A painting (from Middle High German gemælde, Old High German gimâlidi) is an image applied to a carrier (paper, canvas or similar). The older use of the word is more general than the current one. Up until the early 16th century, painting was used to mean representations by painting , including on coins and copperplate engravings .
It was only with the development (see the van Eyck brothers ) and the rapid spread of oil painting in the 15th and 16th centuries that the idea of painting as a picture produced with painterly techniques, which was now viewed as a work of art , also developed.
According to today's definition, a painting is distinguished from a drawing in that the colors are mixed before they are applied to the image carrier . An exception to this definition is pastel painting , which should actually be called "pastel drawing". In linguistic usage the terms painting and drawing are still mixed up, for example it is often said that children “paint” when they are actually drawing.
In general, the painterly techniques used in paintings assume three components:
- the picture carrier, usually primed with chalk (made of wood , canvas , paper , or more rarely, glass and metal);
- the dye ( pigment that was obtained from natural products such as plants, semi-precious stones , earth up to the 19th century )
- and a binding agent ( turpentine oil , bone glue or similar) that enables permanent paint application.
With the advent of inexpensive synthetic paints and industrially manufactured image carriers in the 19th century, a revolution in artistic techniques took place (cf. Impressionist painting ).
While these were previously part of a craft tradition that essentially went back to the 15th century, photography is now doing the rest to redefine the tasks of painting as a medium. In the recent past, this has led to a resurgence of commissioned painting based on photo templates. Accordingly, the term painting is increasingly used in German language instead of painting . In today's parlance, painting therefore primarily refers to modern art .
The material value of a painting is difficult to quantify. Prices of over 100 million US dollars have already been achieved several times, cf. the list of the most expensive paintings .
- Thomas Ketelsen and Tilmann von Stockhausen: List of paintings sold in German-speaking countries before 1800 , ed. from The Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and Humanities. The Provenance Index of the Getty Research Institute, Burton B. Fredericksen and Julia J. Armstrong with the collaboration of Michael Müller, KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2002, 3 volumes, ISBN 3-598-24490-8
- Hans F. Schweers: Paintings in German museums. Catalog of the exhibited and depot works. Part I, Volume 1–3: Artists and their works. Part II, Volumes 4–5: Iconographic Directory. Part III: Volumes 6–7: List of museums with their pictures . 4th, updated and expanded edition, 7 volumes, KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-598-24166-6
- Knut Nicolaus: DuMonts Handbook of Painting Studies, DuMont Literature and Art Publishing, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-8321-7288-2
- Knut Nicolaus: DuMonts Bildlexikon zur Gemäldefetermination , DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1982, ISBN 3-7701-1243-1