Upper Franconia

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Upper Franconia
coat of arms
coat of arms
State : Germany
State : Bavaria
Administrative headquarters : Bayreuth
Biggest cities: 1. Bamberg
2. Bayreuth
3. Hof
4. Coburg
Area : 7,231.41  km²
Residents : 1,065,371 (December 31, 2019)
Population density : 147 inhabitants per km²
District President: Henry Schramm ( CSU )
District President: Heidrun Piwernetz
Website :
Locator map RB Upper Franconia in Bavaria.svg Locator map Upper Franconia in Germany.svg
Location in Bavaria and Germany

Upper Franconia is located in the north of the Free State of Bavaria , in the Franconian part, and borders the federal states of Saxony and Thuringia as well as the Bavarian administrative districts of Lower Franconia , Middle Franconia and Upper Palatinate . An external border exists to the Karlovy Vary Region ( Karlovarský kraj ) of the Czech Republic .

Upper Franconia is both an administrative district and a district as a self-governing body. The latter means the right to use your own coat of arms and flags. The administrative seat of the district and at the same time the seat of the district president and the district government is Bayreuth .

The name Upper Franconia refers to its location on the Main . Upper Franconia lies on its upper reaches and Lower Franconia on the lower reaches. This name goes back to the formation of the Mainkreis in the course of Count Montgelas' 1808 constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria . The division of the territories was adapted to the French model and was primarily based on river names.

badges and flags

Blazon : Above a red shield base, in it three silver tips, split twice: at the front in gold a left-facing, red-armored black lion covered with a silver sloping bar; Center quartered by silver and black; at the back divided five times by black and gold, covered with an inclined and curved green diamond wreath.

The upper part of the coat of arms reminds of the three relevant historical territories in Upper Franconia: the black lion on a golden background on the left side stands for the bishopric of Bamberg , the square of silver and black symbolizes the Hohenzollern margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth , while the right part is in gold , Black and green represents the duchy of Saxony-Coburg . The symbols of the three former areas are on the Franconian rake in the shield base.

The flag of Upper Franconia is an upside-down white and red Franconian flag with the district coat of arms in the middle.

Previous structure (before 1972)

One district cities

View over the Coburg city center


District boundaries until the regional reform in Bavaria

Until after the Second World War , the administrative districts of Middle Franconia and Upper Franconia were administered together.

Structure since 1972

The administrative district of Upper Franconia comprises four independent cities and nine rural districts :

One district cities


Biggest cities

city district Residents 1 image
Bamberg circular 77.179 Bamberg Cathedral
Bayreuth circular 73,999 Bayreuth market square
court circular 45,950 Hof city center
Coburg circular 41,236 Veste Coburg
Forchheim Forchheim 32,125 Forchheim town hall
Kulmbach Kulmbach 26.002 Plassenburg
Lichtenfels Lichtenfels 20,158 Lichtenfels market square
Marktredwitz Wunsiedel in the Fichtel Mountains 17,283 Old town hall Marktredwitz
Kronach Kronach 16,877 Kronach, town structure on the Haßlach with fortress Rosenberg
Neustadt near Coburg Coburg 15,239 Muppberg, seen from the general view
Same Wunsiedel in the Fichtel Mountains 15.111 Same marketplace
Pegnitz Bayreuth 13,290 Market square of the city of Pegnitz
Roedental Coburg 13,174 Domain Oeslau in Rödental
Hirschaid 2 Bamberg 12,304 Church of St. Veit in Hirschaid
Bad Staffelstein Lichtenfels 10,359 Bad Staffelstein town hall
Münchberg court 10,274 Münchberg town hall
1 As of December 31, 2017
2 Market without municipal law





Prehistory and early history

Johann Friederich Esper described some caves in the Franconian Alb between 1774 and 1790 and J. B. Fischer excavated the grave mounds of Mistelgau in the Bayreuth district in 1788 . The earliest human presence is documented by tools made of Lydite from the Riss-Würm interglacial (120,000–800,000 BC), which were made by the Neanderthals . The next artefacts are a little more recent and come from the Presolutre of Kösten, a district of Lichtenfels . The early and middle Late Paleolithic has not yet been represented in Upper Franconia, and the Upper Paleolithic is indistinct. Evidence of Neolithic settlements of the band ceramics , which from 5500 BC Occurred in the area of ​​the early Neolithic in the Main Valley . Here are u. a. more than 50 prehistoric earthworks or ring walls known, the size of which varies between 3 and 50 hectares. The largest are in Hetzles , Rödlas and Wiesenthau-Schlaifhausen in the Forchheim district and on the Staffelberg in Bad Staffelstein- Romansthal in the Lichtenfels district . But there are no grave finds at all. The most important sites are two caves, the Jungfernhöhle von Tiefenellern and the Hohle Stein near Schwabthal . Settlements from this period that were investigated are Altenbanz and Zilgendorf . The cultures that followed were not particularly well represented there until the early Bronze Age . There are still no settlements from the Middle Bronze Age. The hoard finds from Forchheim and Hollfeld, however, show the relatively sparse settlement in the early period. The presence of typical artifacts shows an orientation towards Hesse and Thuringia. In the Urnfield Period (1300–750 BC) the traces became clearer and the number of depots increased. Graves such as the so-called aristocratic grave of Eggolsheim in the Forchheim district provide an insight into the sepulchral culture . The subsequent Hallstatt period is strongly represented by graves and burial mounds, so that a more dense settlement can be assumed. In the La Tène period (500–100 BC) Upper Franconia was a core area of ​​clay horse sculptures. Numerous finds of Roman origin have also been made.

Middle Ages and Modern Times

During the migration period, the Thuringians first extended their sphere of influence to Upper Franconia. After Clovis's victory over the Alemanni in the Battle of Zülpich in AD 496 , the western Main area initially came under Franconian influence. When the Thuringians were defeated in 531 ( Battle of Burgscheidungen ), the entire Main Valley came under Franconian rule. However, Slavic immigration could also be observed ( Bavaria Slavica ).

The area of ​​today's Upper Franconia consisted essentially of the two historical territories of the bishopric of Bamberg and the Hohenzollern (since 1791/1792 Prussian ) principality of Bayreuth (also: Markgraftum Brandenburg-Bayreuth or earlier Brandenburg-Kulmbach). In addition, Upper Franconia, like Franconia in general, is characterized by many small-scale rulers, whose bearers were mainly recruited from the knighthood. Due to the large number of rulers in addition to the larger territorial lords, the Franconian area can be described as an "aristocratic landscape", which was unique in this form in the Old Kingdom . As a rule, the knights in Franconia were directly subordinate to the empire, i.e. only subject to the emperor . The Franconian knight circle was divided into the six cantons: Altmühl , Baunach , Gebirg , Odenwald , Rhön-Werra and Steigerwald . Most of the knight seats in what is now Upper Franconia belonged to the canton of mountains.

After the last margrave of Ansbach-Bayreuth, Karl Alexander , abdicated , the two Hohenzollern margravates passed to the Prussian line in Berlin. The Kingdom of Prussia under the leading minister Karl August von Hardenberg tried to push through ideas of modern statehood in the newly acquired Franconian provinces, e.g. B. through mediatization .

The representatives of the Franconian knighthood as well as other affected territorial lords turned to the Viennese court searching for the law in order to defend themselves against the attempts at mediation by Prussia. However, due to the strain of the coalition wars against revolutionary France, the emperor's influence was limited.

In 1795 Prussia concluded a separate peace with France ( Peace of Basel ). Now Prussia was able to enforce its mediatization policy in Franconia even more unhindered, which had been practically complete since the late 1790s. The Margraviate of Ansbach-Bayreuth were now closed territories, in which the general land law applied uniformly to the Prussian states .

After the military occupation of Bamberg by the Kingdom of Bavaria , the Bavarian Province of Bamberg was established on November 29, 1802 and renamed Mainkreis on October 1, 1808. The Kingdom of Bavaria bought the Margraviate Bayreuth, which was under French rule as a pays reservé ( Napoleon's private property) from 1806 to 1810, for 15 million francs from the French and took it over on June 30, 1810. This is how the Upper Main District with Bayreuth as the capital was created. The district has been called Upper Franconia since January 1, 1838, based on the Duchy of Franconia , in whose former eastern part it is located. The district was rounded off when the Free State of Coburg was incorporated into Bavaria on July 1, 1920 . In the course of state simplification, the governments of Upper Franconia and Middle Franconia were united in Ansbach in 1932/33 . In 1946 it was decided to restore the administrative district of Upper Franconia. The first elections for the District Day took place in 1954. Minor changes in the Upper Franconian area were finally brought about by the Bavarian territorial reform of 1972. Most of the Hochstadt an der Aisch district went to Middle Franconia, while communities from Lower Franconia and Upper Palatinate came to Upper Franconia. Sub-areas of Upper Franconia and the Upper Palatinate , a corridor from Hof ​​to Weiden, to which Bayreuth also belongs, were the most densely industrialized area in Germany after the Ruhr area from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. There were close trade and economic ties with Thuringia and Saxony. According to estimates, there were around 34,000 mostly Eastern European forced laborers in Upper Franconia in autumn 1944 , who were mainly employed in industry.

After the end of the Second World War, the establishment of two German states and the construction of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961, the era of economic prosperity in this region ended. In order to bring the region forward economically, one resorted to structural policy measures. This included loosening up the industry structure and raising the quality level in order to guarantee competitiveness. With these measures, the constant population decline in the region could be stopped almost entirely. In order to keep young people, especially young graduates of high schools, in the area around Bayreuth and the northern Upper Palatinate and to give them future prospects, the decision was made in 1971 to establish the University of Bayreuth . Similar to Regensburg, whose university was founded in 1962, the establishment of a university in Bayreuth also led to a steady increase in population. The University of Bayreuth, whose cornerstone was laid south of the Kreuzstein and Birken districts in March 1974, began its research operations in the 1975/1976 winter semester. In addition, areas on the Red Hill and in Wendelhöfen were under discussion.

The situation was similar in Hof. After the University for Public Service in Bavaria was founded in 1974 , it was finally decided to move the Department of General Internal Administration to the city. In 1983, regular teaching could begin. In 1994 the decision was made to build the University of Applied Sciences in Hof in addition to the department of the University for Public Service . The campus is growing steadily, so that today several institutes have been added and the Einstein 1 digital start-up center was created. Student life is very much encouraged in the city.


The Upper Franconian region has the second highest industrial density in Europe. Four times more hidden champions are located at the science and industry location than the national average. The innovative strength of the region can also be seen in the twice as high number of patent applications compared to the national average . In terms of gross domestic product , Upper Franconia is one of the wealthier regions of the EU with an index of 113 (EU27: 100, Germany: 116) (2008). More than a quarter of all companies are automotive suppliers .

Porcelain fountain in the pedestrian zone of Selb (2003)

The most important industrial sectors by number of employees are (as of September 2005):

  • Plastic goods (16,100)
  • Mechanical engineering (13,400)
  • Ceramic and Glass (11,700)
  • Metal Products (9900)
  • Textiles (9400)
  • food

Upper Franconia has a very high industrial density. The Hof-Bayreuth-Kulmbach area is one of the most important textile centers in Germany, the Wunsiedel district is the center of the German ceramics industry (household porcelain, hotel porcelain and technical ceramics), and the Lichtenfels- Coburg area is the center of the German upholstered furniture industry.

Tourism is important in the service sector.

The economic interest groups of Upper Franconia are the Chamber of Industry and Commerce for Upper Franconia Bayreuth, the Chamber of Industry and Commerce for Coburg and the Chamber of Crafts for Upper Franconia, based in Bayreuth.


The largest media company in Upper Franconia is the Upper Franconia Media Group , based in Bamberg . These include, above all, daily newspapers (including Fränkischer Tag , Bayerische Rundschau ), weekly newspapers , Internet newspapers ( inFranken.de ) and radio stations (Radio Bamberg, Radio Plassenburg). The Oberfranken media group - Fachverlage , based in Kulmbach , publishes trade journals, supplementary works and work aids .

In Hof is the second largest publishing house in Upper Franconia, the Frankenpost (editions Stadt- und Landkreis Hof, Fichtelgebirge, Naila-Münchberg and Kulmbach), as well as the weekly newspaper Blickpunkt . The city also has two radio stations, Radio Euroherz and Extra-Radio, as well as the only television station in the administrative district, TV Upper Franconia . The Bayerische Rundfunk maintains a correspondence office. Even filmmakers have settled in the city, for example, there is a filmmaking. The Hof Film Festival is of great importance for the film world in the city . According to the founder, the director Heinz Badewitz , HoF is the "Home of Films".

Bayerischer Rundfunk is based in Bamberg and Bayreuth .

Public facilities

The Upper Franconian Police Headquarters , together with the Federal Police and their three districts in Hof , Bamberg , Bayreuth and an inspection in Selb, ensure security. There is also the Federal Police Training and Advanced Training Center in Bamberg.

The Customs maintains the customs offices yard Marktredwitz , Coburg , Bayreuth and Bamberg. These are assigned to the main customs offices of Regensburg and Schweinfurt.

The THW maintains 13 local branches and 2 regional offices in Upper Franconia.

There are 20 hospitals and 14 specialist hospitals .

The Bundeswehr is represented by a company of the regional security and support forces (RSU) . The only remaining barracks of the Bundeswehr in Upper Franconia is in Hof . There are career counseling offices in Bayreuth and Bamberg.

Arts and Culture

From 1970 to 1990, the Bayreuth Chamber of Industry and Commerce awarded the Culture Prize of the Upper Franconian Economy annually, then roughly every two years until 2011, to people who have made outstanding contributions to cultural life in Upper Franconia.

In Bayreuth , the capital of Upper Franconia, the Richard Wagner Festival, also known as the Bayreuth Festival , takes place every summer .

Richard-Wagner-Festspielhaus 2016

The Upper Franconian District's KulturServiceStelle is housed in the Museum for Rural Tools in the old town of Bayreuth. In 2015, she chose an Upper Franconian Word of the Year for the first time , choosing “Wischkästla” (for smartphone ), but there were also other suggestions such as “Herrgottsmuggerla” (for ladybugs ) and “etzerla” ( but for now ). In 2016 the phrase “A weng weng” (in High German “A little bit”) was chosen, followed in 2017 by the expression “Urigeln” (the tingling sensation when cold hands and feet get warm again).

In addition, since 1967, found in the courtyard , the Hof International Film Festival instead. They were founded by Heinz Badewitz , who was born in Hof. The focus is primarily on film productions from German film schools.

Central cinema in courtyard

One of the most important orchestras in Bavaria is based in Hof. The Hofer Symphoniker are an international orchestra that is also socially committed several times. Enoch zu Guttenberg was honorary conductor of the Hof Symphony Orchestra.

The Hof Zoological Garden is the only zoo in Upper Franconia. It opened in 1954. Its inhabitants are u. a. Reptiles, amphibians, ring-tailed lemurs, gibbons and native animal species. The Geological Garden is also located on the zoo grounds. There the course of the Saale is shown with vegetation and types of rock.

Zoological garden courtyard


One district cities

Tourism is an industry that is becoming increasingly important. The largest tourist city in Upper Franconia is the Unesco World Heritage City of Bamberg . Also due to the river cruises on the Main-Danube Canal , the city is one of the most important tourist spots in Bavaria . The city with the second most tourists is Bayreuth . Many visitors come to the Bayreuth Festival , but also to the Margravial Opera House . Hof ranks third in tourism in Upper Franconia. The sights such as the city ​​center , the Theresienstein , the Botanical and the Zoological Gardens are important for tourism . Culture is also an important factor with the theater , the Freiheitshalle , the Symphoniker and the Hof Film Festival . Tourism is also important in the Vestestadt Coburg . Sights are the old town, the Veste Coburg , the Ehrenburg Castle and the Coburg State Theater .

More Attractions

Other sights in Upper Franconia are the Vierzehnheiligen basilica , Pottenstein Castle and Plassenburg . Natural beauties are the Franconian Switzerland with the Teufelshöhle in Pottenstein , the Main , the Saale , the Itzgrund , the Steigerwald , the Franconian Forest and the Fichtelgebirge .

Protected areas

In the administrative district there are 95 nature reserves , 70 landscape protection areas , 113 FFH areas , nine EU bird protection areas and at least 565 designated geotopes . The largest nature reserve in the district is the shell limestone area on Oschenberg .

See also:



Several motorways with connections to all major cities run through Upper Franconia. In the west the A 73 (Nuremberg – Suhl) leads from Forchheim via Bamberg and Lichtenfels to Coburg, in the east the A 9 (Berlin – Munich) connect Pegnitz, Bayreuth, Kulmbach and Hof and the A 93 (Hof – Holledau) Marktredwitz, Wunsiedel and Selb with yard. The A 70 (Schweinfurt – Bayreuth / Kulmbach) creates a cross connection between A 73 and A 9 and connects the two largest Upper Franconian cities, Bamberg and Bayreuth. A section of the A 72 between Hof and Trogen and a section of the A 3 at Schlüsselfeld lead through Upper Franconia .

The following federal highways run through Upper Franconia:

Signpost on the B 470


The only ICE system stop in Upper Franconia is Bamberg , which is served almost every hour by trains on the Hamburg – Berlin – Munich line. Individual pairs of trains also stop in Coburg . There is also an ICE connection from Lichtenfels to Munich on weekdays . In addition, a daily IC train pair on line 61 Karlsruhe – Leipzig via Bamberg, Lichtenfels and Kronach is in the timetable. In the future, the Intercity line 65 will run from Munich via Hof to Dresden or on to Berlin .

The electrified routes in western Upper Franconia between Forchheim, Bamberg, Lichtenfels, Coburg and Kronach are opened up in regional traffic by the Franconia-Thuringia Express . In addition, the S1 line of the Nuremberg S-Bahn runs on its northernmost section through Upper Franconia. The non-electrified routes in eastern Upper Franconia connect Bayreuth , Kulmbach , Hof and Marktredwitz are served by diesel trains. From Hof ​​there are electrified connections to Leipzig and Dresden . In 2011 agilis took over operation on the region's non-electrified local transport routes.

Electrified routes that run through Upper Franconia are:

In addition, the following non-electrified main and branch lines are operated:

The Strullendorf – Schlüsselfeld and Bamberg – Bamberg Hafen routes are only used for freight traffic, the Ebermannstadt – Behringersmühle and Steinwiesen – Nordhalben routes are only used by museums.

Flight connections

Bike paths

Hiking trails

District of Upper Franconia

The district of Upper Franconia , together with the other Bavarian districts, forms the third municipal level in the state. The core tasks of the district are in the social and cultural area. The organs of the district are the district assembly , the district committee and the district assembly president ( Art. 21 District Code - BezO ).

District day

A total of 21 seats


choice CSU SPD FW Green FDP REP NPD GDP 1 BP The Franks The left AfD total
2018 8th 3 3 3 1 1 2 21st
2013 8th 4th 2 1 1 1 17th
2008 9 4th 2 1 1 17th
2003 10 5 1 1 17th
1998 10 8th 1 1 20th
1994 11 8th 1 20th
1990 11 7th 1 1 20th
1986 13 7th 1 21st
1982 13 8th 21st
1978 12 9 21st
1974 13 9 22nd
1970 13 10 23
1966 10 10 1 2 23
1962 12 11 1 1 1 25th
1958 11 10 1 2 1 25th
1954 8th 9 2 3 3 25th
11954 and 1958 GB / BHE

District President

After setting up the districts as higher municipal associations, they also received a legislature. This was initially called District Administrator, whose members were district administrators, the chairmen of the committee were called President of the District Council (1829-1919), President of the District Council (1919-1933), President of the District Association. Since 1954 they have been called the Presidents of the District Assembly.

Administrative district

The administrative district of Upper Franconia is geographically identical to the District of Upper Franconia. He is the area of ​​responsibility of the state middle authority government of Upper Franconia .

District President of Upper Franconia

(until 1837 general commissioners )

Term of office District President
1810-1814 Friedrich Karl von Thürheim
1815-1832 Constantin Ludwig von Welden
1832-1837, 1838-1840 Ferdinand von Andrian-Werburg
1840-1857 Melchior Knight of Stenglein
1858-1863 Friedrich von Podewils
1863-1864 Nikolaus von Koch
1864-1868 Theodor von Zwehl
1868-1873 Ernst von Lerchenfeld
1873-1876 Hugo of Herman
1876-1893 Karl Alexander von Burchtorff
1893-1909 Rudolph von Roman
1909-1916 Gustav von Brenner
1916-1932 Otto von Strössenreuther
1933–1934 * Hans Georg Hofmann
1934–1944 * Hans Dippold
1944–1945 * Heinrich Detloff von Kalben
1945 * Privy Councilor Ernst Reichard
1945–1948 * Hans Schregle
1948-1956 Ludwig Gebhard
1957-1973 Fritz Stahler
1973-1989 Wolfgang Winkler
1989-1998 Erich Haniel
1998-2006 Hans Angerer
2006-2016 Wilhelm Wenning
2016– Heidrun Piwernetz

Note: 1933 to 1948 joint district president with Middle Franconia


Web links

Commons : Upper Franconia  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Upper Franconia  - Sources and full texts
Wikivoyage: Upper Franconia  - Travel Guide
Wiktionary: Upper Franconia  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. a b c d on December 31, 2017, source: Bamberg is growing fastest in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from September 28, 2018, p. 1.
  3. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 740 .
  4. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History. 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 740 .
  5. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 745 .
  6. ^ Kurt Andermann: Imperial Knighthood. In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria. Retrieved November 21, 2017 .
  7. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 772 .
  8. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 773 .
  9. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 3. Edition. tape III , Part I: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 773 f .
  10. ^ Rudolf Endres: State and Society. Second part: 1500-1800 . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 3. Edition. tape III , Volume i: History of Franconia up to the end of the 18th century. Munich 1997, p. 777 .
  11. When Hitler visited the Teufelshöhle in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of December 9, 2019, p. 15.
  12. ^ University of Bayreuth: Development Plan . Bayreuth 1976, p. 4-9 .
  13. ^ Kraus, Andreas: History of Bavaria. From the beginning to the present . Munich 2004, p. 747 .
  14. Boß, Daniela, et al .: Upper Franconia facing major challenges: A regional analysis of development opportunities and qualification needs in Upper Franconia. November 7, 2017, accessed May 13, 2020 .
  15. Innovation Prize Upper Franconia. Oberfranken Offensiv eV, accessed on March 18, 2016 .
  16. https://www.pictame.com/user/filmemacherei.hof/45281904
  17. Federal Police - Search for offices. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  18. Bavarian Police - Police Headquarters Upper Franconia. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  19. ^ Customs online - structure - organization plans of the local authorities. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  20. THW on site. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  21. Hospitals | Government of Upper Franconia. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  22. ^ Bavarian State Regiment. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  23. courtyard. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  24. Advice center finder . Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
  25. Culture Prize of the Upper Franconian Economy. www.kulturpreise.de, 2013, accessed on October 4, 2016 .
  26. KulturServiceStstelle of the district of Upper Franconia. (No longer available online.) KulturServiceStelle, archived from the original on December 8, 2015 ; Retrieved December 5, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kss. Bezirk-oberfranken.de
  27. “Wischkästla” is the first Upper Franconian word of the year. (No longer available online.) District of Upper Franconia, November 28, 2015, archived from the original on December 8, 2015 ; Retrieved December 5, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www. Bezirk-oberfranken.de
  28. Upper Franconian Word of the Year 2016: "A weng weng". (No longer available online.) District of Upper Franconia, September 26, 2016, archived from the original on October 1, 2016 ; accessed on October 1, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www. Bezirk-oberfranken.de
  29. Old word rediscovered: “Urigeln” is the Upper Franconian word of the year 2017. District of Upper Franconia, October 1, 2017, accessed on October 7, 2017 .
  30. ^ Government of Upper Franconia: State Parliament and District Elections 2018 | Government of Upper Franconia. Retrieved November 2, 2018 .
  31. Walter Schärl: The composition of the Bavarian civil service from 1806 to 1918 (= . Munich historical studies department Bavarian History Volume 1.). Lassleben, Kallmünz 1955, DNB 454302959
  32. Julius Meyer, Adolf Bayer: Brügels Onoldina - Heimatkundliche Abhandlungen für Ansbach and surroundings, Book II (résumés, mayors, regional presidents, etc.) , C. Brügel & Sohn, Ansbach 1955. pp. 107 to 126.
  33. Stefan Nöth, Klaus Rupprech (ed.): The presidents. 200 years of government of Upper Franconia in Bayreuth. , Bamberg State Archives, 2010

Coordinates: 50 ° 4 ′  N , 11 ° 20 ′  E