Bushel (unit of measure)
The bushel , also known as Schaff , Schäffel , Simber , Sümber , Sümmer , Simmer , is an old measure of space that was used to measure bulk goods (e.g. grain) and was therefore also called the grain measure . In Westphalia, the bushel was also used to measure hard coal . The size of a bushel was very different, according to the table (see below) between 17.38 and 310.25 liters. Furthermore, a bushel (Landes) denotes an old agricultural unit of land.
The fourth part of the bushel was called Fehre, Fehrd or Viert / Viertel / Vierfaß . It was the so-called sip measure , the sieve measure. In Upper Franconia , the fourth part of the bushel was called Sumer. This in turn was divided into 14 Metzen or 2 Malter, with 1 Malter again being referred to as ½ Sümer.
The bushel was used as a unit of measure as early as the Middle Ages. The volume of the bushel, however, varied by country and region. For example, the Dresden and Radeberg bushels are documented for the 14th century. A bushel there corresponded to 4 quarters or 16 stitches or 64 little sticks. In Prussia, the bushel replaced the ringlet as a unit of measurement on January 1, 1818 . In the middle of the 19th century there was a bushel with a volume of 16/9 cubic feet. This was the equivalent of 3072 Prussian cubic inches or 2770.742 French cubic inches. This corresponds to a volume of 54.9615 liters. In addition to the volume of 3072 Prussian inches, there was a clear width of 22 Prussian inches. Thus a cylindrically shaped bushel was 8.0813878 Prussian inches high. At that time the old bushel was sometimes still in use as a measure. An old bushel had a volume of 2759 French cubic inches, equivalent to 54.728 liters. Thus, one old bushel was equivalent to 0.99575 new sheffels. At the same time, certain minimum weights applied to the bushel. The following minimum weights of a bushel in Prussian pounds applied: oats 45 ½ Prussian pounds, flour 75 Prussian pounds, barley 55 ½ Prussian pounds, wheat 85 ½ Prussian pounds, pulses 90 ½ Prussian pounds and coal 100 Prussian pounds. Since July 1, 1858, the Prussian pound has been equivalent to 500 grams. For coals, the spreading measure introduced in Prussia since 1852 also applied, according to which a bushel only had to be filled to the edge without accumulation. This also applied to the trams , which had a volume (five, eight or ten times) as much as a bushel.
Unless otherwise stated, the information is provided by Krüger.
|designation||Volume in liters|
|Altenburg, principality, bushel||140|
|Altona in Holstein, Danish bushel||17.38|
|Anclam in Pomerania, old rye sheep||44.75|
|Annaberg in Saxony, Scheffel||198.35|
|Railway in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||52.61 / 78.93|
|Bavaria, like Munich|
|Bautzen in Saxony, old bushel||109.09|
|Beeskow in Brandenburg, old bushel||55.33|
|Belgard in Pomerania old rye sheep / old oat bushel||51.08 / 76.57|
|Berlin, Prussian Reichsscheffel||54.91|
|Bytom in Silesia, old bushel||204.48|
|Borna in Saxony, old bushel||110.73|
|Brandenburg and Lenzen in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||52.75|
|Brunswick, Duchy, Bushel||310.25|
|Breslau in Silesia, old bushel||73.94|
|Bunzlau in Silesia, old bushel||99.93|
|Camin in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||53.43 / 71.58|
|Chemnitz in Saxony, old bushel||149|
|Cleve in Rhenish Prussia, Scheffel||53.54|
|Cöslin in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||53.43 / 54.91|
|Cöthen in Anhalt-Cöthen, Scheffel||52.91|
|Colberg in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||45.18 / 56.61|
|Colditz in Saxony, old bushel||79.32|
|Culm in Prussia, old bushel||54.71|
|Danzig in Prussia, old bushel||51.46|
|Delitzsch in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||53.92|
|Delmenhorst in Oldenburg, Scheffel||19.75|
|Dresden in Saxony, Scheffel||107.33|
|Duderstadt in Hanover, Scheffel||30th|
|Eilenburg in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||63.82|
|Eisleben in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||72.31|
|Emden in East Frisia, Scheffel||23.89|
|Erfurt in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||59.55|
|Freiberg in Saxony, old bushel||108.25|
|Gardelegen in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||49.74|
|Garz in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||52.19 / 78.29|
|Geldern in Rhenish Prussia, old bushel||35.72|
|Glatz in Silesia, old bushel||92.57|
|Glogau in Silesia, old bushel||102.23|
|Görlitz in Silesia, old bushel||141|
|Goldberg and Löwenberg in Silesia, old bushel||99.34|
|Gotha in Coburg-Gotha, Scheffel||87.67|
|Greifswald in Western Pomerania, old bushel||38.92|
|Grimma in Saxony, old bushel||103.3|
|Hall in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||79.38|
|Hamburg, bushel of wheat, rye and peas||105.26|
|Hamburg, bushel of barley and oats||157.89|
|Hamm in Westphalia, old bushel||61.23|
|Havelberg in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||51.46|
|Heiligenstadt in Reg.-Bez. Erfurt, old bushel||21.64|
|Herford in Westphalia, old bushel||43.14|
|Hildesheim in Hanover, Scheffel||51.8|
|Hirschberg in Silesia, old bushel||92.43|
|Jauer in Silesia, old bushel||95.89|
|Jena in Saxe-Weimar, Scheffel||80|
|Jever in Oldenburg, Scheffel||29.95|
|Kiel and Holstein, Scheffel||39.48|
|Königsberg in Prussia, old bushel / new bushel||49.82 / 52.97|
|Kyritz and Rathenow in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||50.61|
|Landshut and Polkwitz in Silesia, old bushel||102.81|
|Langensalza in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||55.63|
|Lauenburg in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||57.43 / 82.46|
|Leipzig, old Leipzig bushel||80.58|
|Lemgo and the Principality of Lippe, Scheffel||36.25|
|Liegnitz in Silesia, old bushel||97.61|
|Lübeck, grain bushel / oat bushel||22.67 / 39.60|
|Lueneburg in Hanover, Scheffel||62.14|
|Mecklenburg, like Rostock|
|Minden in Westphalia, old Stadtscheffel||58.52|
|Mühlhausen in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||40.07|
|Munich and Baiern, grain sheep / old oat bushel||222.2 / 343|
|Munster in Westphalia, Scheffel||23.25|
|Munsterberg in Silesia, old bushel||108.59|
|Naumburg in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||77.12|
|Neu-Strelitz in Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Scheffel||51.6|
|Nördlingen in Bavaria, grain / barley / spelled / oats||97.75 / 144.3 / 219.4 / 229.2|
|Nordhausen in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||45.4|
|Oels in Silesia, old bushel||100.21|
|Ohlau in Silesia, old bushel||106.17|
|Oschatz in Saxony, old bushel||112.18|
|Osnabrück in Hanover, Scheffel||28.70|
|Paderborn in Westphalia, old Kreuzscheffel||41.91|
|Pasewalk in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||54.55 / 75.5|
|Pegau in Saxony, Scheffel||84.81|
|Perleberg, Pritzwalk and Werben in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||49.76|
|Pfaffenhofen in Bavaria, Grain bushel / Haferscheffel||231.6 / 260|
|Pirna and Stolpen in Saxony, as in Bautzen|
|Plauen in Saxony, Scheffel||154.13|
|Potsdam in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||53.19|
|Prenzlow in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||55.76|
|Prussia, like Berlin|
|Pyritz and Stargard in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||51.82 / 68.62|
|Querfurt in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||52.88|
|Radeberg in Saxony, Scheffel||191.626|
|Rendsburg in Holstein, Scheffel||42.49|
|Rochlitz in Saxony, old bushel||105.68|
|Rostock, Mecklenburg bushel: grain / oats||38.85 / 43.77|
|Rügenwalde in Pomerania, old grain bushel / old oat bushel||47.18 / 66.48|
|Ruppin in the Mark Brandenburg, old bushel||54.04|
|Sagan in Silesia, old bushel||97.04|
|Salzwedel, Seehausen and Osterburg in the Mark Brandenburg, Scheffel||48|
|Schweidnitz in Silesia, old bushel||83.15|
|Soest in Westphalia, Scheffel||29.43|
|Stapelholm in Schleswig, Scheffel||21.58|
|Stendal and Tangermünde in the Mark Brandenburg, Scheffel||46.33|
|Stolpe in Pomerania, old bushel of grain / old bushel of oats||46.33 / 54.91|
|Stralsund in Pomerania, Scheffel||38.92|
|Strelitz, like Neu-Strelitz|
|Stuttgart, Württemberg Reichsscheffel||177.18|
|Torgau in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||66.11|
|Uckermünde in Pomerania, old rye sheep / old oat bushel||52.33 / 54.91|
|Unna in Prussian Westphalia, old bushel||51|
|Weißenfels in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||167.28|
|Wernigerode, old bushel||52.88|
|Wismar in Mecklenburg, Scheffel||38.25|
|Wohlau in Silesia, old bushel||107.44|
|Wolgast in Pomerania, old bushel||40.48|
|Wollin and Usedom in Pomerania, old rye sheffel / old oat bushel||53.19 / 78.06|
|Worbis in Prussian Saxony, old bushel||31.13|
|Württemberg, like Stuttgart||177.18|
|Wurzen in Saxony, old bushel||70.55|
|Zwickau in Saxony, Scheffel||67|
Often a distinction was made with the bushel:
- Quedlinburg 1 bushel pen size = 3231 Parisian cubic inches equivalent to 85 pounds
- Quedlinburg 1 bushel city size = 3430 Parisian cubic inches equivalent to 90 pounds
- Querfurt 1 bushel lock size = 2643 Parisian cubic inches was equivalent to 70 pounds
- Querfurt 1 bushel village measure = 2830 Parisian cubic inches equivalent to 101 pounds
- Duchy of Oldenburg : 1 collegiate church sheffel = 53.16 liters (slightly heaped for delivery to churches)
Differences in weight, application in mining
The conversion of the bushel into modern weights is not always possible exactly. This is due, on the one hand, to the different types of coal and their different specific weights, and, on the other hand, to the different pieces of coal. The information is therefore subject to certain fluctuations. The weight of a bushel of coal varied between 40 and 75 kilograms, depending on the mining area. By 1855, an average value of 55 kilograms for the bushel can be assumed. From the weight adjustment around 1855, the weight of the bushel (new sheffel) in Prussia was 50 kilograms. Despite the weight adjustment, some mines continued to use the old dimensions or their own dimensions for a long time.
In County Mark, a bushel weighed 65 kilograms between 1800 and 1836. In Pörtingsiepen in 1842 the bushel was equivalent to 75 kilograms. In Langenbrahm, a bushel weighed 51.50 kilograms from 1870 to 1880. In the Essen / Mülheim / Oberhausen Chamber of Commerce district, a bushel weighed 53.76 kilograms. For gas flame coal mines, the weight of the bushel was 41.70 kilograms. There were even different weights for the bushel under individual mines. For the Friederica colliery , a bushel weighed 55.50 kilograms up until 1837. For the United Hannibal colliery , a bushel weighed 42.75 kilograms. At the Dahlbusch colliery , a bushel weighed 42 kilograms from 1873 to 1875 and 42.50 kilograms from 1876 onwards. For the Heinrich colliery in Essen-Überruhr, the bushel weighed 55 kilograms. For the Königsgrube , a bushel weighed 47.20 kilograms until 1872, 47.50 kilograms from 1874 and 47.20 kilograms from 1875. The Holland colliery put a weight of 51.26 kilograms for the bushel in 1872. In the Gutehoffnungshütte , the bushel was calculated to be 46 kilograms in 1870. At the Concordia colliery , the New Sheffel was calculated at 48 kilograms in 1870.
- in Lavanttal 1 sheep = 4 Metzen (Viennese)
Popularly the bushel
The saying " you shouldn't put your light under a bushel " means that you shouldn't hide your achievements and / or merits out of modesty or disregard your own performance. The expression refers to the parable of the light under a bushel in the New Testament ( Mk 4,21 LUT ; Mt 5,15 LUT ; Lk 11,33 LUT ) in the translation of Martin Luther ; what is meant is the basket or vessel with which the amount is measured. Luther chose “Scheffel” as the translation for the measure of capacity in Greek modios , or Latin modius , the volume of which is given as around 8.75 liters.
The bushel in the proverb
“Don't call anyone your friend if you haven't already had at least a bushel of salt with them!”
How long it takes to consume a bushel of salt with your normal diet can be measured by looking at the unit of measurement.
“You don't light a light and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; so it shines for all who are in the house. "( Matthew 5:15 LUT - Luther Bible 2017)
- Otto Brandt: Documentary on measure and weight in Saxony. Dresden 1933
- Fritz Verdenhalven : Old measurement and currency systems from the German-speaking area. Neustadt an der Aisch 1993
- ↑ a b Heinrich Veith : German mountain dictionary. With receipts. Published by Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn, Breslau 1871.
- ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger : Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world. Gottfried Basse, Quedlinburg / Leipzig 1830, p. 92.
- ↑ a b Hildegard Weiß: The Cistercian Abbey Ebrach: an investigation into the manorial rule, court rule and village community in the Franconian area. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart 1962, p. 52 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- ^ City history of Radeberg (last accessed on April 16, 2015).
- ↑ Prussian dimensions around 1860. Bürger- und Heimatverein Heven e. V., accessed April 24, 2013 .
- ↑ a b c C. LF Juhr (Ed.): Georg Thomas Flügel's Cours-Zettel, continued as a manual for coin, measurement, banking, weight and usage, as well as bills of exchange, bank, government paper and stocks, European and non-European cities. 10th edition, Verlag der Jaeger'schen Buch, Papier- und Landkarten-Handlung, Frankfurt am Main 1859.
- ↑ August Erich Julius Barnstedt: Geographical-historical-statistical description of the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Principality of Birkenfeld. With topography and map. Printed and published by CF Kittsteiner, Birkenfeld 1845.
- ^ Ludwig von Rönne : The state right of the Prussian monarchy. Volume 2, Division 1–2, 2nd edition. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1864-1865.
- ↑ Christian Noback , Friedrich Noback : Complete paperback of the coin, measure and weight ratios, the government papers, the exchange and banking and the customs of all countries and trading places. First division: Aachen - Pesth. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1851.
- ^ Johann Friedrich Krüger (pseudonym: Friedr. Alb. Niemann): Complete manual of the coins, measures and weights of all countries in the world . Quedlinburg and Leipzig 1830.
- ^ Max Döllner : History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch up to 1933. Ph. C. W. Schmidt, Neustadt a. d. Aisch 1950, OCLC 42823280 ; New edition to mark the 150th anniversary of the Ph. C. W. Schmidt publishing house, Neustadt an der Aisch 1828–1978. Ibid 1978, ISBN 3-87707-013-2 , p. 465.
- ^ Max Döllner: History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch until 1933. 1950, p. 465.
- ↑ zeitspurensuche.de (last accessed on April 16, 2015).
- ^ Old weights and measures in the Kyffhäuserkreis (last accessed on April 16, 2015).
- ^ Sudeten history
- ^ Johann Georg Krünitz , Friedrich Jakob Flörke, Heinrich Gustav Flörke , Johann Wilhelm David Korth, Carl Otto Hoffmann, Ludwig Kossarski: Economic Encyclopedia. Volume 45, Verlag Joachim Pauli, Berlin 1789, p. 756.
- ↑ Felix von Blocken: The new dimensions and weights in tables and illustrations with legal provisions applicable to Bavaria, Prussia, Baden and Würtemberg. R. Forchthammer, Regensburg 1871, p. 302.
- ^ Legal Gazette for the Duchy of Oldenburg for 1869 and 1870. (Volume 21). Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1869, p. 75.
- ↑ Joachim Huske : The coal mine in the Ruhr area. Data and facts from the beginning to 2005 (= publications from the German Mining Museum Bochum 144). 3. Edition. Self-published by the German Mining Museum, Bochum 2006, ISBN 3-937203-24-9 .
- ^ Joseph Jäckel: Zementierungslexikon for all traders and tradespeople according to the Austrian cementation documents. Verlag Anton Strauss, Vienna 1824, p. 184.
- ↑ Idiom / idiom: (not) put one's light under the bushel. In: redensarten.net (last accessed on April 16, 2015).
- ↑ Bauer, Walter: Greek-German dictionary on the writings of the New Testament and early Christian literature , 6th completely revised edition, Berlin; New York 1988, col. 1064.
- Bushel (English for bushel)
- Mountain sheep
- Common tusks