to pay for the rest of the clothing themselves. At lunchtime and in the evening, every capitular sat at the table with the prince provost. The apartment was furnished with the “necessary” free of charge and repaired if necessary, and he was entitled to one vacation trip per year. The pen and the horses also provided firewood and candles, but "on further trips without forage ". Each chapter also owed 20 pounds of game fish or, alternatively, 36 “kr. from the pound ”. In the event of illness, the pen took care of everything. The capitulars could “ test ” with one third in favor of the collegiate church and two thirds for “other mild purposes”, also in favor of poor relatives. In Berchtesgaden, which was "so thoroughly enjoyed" by the capitulars and officials, Koch-Sternfeld continued, there was an old saying: "If someone had to return to earth from heaven, he would choose Berchtesgaden. But there will also come a time when those who cannot walk want to crawl out of Berchtesgaden. "
Rights of the population
Among the Augustinian canons that allowed serfdom the Berchtesgaden subjects until the end of the 14th century does not own property, but admitted them only fief to which either after Baumann law for a year, as a free pen for several years or for life as Leibgeding been invited to . According to Koch-Sternfeld, however, the inhabitants of the market towns and the main towns of Berchtesgaden and Schellenberg already enjoyed "civil liberties" at the end.
The land letter issued by Provost Ulrich Wulp in 1377 extended the rights of farmers for the first time. They were able to acquire their fiefdom against a "redemption debt", but they still had to fulfill their obligations in the form of compulsory labor. The extension of rights should help to reduce the high debts of the monastery and also "preserve and increase the population of the desert valleys of Berchtesgaden". The introduction of a “right of inheritance with moderate fees that cannot be exceeded” was a step that was “still missing in later centuries” in other countries and, according to Koch-Sternfeld, gave “culture”, ie. H. the most effective stimulus for the development of the country. After Ulrich had " ruled out " the forests in the side valleys , the farmers were charged a tithing , but not a "grain service" - the natural produce to be delivered consisted only of cheese and chickens. The area of a “subject forest”, which was designated by the monastery and allowed the citizens of Berchtesgaden for their own use, which centuries later shortly before the secularization as the Berchtesgaden citizen forest, became “actual” property of the Berchtesgaden market , probably also fell during that time .
Another consequence of the Landbrief was the development and design of the " original messages " ( cooperatives ) Berg ( Salzberg ), Au , Scheffau , Bischofswiesen , Ramsau , Schönau , Gern and Ettenberg "in terms of scope and interior". According to Koch-Sternfeld, the designation “cooperative” already indicated “milder sub-Than conditions” or at least testifies to “the peculiar course of culture in Berchtesgaden”, since the neighboring communities divided into “ quarters , collieries , main teams or groups ”. Each Gnotschaft was headed by a Gnotschafter , whom the peasants re-elected annually without the influence of the sovereigns. Their field of activity, which has so far hardly been scientifically investigated, was, among other things, participating in the discussion of road and bridge construction measures, stream regulations, the use of community forests, but also in drafting tax roles (lists of subjects) for the regional court and in forwarding official government orders. From the 17th century onwards, they also had to support people in need as “poor carers”. Their participation therefore only developed gradually - as serfs, however, the gospel ambassadors remained primarily committed to the rule of the monastery over the centuries. Dieter Albrecht suspects that there was a connection between the Landscape Committee and the Gnotschafts and that the formation of the Gnotships had at least "promoted the cooperative awareness of the peasantry". The number of Gnotships grew to 34 up to the secularization in 1803, which were then combined into communities or remained as districts.
The Fuchsbrief , formulated in 1506 after complaints to the imperial court because of the high taxes demanded by Provost Balthasar Hirschauer , became, according to Ulrich Wulp's land letter, the state and tax law "constitution" of the Stiftspropstei. Even if the farmers' complaints were rejected in all essential points and Hirschauer prevailed, it is noteworthy that in this legal dispute the "subjects" appeared as one and the Fuchsbrief was a first binding contract in writing between the rulers and the "landscape". The Berchtesgaden “landscape” thus formed an independent force that was “characteristically” different from other estates , “but can only be described in part due to a lack of sources.”
Landbrief and Fuchsbrief together formed the Berchtesgaden land law applicable to the prince provost, as they were "binding for the whole land in view of the homogeneity of the subject association in terms of manorial and corporal rule". There were also the craft regulations issued at the end of the 15th century , the market regulations of 1567 and 1691 for Berchtesgaden and Schellenberg as well as the police regulations , which were codified for the first time in 1629 and which were supposed to regulate everyday life and were revised in 1667 and 1682. The Bavarian land law of 1616, the codifications in the middle of the 18th century and thus common law were of higher priority .
Every year on the “Sunday after Martini” (after November 11th) the so-called “open land rights” took place in the Leithaus in Berchtesgaden until secularization . All men in the country were invited to these land rights days. The land judge read out provisions of land law and gave new individual mandates , i. H. Commissions or orders from the rulers were known, but also accepted requests and complaints. According to Feulner, justice was also pronounced “from time immemorial” on these regional law days or “regional court days” .
How restricted the rights of the population still were in the years 1732/33 became apparent during the Counter Reformation under the newly elected Prince Provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein . Analogous to the legal principle " Cuius regio, eius religio ", which was binding in the empire , his emigration patent issued on October 26, 1732 led to the emigration of more than 1100 Protestant residents of the Berchtesgadener Land.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “Square of red and blue. In the red fields crossed at an angle, one gold and one silver key, in the blue fields six silver, three heraldic lilies placed two to one. "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The two keys on a red background refer to Simon Petrus as one of the two patron saints of the collegiate church St. Peter and John the Baptist , the silver lilies on a blue background come from the coat of arms of Countess Irmgard von Sulzbach , who was one of the founders of the first monastery settlement in Berchtesgaden the reverence is paid. This basic arrangement of the coat of arms has been used since the 17th century and a central shield with the coat of arms of the respective prince provosts has been added to it. (On the right that of Prince Provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein .) Since the Berchtesgadener Land became part of Bavaria in 1810, the coat of arms of the market town of Berchtesgaden and its center shield have been provided with white and blue diamonds.|
Already in the Middle Ages , already at the time of the Reich Prelature Berchtesgaden , Perchten, hung with bells, marched through the streets on the three holy Rauhnächten (December 24th and 31st and January 5th) to drive away evil spirits and the winter. In the Counter-Reformation dismissed as an unchristian superstition , this custom was merged with the retreat of St. Nicholas and, from around 1730, moved to the Advent season. Since then, especially on December 5th and 6th, St. Nicholas Day , basses by Nikolaus actors with Buttnmandln (straw basses) or Kramperl (fur basses) have been moving through the communities of Berchtesgadener Land. There are also “Buttnmandll” runs on the first Sunday in Advent in Loipl , the second in Winkl and on December 24th in Gern .
Palm bushes have probably also been made on Palm Sunday since the Middle Ages . The Berchtesgaden variant of the palm bush are not yet blooming, with colorful "Gschabertbandln", i. H. Catkin branches decorated with thin colored wood shavings , which are fixed together with arborvitae and boxwood branches at the upper end of a hazelnut stick about one meter long .
In 1666 the gun shooting was first mentioned on church holidays (especially at Christmas), but the Berchtesgadener Weihnachtsschützen was founded in 1874 as the first official association to cultivate this custom in the region.
Prince Provost Michael Balthasar von Christalnigg (1752–1768) is said to have expanded the monastery library, of the beginnings of which little is known, with particular commitment, despite considerable lack of money. At the end of the 18th century it could have comprised around 10,000 volumes. In 1805 its holdings were transferred to the Salzburg court library , which was merged with the Salzburg University Library in 1807 . In addition to catalog drafts and directories from the years 1737 and 1772, there is a print from 1565 from the Berchtesgaden pen, with a book directory on 73 sheets from the 18th century. In addition, 1667 works are assigned to the Abbey Library in Salzburg - albeit unsecured. The Bavarian State Library has four incunabula of the Abbey Library, which were taken from the holdings of the Salzburg University Library in 1815 after the incorporation of the Berchtesgadener Land into Bavaria. In the holdings of the Roman Catholic parish library in Berchtesgaden there are still around 60 volumes from the abbey library.
The mountains framing the Berchtesgadener Land already formed the background for numerous legends in the times of the prince provosts .
Above all, the Watzmann massif , which has become a landmark, is shrouded in legend. Its nine peaks are interpreted as a royal family that petrified because of their cruelty. The main mountain, consisting of three peaks (Hocheck, Mittelspitze, Südspitze), is the king, the opposite peak is the queen (Watzmannfrau); the seven peaks in between symbolize the children.
There are at least three variations of this legend: Alexander Schöppner emphasizes King Watzmann as the ruler of the “Berchtesgadener Land” and as its landmark that later became stone. Ludwig Bechstein only briefly indicates the domain of King Watzmann and his likeness in stone and lets it extend “southeast of Salzburg” without reference to the Berchtesgadener Land. In a “tradition” of the “most beautiful sagas from Austria”, a powerful king ruled “over Salzburg and neighboring Bavaria”. After its stone transformation at the end, it says: "Soon afterwards the farmers left the area they hated and moved to nearby Tyrol."
The Untersberg opposite, which stretches into neighboring Salzburg , is said to be used as a dwelling after an emperor. Charlemagne or Frederick Barbarossa waits there in a death-like sleep, in order to achieve victory with his army for the good at the Last Judgment or when unbelief and violence reach the highest degree . In another version it is said that the emperor slept there until his beard grew seven times around the table base.
The devil who leads the wild hunt has left his mark on a rock face of the Reiteralpe known as the Teufelskopf . Numerous ghosts admonish the mountains and as drowned souls in the lakes for good or invite you to the eerie bowling game.
The origin of the name Berchtesgaden is said to be derived from the legendary figure Berchta or Perchta , who is also equated with Frau Holle . Another legend claims that the name can be traced back to a Berchtold, whom a mermaid from Königssee showed the way to the salt and thus to the righteous work as a miner in the Berchtesgaden salt mine .
The children's symphony (original title: Berchtoldsgaden-Musik , di Berchtesgaden-Musik) as a chamber composition can still be assigned to the late baroque (around 1710 to 1750). In addition to the usual orchestra, seven typical children's instruments from the Berchtesgaden War are used. The authorship and the client for this work are unclear - until now, possible composers were Leopold Mozart , his pupil Johann Rainsprechter , Joseph Haydn or his brother Michael Haydn . According to more recent knowledge, however, Edmund Angerer was the composer of the work.
Around 150 manuscripts , autographs and copies of 60 composers are kept in the collegiate church choir, including works from the 16th to 18th centuries by Anton Cajetan Adlgasser , Giovanni Francesco Anerio , Giovanni Battista Casali , Anton Diabelli , Josef and Michael Haydn , Antonio Lotti , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Berchtesgaden composers Franz Mathias Fembacher and Johann Baptist Fembacher.
The town houses in the Berchtesgadener Land were decorated with Lüftlmalerei in the 16th and 17th centuries . Some of the facades of the town center of Berchtesgaden, which were converted into a pedestrian zone in 1978, are still preserved today. The Lüftlmalerei on the Hirschenhaus in Metzgergasse, for example, dates from 1610 and reflects the human vices caused by monkeys.
Prince Provost Jakob Pütrich (1567–1594) had the Neuhaus inn and the Meierhöfe Dietfeld and Rosenhof built; the latter was initially a pancake house . In 1574 he had the small summer palace Etzerschlössl built not far from the Rosenhof in the 1st Gnotschaft district of the Gnotschaft Berg (today: Gnotschaft or district Anzenbach of the market in Berchtesgaden) and furnished it with precious stone pine paneling and artistic stoves. With its ten rooms, the Etzerschlössl was also temporarily open to citizens as a place of refuge when there was a risk of epidemics; it later passed to different owners. It was last used as a children's home until it was demolished in 1960. The Etzermühle , which is part of the ensemble and also demolished because of its dilapidation , is located at the outlet of the Gerer Bach, and was one of the “most old-romantic buildings in the country”. The newer settlement Am Etzerschlössl is now part of the Berchtesgaden community.
Adelsheim Castle , built in 1614 on the northern edge of Berchtesgaden town center by Stiftsdekan Degenhart Neuchinger, was first a noble bourgeois residence, from 1795 the seat of the Electoral Bavarian Main Salt Office and in the last weeks of his life until his death on April 4, 1803, the residence of the last Prince Provost Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg. Mös . The exhibition rooms of the Berchtesgaden Local History Museum, founded in 1897, have been located in the building since 1968 .
In 1758, Prince Provost Michael Balthasar von Christalnigg (1752–1768) had the “Fürstenstein” castle, including the castle chapel and other buildings, halfway up the Kälberstein . B. build a Meierhof .
His successor Prince Provost Franz Anton Josef von Hausen-Gleichenstorff (1768-1780) built on the Sulzberg in Gnotschaft Oberschönau a "cute" castle named "Lustheim" in which he spent most of his life, and there on the 6th March 1780 died. During the time of National Socialism it was demolished for a planned other development. Today is located on the grounds of the castle of the cemetery association Berchtesgaden maintained mountain cemetery for citizens of Berchtesgaden, Bischofswiesen and Berchtesgaden .
The “Wildmeisterhaus”, built in 1608, was the residence of the prince provost's chief hunter or “Wildmeister” and is also mentioned in Ludwig Ganghofer's novel The Man in Salt (1906).
The collegiate church of St. Peter and John the Baptist , built around 1122, was part of the Augustinian canons of Berchtesgaden and has been the parish church of the Roman Catholic parish of St. Andreas since 1803 .
The parish church of St. Andreas on Rathausplatz next to the collegiate church was built by the citizens of the Berchtesgaden market in 1397. It was given its present-day appearance when it was rebuilt in 1480, while its interior was baroque and expanded in 1698–1700. The parish church of St. Andrew had its eponymous function until 1803 and has since become a branch church of the Roman Catholic parish of St. Andrew while retaining the parish church .
The Franciscan Church (actually: Our Lady on the Anger ) on Franziskanerplatz, built between 1480 and 1488 (according to another source, only completed under provost Gregor Rainer in 1519), was until 1575 part of a women's monastery of the Augustinian nuns , whose facilities were used by Franciscans from 1695 as Monastery were taken over.
In Ramsau , the Church of St. Sebastian was built in 1512 under Provost Gregor Rainer, which was consecrated to Saints Sebastian and Fabian and has been the parish church of the Roman Catholic parish of Ramsau since the secularization in Bavaria in 1803 .
The church of St. Nikolaus , built in 1521, became the parish church of the Roman Catholic parish of Marktschellenberg after secularization in 1803 . It was demolished in 1870/71 due to dilapidation except for the tower and rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style.
St. Bartholomä is a pilgrimage chapel on the west bank of the Königsee on theHirschau peninsula . Consecrated as Basilica Chinigesee on August 24, 1134, it underwent major structural changes in the Baroque style in 1697 and 1698. The hunting lodge of the provosts and canons built nearby around 1700 is now a restaurant.
In the pilgrimage church of Maria Gern , built from 1708 to 1724 during the administration of the Electorate of Cologne under Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , there is a carved miraculous image of a Madonna and Child from 1666 above the high altar. It is matched to the church year with splendid baroque robes in the appropriate Colors clothed. Also noteworthy are the numerous votive tablets with which the faithful thanked them for hearing their prayers.
The pilgrimage church Maria Himmelfahrt (also known as Maria Kunterweg ), built in the Rococo style under the direction of the Salzburg court architect Sebastian Stumpfegger , also belongs to the parish of Ramsau as a branch church . Started under the reign of Rehlingen-Radaus and completed in that of Prince Provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht von Weißenstein , its construction period lasted from 1731 to 1733.
The pilgrimage church Maria Hilf in the Bischofswiesen Gnotschaftsgebiet Loipl was probably built as a chapel in 1798/99 by Loipler farmers . According to Brugger, it was inaugurated (“assigned”) in 1800 by the Reichsstift-Kapitular Franz Xaver Graf von Berchem. Thanks to an indulgence ("Awers"), it developed into a pilgrimage church in 1805, which attracted many pilgrims throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Mountain Festival or the Bergknappenjahrtag is since associated with privilege freedom letter of the miners guild of the salt mine Berchtesgaden celebrated until 1627 only as praise and thanksgiving Mass at the Collegiate Church , after being awarded a flag in 1628 by a parade of drummers and pipers in Place. Even today, at Whitsun after the service, the miners march through the streets of the market in a pageant.
For centuries it has been the custom in Berchtesgadener Land that from November 1st - today partly from September - to the 1st of Advent Stuck , a roll- shaped rye biscuit with currants and cinnamon , is offered and sets the mood for the pre-Christmas period.
In the times when the prince provosts ruled the Berchtesgadener Land, the stucco was also a begging custom . Poor, mostly “elderly” people begged for stucco and “prayed loudly”. According to folklorist Rudolf Kriss , however, "as early as 1731 the pastor of Schellenberg complained that people were missing the service because they had been collecting stucco."
Economy and working conditions
The largest and, in the long term, most stable economic factor in the Berchtesgadener Land was salt mining. However, the “white gold” also gave rise to political intrigues and even armed conflicts. At the beginning of the 14th century, salt production had a ratio of 1:10 compared to Hallein , in 1363 it had already improved to 1: 5 and in 1465 Berchtesgaden was already delivering a third of what Hallein was mining. This three-step process reminds Koch-Sternfeld of the sequence of steps taken by the monastery to achieve imperial immediacy .
Until the end of the 14th century, the Berchtesgaden subjects were only granted fiefs that they were allowed to use as personal property . This only changed in 1377 to that of provost I. Ulrich adopted country letter . Under the condition that they continued to fulfill their fiefdoms as serfs , they could now acquire their fiefdoms against a “redemption debt” and also sell parts of them. In the period that followed, this often led to the properties being renamed as upper, middle and lower fiefs. However, if previously the undivided estates were barely enough to support a family, this was even more true of the dismembered ones. The high rainfall and many steep slopes only allowed the small farms in Berchtesgaden to cultivate meadows and pasture for cattle - especially sure-footed but small Berchtesgaden cats - for milk production and young cattle rearing. Since they were not allowed to leave the prince's provosty, the feudal farmers had to look out for additional income. The salt mine , the saltworks in Marktschellenberg, the forests and the small craft businesses could not employ that many, so they shifted more and more to the woodworking industry.
The home- made Berchtesgadener War formed a secure additional source of income over the next few decades. The wooden toys modeled on Ammergau found their way to "the most distant parts of the trading world" via branches in Antwerp , Cádiz , Genoa , Venice and Nuremberg . And there is “no doubt” that between 1492 and 1498 Columbus , Amerigo Vespucci and Vasco da Gama brought such toys to the West and East Indies . However, from the 17th century onwards, demand fell, which a. was due to the "conservative style" of the roughly carved Berchtesgaden goods, for which no improvements or renewals were sought. The emigration of the Protestant exiles or their expulsion from the area of the prince's provosty in the years 1732/33 affected many talented wood carvers and turners. In 1783, an imperial decree prohibited imports into Austria, and in the 19th century the Bavarian state prohibited the purchase of wood, which had been cheaper until then.
For the main town and residence Berchtesgaden , a monastery hospital near the parish church of St. Andreas and in 1565 a leper house were mentioned in documents as early as 1490 . The first scientifically trained doctor also settled in the village in 1710. The abbey hospital was auctioned in 1812 and only replaced by a hospital on Doktorberg in 1845 .
From the Middle Ages on, the children of the ministerial and respected citizens of Berchtesgaden could attend a Latin school at the court of the Canons' Monastery. As the first teacher known by name, Georgius Agricola taught there from 1546 to 1556, who then became rector of the Salzburg Cathedral School . Further teachers were Dionys Pacher in 1652 and Matthias Fink in 1708. How long the Latin school existed is unclear, but since it was not mentioned in connection with the first elementary school in 1792, it probably did not exist longer than towards the end of the 18th century. Obviously it was only "poorly frequented" so that it has not been revived or replaced for over 100 years.
From the 16th to the late 18th century, there were mainly angle schools and winter schools in the Berchtesgadener Land for all non-privileged children , in which men and women who were skilled in reading and writing earned extra income and taught the children after the harvest season. Such a "Teutscher schoolmaster" Jakob Riedl drew a fathom "Puechenes" and still in 1789 who taught sacristan Nicholas Vonderthann some kids probably in Mesnerhaus.
In the Berchtesgaden district of Au , the children were taught by Augustinian hermits from Dürrnberg in the 18th century . Their pay was four guilders or two buckets (68.4 liters each) of beer per year, which the Berchtesgaden Canons' Monastery paid.
The last prince provost Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös had a secondary school or normal school set up in Markt Berchtesgaden in 1792 and a cotton spinning school in 1793, at which a trained professional teacher named Alois Mader, some assistant teachers and the sacristan Nikolaus Vonderthann taught 70 students until 1811 .
- 1579: Chorographia Bavariae ad illustriss et seneness principem… (Latin) , Berchtesgaden (spelling on map: "Berchtolsgaden") to be found on the zoomable map at the bottom right between scale and Bavaria, Petrus Weinerus, 1579, signature: ark: / 12148 / btv1b72000983, Bibliothèque nationale de France, online at gallica.bnf.fr .
- 1644: Matthäus Merian : Taffel des Stifft Berchtersgaden (Klosterstift or Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden) , zoomable map: copper print 28 × 34 cm, map orientation South up (south above). Title description see coat of arms below right. Merian, Frankfurt a. M. (first time) 1644, in: Archiepiscopatus Salisburgensis series, fold 28, Topographia Bavariae, location: Bern UB storage magazine . Sector E4 | Signature: MUE Ryh 4706: 28, online at biblio.unibe.ch .
- 1706: Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden - status from 1706 , in: Dieter Albrecht : Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden. Text and map in the Historical Atlas of Bavaria . Part Altbayern Heft 7, Laßleben, Kallmünz 1954. Page i.
- 1789: Thomas Höckmann: Historical map of Bavaria 1789 (including prince provost), created 2005, online at hoeckmann.de
- Dieter Albrecht : Prince Provost Berchtesgaden. Text and map in the Historical Atlas of Bavaria . Part Altbayern Heft 7, Laßleben, Kallmünz 1954.
- Dieter Albrecht: The prince provost of Berchtesgaden. In: Max Spindler (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. Newly published by Andreas Kraus. 3. Edition. Volume 3, 3. Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-39453-1 , pp. 286-301 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Walter Brugger u. a .: Art and culture of the prince provostie Berchtesgaden. Katholisches Pfarramt, Berchtesgaden 1988, (Diözesanmuseum Freising: Catalogs and Writings 8), (Exhibition in the parish church of St. Andreas in Berchtesgaden, May 7 to October 2, 1988).
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch , Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594) . Plenk, Berchtesgaden 1991.
- Manfred Feulner : Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants . Berchtesgadener Anzeiger publishing house , Berchtesgaden 1985, ISBN 3-925647-00-7 .
- A. Helm , Hellmut Schöner (ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time . Reprint from 1929. Association for local history d. Berchtesgadener Landes. Berchtesgadener Anzeiger and Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 1973.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld : History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works. Volume 1. In commission of the Mayer'schen Buchhandlung, Salzburg 1815 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works. Volume 2. Joseph Lindauer, Salzburg 1815 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works. Volume 3. Joseph Lindauer, Salzburg 1815 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Anton Linsenmayer: The Protestant movement in the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden up to the middle of the 18th century. In: Historical yearbook. 22, 1901, , pp. 37-84.
- Franz Martin : Berchtesgaden. The prince provosty of the regulated canons 1102–1803. Filser, Augsburg 1923, ( Germania sacra Ser. B 1 c).
- Hellmut Beautiful (Ed.): Berchtesgaden through the ages - Supplementary Volume I . Association for local history d. Berchtesgadener Landes. Verlag Berchtesgadener Anzeiger and Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-87490-528-4 .
Canons of Berchtesgaden , basic data and history:
Stephanie Haberer: Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden - Canons and miners in the database of monasteries in Bavaria in the House of Bavarian History
- Result pages of the holdings of digitized documents for the keyword "Berchtesgaden" in the European document archive Monasterium.net .
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld : History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, p. 83 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; P. 134 below to P. 136 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 2, p. 143 below f. ( Full text in Google Book Search).
- Dieter Albrecht : The prince-provost of Berchtesgaden . In: Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Bavarian Geschichte , 3rd, revised. Aufl., Munich 1995, pp. 286–287 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 20.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; P. 62–63 ( full text in Google Book Search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 2, pp. 145–146 ( full text in the Google book search).
Canons of Berchtesgaden , basic data and history:
Stephanie Haberer: Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden - Canons and miners in the database of monasteries in Bavaria in the House of Bavarian History
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: history of the country, pp. 108-109.
- Dieter Albrecht: The prince provost of Berchtesgaden . In: Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Bavarian Geschichte , p. 288 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- berchtesgadeninfo.de Manfred Feulner: Maria Gern - Gnotschaft and community on behalf of the Maria Gern brass band . Literature and sources: Market archive Berchtesgaden, Dept. Maria Gern.
- Multiple use of the term Berchtesgadener Land as an independent territory of a sovereign prince - Dieter Albrecht: Die Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden. In: Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (eds.): Handbuch der Bayerischen Geschichte , pp. 286–301 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Ditto: Use of the term Berchtesgadener Land - “The Berchtesgadener Land (let's not be unsettled by the irritating district name in the course of the regional reform!) Is the designation of the territory of the former bishopric of Berchtesgaden. The extent of the territory must therefore be determined exactly. ”- Günter Kapfhammer: Area names in Bavaria. In: Dieter Harmening, Erich Wimmer, Wolfgang Brückner (ed.): Folk culture, history, Region: Festschrift for Wolfgang Brückner 60th . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1990, pp. 618–628, here: p. 621 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Local history in the Neolithic Age, online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
- Sigmund Riezler: The place, water and mountain names of the Berchtesgadener Land in Festgabe for Gerold Meyer von Knonau , 1913, p. 93.
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: history of the country, p. 106.
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden im Wandel der Zeit , p. 31 - it says: “The name certainly comes from a certain Perther, a representative of the Aribonen family, who is called a Gaden in the forested mountain basin for hunting purposes one-room building, erected. "
- Manfred Feulner : Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 9.
- gadem, gaden. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 4 : Forschel – retainer - (IV, 1st section, part 1). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1878, Sp. 1131–1134 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
- Monumentorum boicorum collectio nova, Volume 31, p. 456.
- Wolf-Armin Freiherr von Reitzenstein: Lexicon of Bavarian Place Names: Origin and Meaning. Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate. CHBeck, 2006, pp. 36–37 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Map of the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1806 , available online in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at bvbm1.bib-bvb.de
- zeno.org On the name Berchtesgaden : Herders Conversations-Lexikon . Freiburg im Breisgau 1854, Volume 1, p. 488.
- Historical treatises of the Royal Bavarian Academy of ..., Volume 1. Munich 1807, p. 389 (Archive of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences )
- Stefan Weinfurter : The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, P. F. Kramml (eds.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: pp. 233f.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, P. F. Kramml (eds.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 230.
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594) . Plenk, 1991, p. 228.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 8.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, P. F. Kramml (eds.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: pp. 240f. Weinfurter cites there on page 240 (note 45) the original text from the main state archive in Munich, (monastery documents Berchtesgaden 1) as follows, based on the copied records in MGH SS XV / II, p. 1066, and from Karl August Muffat, Schenkungsbuch, Munich 1856: “ Paschalis episcopus, servus servorum dei, dilectis filiis Berengano et Cononi comitibus salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Pie postulatio voluntatis effectu debet prosequente compleri, quatinus el devotionis sinceritas laudabiliter enitescat, et utilitas postulata vires indubitanter assumat. Proinde filii in Christo karissimi, vestris iustis postulationibus annuentes, alodia vestra, villam scilicet Berthercatmen et Nideraim, cum omnibus suis pertinenitiis, que pro remedio animarum vestrarum et matris vestre deo et beato Petro sub annuo censu obtulisti susc sub tulisti sed [s], . Statuimus itaque, ut nulli omnino liceat predicta alodia beato Petro subtrahere, minuere vel temerariis vexationibus fatigare, sed omnia integra conserventur pro utilitate et sustenlatione monasterii, quod, largiente domino in eisdem alodiis edificare vovistis. Si quis vero hanc nostre constitutionis paginam sciens contra eam temere venire temptaverit, secundo terciove commonit [us], si non satisfactione congrua emendaverit, sciat se omnipotentis des indignatione et terribili sancti Spiritus iudicico feriendum. Date Laterani VII. Idus aprelis. ”
- “ Paschalis episcopus, servus servorum dei, dilectis filiis Berengano et Cononi comitibus salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. ”((Note 45) in Stefan Weinfurter: The foundation of the Augustiner Canon Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229–264, here: pp. 239, 240.)
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 244-246, here: p. 244.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The foundation of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: pp. 245-246.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 248.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 11.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The foundation of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 250.
- A. Helm: Berchtesgaden through the ages, keyword: Geschichte des Landes, pp. 106–111, pp. 107–108.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 18.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229–264, here: p. 239: “Under the cross of Christ, we find in the writings of the Augustinian Canons, the women, in contrast to the faint-hearted disciples, would have persevered until the end . Therefore, in the Christian community, they should not be less respected than men. In addition, the imitation of the early Christian community also required the consideration and involvement of women. As a consequence, the buildings of the regular canons were almost without exception designed as double pens in the early days, thus combining both a men's and a women's 'monastery', as was the case with Berchtesgaden. "
- stiftskirche-berchtesgaden.de To the Franciscan Church
- Dieter Albrecht: Die Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden in: Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Bayerischen Geschichte , p. 290 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 251.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 235.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815, pp. 62–63 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 254.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canon Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: p. 253.
- General German Real Encyclopedia for the Educated Stands , Volume 3, p. 65. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1864 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- On salt mining in Pleickard Stumpf: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical handbook of the kingdom , p. 95
- “So in Berchtesgaden (..) a new document, an expanded new edition, was drawn up on the basis of a real preliminary document with the purpose of securing the salt shelf. “In Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - History of the country and its inhabitants. P. 37.
- Ulli Kastner: Salt has been part of Berchtesgaden's history in Berchtesgadener Anzeiger for 900 years , news from May 22, 2002 and June 3, 2002 in berchtesgadener-anzeiger.de, which is no longer available.
- History of the Schellenberger Tower ( memento from March 7, 2019 in the Internet Archive ), online at marktschellenberg.de
- Document: Salzburg, Erzstift (798–1806) AUR 1196 XII 11 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Document of December 1, 1196, Lateran - “Pope Cölestin III. orders Eb von Salzburg and the abbots of St. Peter and Raitenhaslach (Raitenhaselac) at the request of the cathedral chapter to decide the dispute between the same with the Berchtesgaden Abbey over impairment of the saltworks on the Tuval, which Eb Konrad I gave him. " ; Source Regest: Salzburger Urkundenbuch, Volume II, documents from 790 to 1199. Willibald Hauthaler and Franz Martin. P. 683.
- Document: Salzburg, Erzstift (798–1806) AUR 1198 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Certificate from 1198, Salzburg - “Eb Adalbert III. decrees that all yields from the newly discovered salt works on the Tuval, from Barmstein (Pabensteine) to (Nieder-) Alm (Alben) and Grafengaden (Grauengadamen), should be divided equally between the archbishop, the cathedral chapter and the Berchtesgaden Abbey, as well as the yield a new building undertaken by one of the parties. " ; Source Regest: Salzburger Urkundenbuch, Volume II, documents from 790 to 1199. Willibald Hauthaler and Franz Martin. P. 706.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The founding of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery - reform idea and beginnings of the regular canons in Berchtesgaden. In: W. Brugger, H. Dopsch, PF Kramml (ed.): History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Volume 1, Berchtesgaden 1991, pp. 229-264, here: pp. 255, 256.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 47.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 50-51.
- According to A. Helm , the episcopal insignia received after him as early as 1254 are already a sign of direct papal suzerainty to which the monastery would have been subject since then. See A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: History of the country, p. 109.
- To the parish in Pleickard Stumpf: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical handbook of the kingdom , p. 95 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- On the restricted market rights in Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 119.
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594) . Plenk, 1991, p. 360 ( restricted preview ).
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594) . Plenk, 1991, p. 711 ( restricted preview ).
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594). Plenk, 1991, p. 391 ( restricted preview ).
Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works , Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; P. 128 and 129 ( full text in the Google book search).
Here it says: “In 1295, on St. Mark's Day , Friedrich von Rupolding and his housewife Benedikta, and their sons Rapoto and Ortolf, acquired by Megenwarth and von Teisenheim, sell their freyes property in Niedertiesbach (in the hollow beings, southwest of Berchtesgaden to the provost Johann . Heinrich von Taufkirchen seals the letter on the provost's house. *) ”
And in the footnote on page 129: “ *) S. and B. II. 58. As far as is known, this is the first German document from Berchtesgaden. The following were present as witnesses: (...) Heinrich von Ramsau (in Hinterberchtesgaden), and other loyal people. "
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 59.
- Document: Salzburg, cathedral chapter (831–1802) AUR 1306 VI 28 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Document dated June 28, 1306, Salzburg - “Eb Konrad declares at the request of the Provost Eberhard and Chapter v. Berchtesgaden, Dioc. Sbg., And at the urging of his councilors (consulum) and family members DP Friedrich, Abbot Rupert v. St. Peter, Pastor Nikolaus, the Ministerial Gerhoh v. Radeck, Konrads v. Kuchl and Kunos v. Teising to be in agreement with their orders and decision, which they take because of the satisfaction for the acts of violence perpetrated by the Berchtesgadnian people against the Salzburg people on the Untersberg (Vndarnsperch) for no reason, provided that they are supported by the provost and Chapter v. Berchtesgaden is met immediately. Date Salzburge ad 1306 in vig. b. apostle Petri et Pauli. Or., Dam. S, in Vienna. Mayr in Ldkde. 62, 51. “ Signature: AUR 1382 XI 27.
- Certificate: Salzburg, Erzstift (798–1806) AUR 1306 VI 29 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Certificate of June 29th, 1306, Salzburg - “Friedrich, DP and archdeacon, Abbot Rupert v. St. Peter, Nikolaus, Canon and Pastor v. Sbg., Gerhoh v. Radeck, Konrad v. Kuchl and Kuno v. Teising decide as chosen arbitrators between Eb Konrad einer- and Provost Eberhard, Dean Paul and Chapter v. Berchtesgaden on the other hand because of the latter's people against the salzb. People on Untersberg (Vntornsperch) committed "fornication" with wounds and damage, as follows: (1.) The salzb. People should have their damage done by the provost within 14 days of the advice of v. Radeck, Kuchl and Teising can be improved. (2.) 24 people involved in the fornication, namely Ludwig the judge, Meingoz the judge v. Schellenberg (Schelmperch), Wolfram Salvelder, Ch. Zaewingaer, Ulrich v. Heuberg, Ulrich v. Goldenbach (Goldenpach), Karel der Scherge (scherig), Hanreuter, Konrad der Schmied (smit), Simon von dem Turm, Karl der Pfnuer, Walter der Jäger, Ulrich Metzenleitter, Heinrich Gastmeister, Konrad Druchensleben, K. unterm Berg, Ulrich Totzaer , Hermann ab dem Gemerch, Ch. V. Grvnswisen, Ms. Steiner, Ulrich v. Untersberg, Ch. Zwelifer, Heinrich v. Plaich, Ch. Der Nürnberger should come to Salzburg with a safe escort before July 4 (Ulrich) and swear before the Eb to emigrate five rest stops around Berchtesgaden and to stay there until the Eb allows them to return, also nothing to To undertake damage to Salzburg and Berchtesgaden. (3.) If one or more of the 24 does not keep the verdict, the provost should answer his two towers against Schellenberg and (Reichen-) Hall to Eb until the evildoers find the archbishop's favor again. ze Salzburch 1306 to s. Peters and s. Paul's Day. " ; SUB IV 240; MR II 0792.
- Salzburger Urkundenbuch IV, edited by Franz Martin, Salzburg 1933, p. 318, No. 27.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 59-60.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 60-61.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 72-73.
- Document: Salzburg, Erzstift (798–1806) AUR 1382 XI 27 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Document dated November 27, 1382, Reichenhall - “Cover letter from the brothers Stephan, Friedrich and Johann, dukes in Bavaria, to Duke Leopold of Austria and Stephan, Duke in Bavaria, in the disputes between them, then Duke Albrecht and Leopold of Austria and Pilgrim, Eb zu Salzburg, because of Berchtesgaden. ” Signature: AUR 1382 XI 27.
- Document: Salzburg, Erzstift (798–1806) AUR 1384 X 24 in the European document archive Monasterium.net . Document dated October 24, 1384, Perwang im Attergau - "Arbitration ruling by Bishop Berthold von Freising (ze freysingen) between the dukes of Bavaria and the Eb Pilgrim of Salzburg about all errors that occurred between them because of the deposed provost Ulrich von Berchtesgaden (Berchtersgaden). emerged from the Wulp family and Sieghard Waller, who was elected provost in his place. Bishop Berthold decided that neither Ulrich nor Sieghard should keep the provost office, but instead appointed a third, Konrad Torer von Torlein, Canon of Salzburg, to be provost, who should also be confirmed by the Eb of Salzburg, as he is legally entitled to. The new provost Torer is to give Waller and Wulp 100 pounds of Viennese pfennigs every year for life. (..) " ; Storage location: Archive: HHStA Vienna, AUR ( http://www.oesta.gv.at/ ).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 78.
- According to A. Helm , the episcopal insignia received after him as early as 1254 are already a sign of direct papal suzerainty to which the monastery has been subordinate since then. See A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: History of the country, p. 109.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 2, pp. 98–99 ( full text in the Google book search).
- alpen-info.de ( memento from November 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) - Historical outline without attributable source naming.
- Walter Brugger: History of Berchtesgaden: Stift - Markt - Land. Volume 2: From the beginning of the Wittelsbach administration to the transition to Bavaria in 1810. Plenk, Berchtesgaden 1995, ISBN 978-3-922590-94-1 .
- Michael Petzet: Monuments in Bavaria , Volume 1–2; P. 141.
- History - The beginnings of salt mining in Berchtesgaden - Chronicle of salt mining in the Berchtesgaden salt mine ; Historical summary without attributable source naming , online at salzbergwerk.de .
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 100-101.
- Wikisource.org Imperial register of 1521.
- wikisource.org Old book listing from 1532 on Reich register.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 96-97.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 98-99.
- More about wood processing and a. for the settlement in the salt pans see Dieter Albrecht: Die Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden. In: Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Bayerischen Geschichte , p. 298 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 99-100.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 101.
- Dieter J. Weiß : The Exemte Diocese of Bamberg: Germania Sacra , Volume 3. Verlag Walter de Gruyter , Berlin 2000. Max Planck Institute for History , pp. 67-69 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 87-88.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 88.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 92 ( See also his predecessors: Konrad Torer von Törlein and Eberhard III von Neuhaus .)
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 102-103.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. See chap. The eviction of the Protestants from Berchtesgaden. Pp. 168-169.
- Gustav Bossert: Strauss, Jakob . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 36, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1893, pp. 535-538.
- berchtesgaden-evangelisch.de ( Memento from November 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Alfred Spiegel-Schmidt: Reformation and Emigration in the Berchtesgadener Land. Text on the emigration of Protestants from the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 2, pp. 131–132 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 106-108.
- Kaiserl. Decret, in Salzburg and Berchtesgadischen Salzirrungen - Prague, November 20, 1591 . In: Johann Georg von Lori : Collection of the Baierischen Bergrechts: with an introduction to the Baierische Bergrechtsgeschichte. Franz Lorenz Richter, Munich 1764, p. 345 ( online via Google Books ).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 159.
- wikisource.org Book listing from 1663 on Reich register, see: IV. Der Chur-Bayrische Craiß .
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 160-163.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 163-165.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 186.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 176-179.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, pp. 61–62 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, pp. 68–69 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. see The expulsion of the Protestants from Berchtesgaden. P. 170.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. see The expulsion of the Protestants from Berchtesgaden. Pp. 171-174.
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: history of the country, p. 110.
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: emigration, p. 12.
- Hellmut Schöner : Berchtesgaden through the ages . Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 114.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. see The expulsion of the Protestants from Berchtesgaden. P. 173.
- notthracht.de Harald Stark : In the footsteps of the Berchtesgaden prince provost Cajetan Anton Notthracht , see end of the penultimate paragraph.
- berchtesgaden-evangelisch.de ( Memento from March 5, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Alfred Spiegel-Schmidt: Expulsion of Protestants from Berchtesgaden. About WayBack Machine preserved text of 5 March 2006 Translation of the cartridge.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. see The expulsion of the Protestants from Berchtesgaden. P. 174.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 188.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 182.
- On the establishment of the library in Annemarie Spethmann: Historical catalogs of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München , p. 169 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 188-194.
- Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages. Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 99.
- Karl Maximilian von Bauernfeind: Utzschneider, Josef von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 39, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1895, pp. 420-440.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works. Volume 3, from p. 116 f. ( Full text in Google Book Search).
- Berchtesgadener Land Tourismus GmbH: The history of the district of Berchtesgadener Land ( Memento from July 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ): “The district 'Berchtesgadener Land' forms a historical, cultural and economic unit; all three parts - the actual 'Berchtesgadener Land' (in the narrower sense of the former sovereignty of the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden), the city of Bad Reichenhall and the land around Laufen - stood in the early Middle Ages over the centuries until the beginning of the 19th century Tension between the Archdiocese of Salzburg and the Duchy of Bavaria, who both claimed the richness of salt in the area. ” - online at berchtesgadener-land.com
- www.prangerschuetzen.de : The Rupertiwinkel
- Trachtenvereine in Berchtesgadener Land , online at berchtesgadener-land.com
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works. Volume 1. Salzburg 1815; P. Iii + 135 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 2, p. 144 ( full text in the Google book search).
- See also on the acceptance of Jews in Bavaria: Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria and History of the Jews in Bavaria
- Max Spindler: Handbook of Bavarian History, Volume 2 , Volume 140, Part 1. Beck, Munich 1966, p. 18.
- Julius von Ficker : From the imperial prince status . Verlag der Wagnerschen Buchhandlung, Innsbruck 1861, p. 367 and p. 368 on Wikisource
- Berchtesgaden Collegiate Church . Historical church leader. Christian Art in Bavaria No. 9. Verlag St. Peter, Salzburg 2002. P. 38
- Helm A .: Berchtesgaden through the ages, keyword: Pröpste, p. 261.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, from pp. 66–67 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Between Salzburg and Bavaria (until 1594) . Plenk, 1991, p. 919.
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, pp. 50–52 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, pp. 79–80 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its Salt Works , Volume 2. Salzburg 1815; P. 28–29 ( full text in Google Book Search).
- Manfred Feulner : Our Berchtesgadener Bürgerwald . In: Berchtesgadener Heimatkalender 2001 (published 2000), pages 122-131
- Koch-Sternfeld had incorrectly listed “cross costumes” in this ranking, which, however, is not a congregation structure or assignment, but an annual procession on Good Friday such as B. thinks in the Wiedenbrücker Kreuztracht .
- Dieter Albrecht: Die Fürstpropstei Berchtesgaden in Max Spindler, Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History , p. 293 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. Pp. 79-85.
- For the meaning and origin of the Berchtesgaden coat of arms, see Markt Berchtesgaden at House of Bavarian History , entry on the coat of arms of the prince provost of Berchtesgaden in the database of the House of Bavarian History .
- Bavarian: Bass, Bassen = group, groups of a certain composition; here Buttnmandln or Kramperl each together with a Santa Claus.
- berchtesgaden.de Comments on Palm Sunday.
- On the establishment of the library in Annemarie Spethmann: Historical catalogs of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München , p. 169.
- A source on the world of legends: Legends and legends about the Berchtesgadener Land by Gisela Schinzel-Penth, Ambro Lacus Verlag, Andechs 1982, ISBN 3-921445-27-2 .
- Alexander Schöppner : King Watzmann . Retelling in Bavarian sagas , first volume. First published in 1852. New edition: Verlag Lothar Borowsky, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-7917-0896-1 online text, Gutenberg-DE project .
- NN: King Watzmann . Lore. In: Legends from Germany . Carl Ueberreuter, 1953 online text, Gutenberg-DE project .
- Ludwig Bechstein : King Watzmann . Retelling, first published in 1852. New edition in: Legends and stories from German districts . Loewes Verlag Ferdinand Carl. Online text, Gutenberg-DE project .
- NN: King Watzmann . Lore. ISBN 3-85001-573-4 online text, Gutenberg-DE project .
- EE Fischer: Souvenirs, souvenirs: Arschpfeifenrössl. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung of February 26, 2007.
- Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages . Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 352.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 105.
- Manfred Feulner: Berchtesgaden - history of the country and its inhabitants. P. 181.
- heimatmuseum-berchtesgaden.de page on the history of the Adelsheim castle .
- Joseph Ernst von Koch-Sternfeld: History of the Principality of Berchtesgaden and its salt works . Volume 3, pp. 82–83 ( full text in the Google book search).
- Friedhofsverband Berchtesgaden , online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de .
Sculptor and painter Fritz Schelle ( memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), TV report for regional television Upper Bavaria (RFO) on February 27, 2015
Fritz Schelle lives in the fourth generation in the “Wildmeisterhaus” and reports on it from 4:05 a.m. .
- Walter Brugger, Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml: History of Berchtesgaden: Stift, Markt, Land, Volume 2 . Plenk, Berchtesgaden 2002, pp. 1153, 1266, 1267.
- erzbistum-muenchen.de ( Memento from April 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Page of the parish association Bischofswiesen on the pilgrimage church Maria Hilf
- Hellmut Schöner (Ed.): Berchtesgaden in the course of time - supplementary volume I , pp. 452–453.
- Iris Melcher: The sweet round hidden in a rectangle in Berchtesgadener Anzeiger , message from September 15, 2005
- A. Helm : Berchtesgaden through the ages , keyword: Geschichte des Landes, pp. 145, 147.
- Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages . Supplementary Volume I, 1982, pp. 269-270.
- It is rather unlikely that the teacher Georgius Agricola is identical to the Prince-Bishop Georgius Agricola , although some life dates and the common place of study could speak for it.
- Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages . Supplementary Volume I, 1982, pp. 98-99, 103.
- Hellmut Schöner: Berchtesgaden through the ages . Supplementary Volume I, 1982, p. 98.