|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Franconia|
|Height :||318 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||66.99 km 2|
|Residents:||16,815 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||251 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||96317|
|Area code :||09261|
|License plate :||KC, SAN|
|Community key :||09 4 76 145|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Angela Hofmann ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Kronach in the district of Kronach|
Kronach ( East Franconian -regional Gronich ) is the district town of the Upper Franconian district of Kronach and a middle center in Bavaria . The city lies at the foot of the Franconian Forest , where the rivers Haßlach , Kronach and Rodach converge. Kronach is the birthplace of Lucas Cranach the Elder. Ä. And with the Rosenberg Fortress, it has one of the best preserved fortifications in Germany. The cityscape is shaped by the almost completely preserved old town with sandstone and half-timbered houses, city walls, gates, towers and vaulted cellars . Kronach is located on Burgenstraße , Bier- und Burgenstraße and Bayerische Porzellanstraße .
The city center with the historic old town is elevated on a mountain spur and is also called the Upper City . It is enclosed by the Haßlach in the west, the Kronach in the southeast and the Rosenberg in the north in the shape of a triangle.
Starting in the north, the following communities in the Kronach district border the town of Kronach in a clockwise direction : Wilhelmsthal , Marktrodach , Weißenbrunn , Küps , Mitwitz and Stockheim . In the southeast, between Marktrodach and Weißenbrunn, the municipality of Rugendorf , located in the district of Kulmbach , borders the urban area of Kronach.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Kronach
Until the 19th century
The place Kronach probably originated in the eighth or ninth century AD and was first mentioned in 1003 in the chronicle of Thietmar von Merseburg as urbs crana . In 1122, Emperor Heinrich V. donated Kronach and the surrounding areas, the so-called praedium crana , to the Bamberg Monastery . Until the secularization of the bishopric in 1802/03, the Bamberg prince-bishops retained rulership over the city. Between the Reformation period (from 1517) and the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, Kronach was the northern bulwark of the Catholic bishopric to the Protestant electorate of Saxony . As a result of this border location, Rosenberg Castle, which was first mentioned in a document in the middle of the 13th century, became an early modern one Castle fortress expanded.
During the Thirty Years War , Kronach was besieged several times between 1632 and 1634 by a large majority of Swedes and their German allies. However, thanks to the strategically favorable structure of the city and the resolute resistance of its residents, the attackers were successfully repulsed. The Swedish procession, which has taken place every year since 1633, still commemorates these events. A distinctive feature of the procession is that the women go ahead of the men for their bravery in defending the city.
The nickname of the Kronachers as "Kroniche Housnküh" (Kronacher rabbit cows) goes back to the time of the sieges. Since the city could not be taken directly, the attackers tried to starve the residents by cutting them off from the food and water supplies from the surrounding area. According to legend, the Kronachers let the last living animal, a female hare, roam free on the city wall as a trick in order to simulate a large supply of food in the city. The Swedes are said to have broken off the siege, which was considered pointless, and withdrew. The "Kroniche Housnkuh" - Feline from the fortress - is the town's mascot today.
With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the Bamberg Monastery was forcibly dissolved in 1803 and its territories transferred to the Electorate of Bavaria . At the beginning of October 1806, the town and fortress served as a camp for the army of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte , who started his campaign against Prussia from here, which culminated in the Battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14, 1806 .
During the First World War , Rosenberg Fortress served as an officer's prison camp, which in 1917 temporarily housed the French captain Charles de Gaulle , who later became General and President of France . After two unsuccessful escape attempts, de Gaulle was first transferred to a camp in the fortress of Ingolstadt and later to the Wülzburg near Weißenburg in Bavaria .
Kronach survived the Second World War relatively unscathed. Towards the end of the war, production halls for the manufacture of parts for the Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket aircraft were to be built at Rosenberg Fortress . However, the planned facilities were only partially completed and never put into operation, which saved the city and fortress from extensive bombing by the Allies. From March 1945 air raids on the city took place regularly . During the attacks, the population found refuge in the numerous cellar vaults that run through practically the entire mountain spur below the old town. On the afternoon of April 12, 1945, American troops marched into Kronach after several hours of artillery bombardment and occupied the city.
The post-war period was characterized by the proximity to the inner-German border and the integration of a large number of expellees. After 1945, the population of the city increased from the original 6,500 to over 10,000. In more recent times, the preparations for the State Garden Show in 2002 enabled the elimination of construction and environmental sins in an area that has been used as an industrial area in the past decades; today the site serves as a recreational area close to the city.
On July 1, 1971, the previously independent community of Knellendorf was incorporated. Ziegelerden was added on January 1, 1972, Vogtendorf followed on July 1, 1972. Höfles joined the district town on January 1, 1975. On January 1, 1978 Dörfles and Gundelsdorf were incorporated. The series of incorporations was completed with the incorporation of the previously independent municipalities Fischbach, Friesen, Gehülz, Glosberg, Neuses and Seelach on May 1, 1978.
In the period from 1988 to 2018, the population fell from 18,246 to 16,874 by 1,372 inhabitants or 7.5%.
Catholic and Protestant community
Due to the history of the place, which until the beginning of the 19th century belonged to the dominion of the Catholic bishopric of Bamberg , 55% of the population are Catholic, especially in the core city and the southern, northern and western parts of the community. Evangelical Christians were only granted citizenship in Kronach after the secularization of the monastery in 1803. In 2016, 26% of the population were Protestant, especially in the eastern districts.
Jewish families had resided in the city since at least the 17th century . In 1880 they founded an independent religious community, and in 1883 a synagogue was built. This building was sold in February 1938 to the city of Kronach, which used it as a medical depot until 1972 and then leased it as a warehouse until 1988. As a result, the building survived the November pogroms of 1938 unscathed, while the furnishings of the synagogue that had been moved to Bamberg were destroyed there. The Jewish community in Kronach was dissolved in 1942; the former synagogue, which was restored in 2002 by the Kronach Synagogue Action Group, is now used as a memorial and cultural event space. The Kronach city council honored the Jews of the city persecuted and murdered by the National Socialists with a memorial stone in the Christian cemetery in 1964, naming the families who were destroyed. The artist Gunter Demnig laid a total of 25 stumbling blocks in front of the former residential buildings of Kronach Jews in 2017 and 2018 .
Other religious communities
The city council has 25 members (the first mayor and 24 city councilors). The 2020 local elections resulted in the following distribution of seats:
|Party / list||Seats|
|List of women||1|
* including the first mayor
The full-time First Mayor has been Angela Hofmann (CSU) since 2020.
From 2008 to 2020 Wolfgang Beierlargelein (Free Voters) was Mayor of Kronach. His predecessor was Manfred Raum (SPD).
Baptist Hempfling (CSU) held office from 1970 to 1984 and Herbert Schneider (CSU) held this office from 1984 to 1990.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “Divided by silver and red; at the top a green laurel wreath, surrounded by two red heraldic roses; below next to each other a silver wall crown and a gold bearing crown over a silver heraldic rose. "|
Justification of the coat of arms: The first impressions of the seals are handed down from the year 1320. They show a crenellated wall behind which there is a crenellated tower surrounded by three roses. This image appears for the first time in a coat of arms in an imprint of a seal dated 1553 . Representations of this coat of arms can be found, for example, above the entrance portal on the east side of the old town hall and above a passage in the city wall behind the new town hall.
The coat of arms used today was awarded to Kronach in 1651 by the Bamberg prince-bishop Melchior Otto Voit of Salzburg . The reason for this was the bravery of the Kronach in their successful defense against the Swedes and their German allies, who had attacked and besieged the city several times during the Thirty Years' War . Two men, who carry their stripped skin under their arms, serve as shield holders for the coat of arms. They recall an incident during the first siege in 1632: Four Kronacher men were at a loss where they several guns of the besiegers by nailing the firing holes , taken unusable made by the Swedes and flayed . Between 1819 and 1938, these two shield holders were not included on the city's official seals .
Kronach maintains city partnerships with three European cities and municipalities. The first partnership was concluded on August 31, 1990 with the city of Hennebont in France , the second twin city was on October 22, 1994 Kiskunhalas in Hungary. The third partnership with the municipality of Rhodt unter Rietburg in Germany was officially recorded in 2001; The relationship between the two places has existed since 1951.
On August 7, 1955, Kronach took over the sponsorship of the former residents of the Sudeten German city and the home district of Podersam , who had been driven from their homeland. In a document, the expellees from Podersam were guaranteed Kronach as a “second home and main place of care and preservation of local traditions and culture”.
Culture and sights
Leisure and sports facilities
Kronach offers many opportunities to spend your free time. For educational travelers, the historic old town and Rosenberg Fortress offer old buildings as well as museums and galleries.
With the state horticultural show in 2002, a large leisure and recreation park with an adventure playground was set up. The Crana Mare adventure pool with a giant slide in the outdoor pool area and a steam bath in the indoor pool area is also used by Kronach pupils. A summer and a winter toboggan run, several tennis courts and mountain bike trails are ideal for outdoor activities.
In winter, a ski lift is operated in the Gehülz district.
For indoor sports there is an archery center, the SG Kronach rifle house for sport shooters and a billiards club. The Turnerschaft 1861 eV Kronach has various sporting offers ready. There is a modern three-screen cinema. There is a sports facility, a sports hall and an airfield on Kreuzberg.
You can walk to Kronach from the east on the Hubertusweg , from the southeast on the Burgenweg , from the west (via Mitwitz ) on the Döbra - Radspitz -Weg and from the north on the path through the Kremnitz Valley to Gifting , then continue on the Burgenweg.
For the state horticultural show in 2002, an area of around five hectares with former commercial space was renovated along the Haßlach and a recreational area was created close to the city. A 13-meter-wide and 200-meter-long promenade, which is surrounded by an avenue of lime trees, has since led from the north entrance to a stepped stone terrace that serves as a spectator stand for the floating stage on the opposite bank. From there you overlook the central exhibition area of the state horticultural show with an adventure playground, a climbing and observation tower, the circular teaching garden and the flood basin, which absorbs the Haßlach overflowing the bank when the water floods. There is a sculpture trail on the State Horticultural Show that begins at the Plessi Tower Water-Fire and ends at the sculptures of the Sandstone Triennial. If you follow the path over the so-called knee to the south, you come under the south bridge over a footbridge into the Höringsgarten . From there, the garden show area opens up with a lift bridge over the Rodach . In the adjoining area, in the direction of the Neuses district, there is a skater facility, a playing field for ball sports and a dock for raft trips.
From a small park in Jahnsallee west of the city walls with old trees on the Haßlach you have a beautiful view of the old town.
The city park is located in the city center at Marienplatz. Its extension is the city moat. The facility is around 500 meters long and includes a children's playground.
At Kreuzberg there is a 500 meter long park near the sports center; the castle garden with numerous old trees offers a view over Kronach.
Museums and galleries
The Rosenberg Fortress houses several museums. The Franconian Gallery is located in the renovated former commandant's residence as a branch museum of the Bavarian National Museum . On two floors it presents important panel paintings from the 13th to 16th centuries with four hand-painted paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Ä. as well as a large selection of precious sculptures from the Gothic period and the early Renaissance , almost all of them in their original colors. It contains numerous works of the first order (including works by Tilman Riemenschneider and Adam Kraft ). An insight into the art of Franconia is offered ; but other areas are also represented. There is also a stonemason museum on the fortress. In Fürstenbau changing special exhibitions, including contemporary art. The German Fortress Museum project is still in the planning stage and is intended to fill a gap in the museum landscape between the themes of castle and palace in the future . The gallery of the Kronacher Kunstverein e. V. in the district cultural area, the gallery in the district office, the gallery in the district library and the Kronach synagogue , which was renovated in 2002, show changing exhibitions.
In the Upper City, the Podersamer Heimatstube in the building Lucas-Cranach-Straße 27 provides information about the Sudeten German sponsor community of Kronach; A village museum can be visited in the Neuses district.
Since Kronach survived the Second World War relatively unscathed, it can boast a number of historical buildings. The so-called Upper City, the historic old town, with an ensemble of buildings with the historic town hall and the parish church of St. John the Baptist extends below the Rosenberg fortress, which is visible from afar and towers over the city . The four-storey, almost square Lehlauben- or Hexenturm as part of the city walls is not far from the new town hall. It was built in 1444 and was initially the northeast corner pillar of the city fortifications. In its basement there is a dungeon that served as a prison until the 17th century.
Outside the city walls there is the Oblate Monastery with the monastery church in the west, the Spitalkirche with the citizens' hospital in the south and the Kronach synagogue in the east , which was extensively renovated in 2002. The baroque Holy Cross Chapel, built in 1644, is located on the Kreuzberg . Another chapel from the late 14th century , dedicated to St. Nicholas of Myra , stands at the town's cemetery .
In Kronach districts, the pilgrimage church of Maria Glosberg, the church of St. Georg in Friesen with medieval wall frescoes and the Heunischenburg in Gehülz are worth a visit.
Festivals and markets
The cultural life of Kronach is shaped by a series of regular events, of which the annual rifle festival , the Kronacher Freischießen , has the greatest attraction. It was founded by the Kronach city riflemen who have been handed down since 1444 and who trained on the Hofwiese in order to be able to defend the city in an emergency. Free shooting has existed as a festival in itself since 1588. It ends on the penultimate Sunday in August and begins ten days before on Thursday with the beer tasting and the traditional beer tapping by the Mayor.
Every year in May, the Kronach lights festival is held, at which the old town of Kronach and the Rosenberg fortress are artistically illuminated by numerous light installations in the evening and night. The planning and construction of the installations for the event, which was held for the first time in 2006, is carried out in collaboration with architecture and lighting design students from various German and international universities.
In memory of the eventful history of Kronach, which was besieged several times by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War, the so-called Swedish procession has been taking place on the Sunday after Corpus Christi since 1633 . A peculiarity of this procession is that women have been advancing over men since 1634 in honor of their bravery in defending the city.
Every two years - in the uneven years - the historical city spectacle takes place on the last weekend in June , during which, among other things, the Swedish storm of 1634 is recreated with costumed troops. Alternating with the city spectacle, the Crana Historica festival is held on and around the Rosenberg fortress in even years, also in June . Internationally known musicians and reenactors meet market people.
Markets are held at the Kronach Old Town Festival at the beginning of September, at the three-country meeting on the Day of German Unity and at Kronach Christmas on every Advent weekend in the Upper City. During the carnival season, the Kronich Fousanaocht is celebrated with large handmade paper evenings and in mid-July the Kaiserhof brewery invites you to a brewery festival .
Art, theater, music
From 1995 to 2015, the Faust Festival, initiated by Daniel Leistner and Ulrike Mahr, took place in the summer on an open-air stage at Rosenberg Fortress , alongside Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust. A tragedy. Performing classics of world literature in short, popular versions in historical costumes. Since 2016, the Festival takes place with a changed concept and a new management team under the name Festival Rosenberg instead.
During the winter months the ensemble recorded by Daniel Leistner the work stage in the historic town hall. After the end of the Faust Festival after the 2015 season, the Werkbühne moved to the neighboring Marktrodach in 2016 .
The Kronach Summer Academy holds courses on the subjects of mosaics, pottery, sculpture and nude painting on the fortress grounds. The Franconian Gallery in the Rosenberg Fortress shows paintings and sculptures from the late Middle Ages to the time of Lucas Cranach, who is represented with four works. In addition, changing exhibitions of contemporary artists are shown; Works by Ren Rong , Elvira Bach, Dao Droste and Wilhelm Holderied were on display.
The sandstone triennial of the Kronacher Kunstverein e. V. has been taking place on the state horticultural show site since 2002.
The orchestra project of the Kronacher Klassik Akademie has been rehearsing since 2004 and ends its work phase with a symphonic final concert in the atrium of the Maximilian von Welsch secondary school in Kronach.
Since 2006, the rock festival "The Fortress Rockt" has been taking place at Rosenberg Fortress, at which well-known bands such as Emil Bulls, Montreal and the Donots have played. The organizer is the youth center Struwwelpeter.
Economy and Infrastructure
The economy in Kronach is mainly characterized by medium-sized companies . The largest employer is Dr. Schneider group of companies whose headquarters have been in the Kronach district of Neuses since 1959. The company, which is represented internationally with around 4,000 employees at several locations, employs around 1,300 people in Kronach and develops and produces plastic parts for the automotive industry. The second largest employer (2018) with 650 employees is the Southfield , United States- based Lear Corporation , which manufactures electronic components for the automotive industry in Kronach. In third place is with 620 employees Frankenwaldklinik, a hospital level of care 2 and part of the Helios-Kliniken Group .
For a long time the most important industrial company in Kronach, originally employing around 1,000 people, was the entertainment electronics manufacturer Loewe , which has had its headquarters here since March 1945. After the company ran into financial difficulties in 2013 and had to lay off a large part of its employees, production in Kronach continues with around 500 employees. In May 2019 insolvency proceedings in self-administration were applied for.
Kronach is at a cross of the following federal highways:
- : Berga - Weimar - Saalfeld - Kronach - Kulmbach - Bayreuth - Amberg - Schwandorf - Cham - Passau
- : Lichtenfels - Kronach - Hof - Plauen - Reichenbach - Zwickau - Chemnitz - Freiberg - Dresden
- : Schweinfurt - Coburg - Kronach - Stadtsteinach - Bad Berneck - Wunsiedel - Schirnding
The Kronach station is located on the Franconian Forest Railway , further breakpoints exist in the districts Neuses and Gundelsdorf. From here there are hourly connections to the south ( Lichtenfels , Bamberg ) and north to Thuringia ( Saalfeld ) from 5 a.m. to 10 p.m. The Rodachtalbahn to Nordhalben , which began in Kronach, was dismantled in 2005 between Kronach and Steinwiesen and replaced by a cycle path . In the following section, a museum train runs seasonally .
The Franconian Marienweg runs through Kronach .
Kronach has a primary school, a secondary school, two secondary schools and two grammar schools and is the location of several vocational and vocational schools, including one of eleven vocational schools for music in Bavaria.
- High schools
- Frankenwald high school
- Siegmund Loewe Secondary School
- Secondary schools
- Gottfried Neukam Middle School
- Elementary schools
- Lucas Cranach Primary School
- Special schools
- Pestalozzi School
- Vocational schools
- Lorenz Kaim School, Kronach Vocational School Center
- Sabel Kronach private technical college
- Other schools
- Vocational school for music Upper Franconia
- Vocational school for nursing
- Singing and music school in the district of Kronach
Born in Kronach
The most famous personality born in Kronach is the painter and graphic artist Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553).
Also born in Kronach:
- Johannes Grau (1483–1559), Protestant theologian
- Johann Weiß (1498–1561), Protestant theologian
- Abraham Ulrich (1526–1577), Protestant theologian
- Matthias Gunderam (1529–1564), Protestant theologian
- Bruno Fleischmann (1580–1639), Carthusian prior
- Johann Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), architect and fortress builder
- Candidus Hemmerlein (1743–1814), last abbot of Langheim Abbey
- Johann Kaspar Zeuss (1806–1856), philologist
- Konrad Fischer (* 1854, † after 1893), printer and member of the Reichstag
- Ferdinand Moser (1859–1930), graphic artist and designer
- Franz Pollmann (* 1879; † after 1931), engineer and manager in the energy industry
- Gottfried Neukam (1892–1959), craftsman and graphic artist
- Josef Kestel (1904–1948), SS-Hauptscharführer
- Josef Stangl (1907–1979), Bishop of Würzburg
- Max Baumann (1917–1999), composer
- Baptist Hempfling (1918–2017), local and state politician (CSU)
- Karl Nikolaus Haas (1920–1991), heraldist
- Hedwig Schardt (1924-2004), teacher and politician (SPD)
- Hans Brög (* 1935), artist and university professor
- Heinrich Schreiber (1935–2016), graphic artist, stonemason and sculptor
- Guntram Wolf (1935–2013), musical instrument maker
- Horst Böhm (* 1940), painter
- Heinz Hausmann (* 1941), politician (CSU)
- Ingo Cesaro (* 1941), writer and publicist
- Heiner Eichner (* 1942), linguist and Indo-Europeanist
- Hans Hablitzel (* 1945), lawyer
- Gloria Friedmann (* 1950), German / French installation artist and sculptor
- Kerstin Specht (* 1956), playwright
- Maximilian Heim (* 1961), Abbot of Heiligenkreuz Abbey
- Jochen Haberstroh (* 1963), medieval archaeologist and head curator of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation
- Gert Pickel (* 1963), sociologist and political scientist
- Sebastian Borger (* 1964), journalist and author
- Hans-Jürgen Feulner (* 1965), Catholic theologian
- Cornelius Völker (* 1965), painter
- Daniel Leistner (* 1965), actor
- Martina Eckardt (* 1967), economist and professor of economics
- Alexander Krüger (* 1969), former basketball player
- Christian Meißner (* 1969), politician (CSU)
- Axel Kober (* 1970), conductor
- Heike Götz (* 1970), moderator
- Uli Scherbel (* 1970), musical actor
- Daphne de Luxe (* 1971), stand-up comedienne
- Marco Plitzner (* 1972), clarinetist, orchestra conductor and composer
- Jürgen Baumgärtner (* 1973), politician (CSU)
- Holger Mück (* 1975), trumpeter, orchestra conductor, author and composer
- Georg Rubel (* 1978), Catholic theologian
- Tobias Bätz (* 1983), cook
- Jonathan Müller (* 1984), actor
- Martin Rehm (* 1985), photographer
- Jessica Wich (* 1990), soccer player
- Nico Karger (* 1993), soccer player
People connected to the city
- Weigand von Redwitz (1476–1556), Bamberg prince-bishop. He attended school in Kronach, was senior pastor there for a few years and, as prince-bishop, made a decisive contribution to the expansion of Rosenberg Castle into a Renaissance palace. He expressly emphasized his close relationship with the city; he died in the princely apartments on the Rosenberg.
- Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753) rebuilt the commanders' building at Rosenberg Fortress on behalf of the Bamberg prince-bishop Lothar Franz von Schönborn (1655–1729).
- Sebastian Mantel (1792–1860), forester, reformed the forests around Kronach
- Andreas Bauer (1897–1964), native writer, lived in the Kronacher Strau for 34 years until his death.
- Thorolf Hager (* 1942), German surgeon and from 1983 to December 2007 chief physician in the department for general and visceral surgery at the Frankenwaldklinik in Kronach.
- Werner Schnappauf (* 1953). The CSU politician attended the Kaspar-Zeuss-Gymnasium in Kronach, was district administrator of the Kronach district from 1989 to 1998 and Bavarian State Minister for the Environment, Health and Consumer Protection from 1998 to 2007.
- An Embraer ERJ-190 of Lufthansa CityLine with the registration D-AECE named Kronach .
- The non-player character Stanislaus Braun from the role-playing game Fallout 3 comes from Kronach, according to his personal notes that can be viewed in the game.
- The "1000 Years of Kronach" stamp issued to mark the city's anniversary in 2003 can be seen in the film Mission: Impossible III on a postcard sent to the main character Ethan Hunt ( Tom Cruise ) by a colleague who was later killed.
- A geodetic reference point has been located on the state horticultural show site since 2015 .
- In mid-October 2018, shooting for the film Resistance about the French pantomime Marcel Marceau took place at Rosenberg Fortress and in the Upper Town of Kronach .
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- climate-data.org ( amount of precipitation)
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