Photography or photography (from ancient Greek φῶς phōs , in the genitive φωτός photós 'light' and γράφειν graphein 'write', 'paint', 'draw', so 'draw with light'):
- an imaging method in which a light image is projected onto a light-sensitive medium with the help of optical processes and stored there directly and permanently ( analog process ) or converted into electronic data and stored (digital process).
- the permanent photo ( slide , film image or paper image ; image for short , colloquially also called photo ), which is produced by photographic processes ; this can either be a positive or a negative on film, foil, paper or other photographic carriers. Photographic images are as deduction , enlargement , film copy or as a closing date or print reproduced digital image files. The corresponding profession is the photographer .
- Pictures taken for the cinema. Any number of photographic images are recorded in series of individual images on film , which can later be shown as moving images (motion pictures) with a film projector (see film ) .
The term photography was first used (before English or French publications) on February 25, 1839 by the astronomer Johann Heinrich von Mädler in the Vossische Zeitung . Up until the 20th century, photography was used to describe all images that were created purely by light on a surface.
The spelling “photography” was recommended as early as the German spelling reform in 1901, but this has not yet been fully established. The Duden also recommends “Photography”. The short form “photo” and the verb “photograph” are considered to be fully integrated into the German language and, since the German spelling reform in 1996, should no longer be written with “ph”. Mixed spellings such as “photography” or “photography” as well as adjectives or nouns modified from them were always incorrect spellings.
The Photography is a medium that is used in very different contexts. Photographic images can, for example, be objects with a primarily artistic ( artistic photography ) or primarily commercial character (industrial photography , advertising and fashion photography ). Photography can be viewed under artistic, technical ( photo technology ), economic ( photo industry ) and societal ( amateur , worker and documentary photography ) aspects. Furthermore, photographs are used in journalism and medicine.
Photography is partly a subject of research and teaching in art history and the still young image studies . The possible artistic character of photography was controversial for a long time, but has not been disputed since the photographic style of pictorialism at the turn of the 20th century. Some fields of research assign photography to media or communication studies , this assignment is also controversial.
In the course of technological advances at the beginning of the 21st century, there was a gradual change from classic analog (silver) photography to digital photography . The global collapse of the related industry for analog cameras but also for consumables (films, photo paper, photo chemistry, laboratory equipment) has led to the fact that photography is increasingly being researched from a cultural and historical perspective. General cultural aspects in research are e.g. B. Considerations about the preservation and documentation of the practical knowledge of the photographic processes for recording and processing, but also the change in handling photography in everyday life. The archiving and preservation techniques for analog recordings, as well as system-independent long-term digital data storage are becoming increasingly interesting from a cultural and historical perspective .
In principle , photographs are usually taken with the help of an optical system, in many cases a lens . This throws the light emitted or reflected by an object onto the light-sensitive layer of a photo plate , a film or onto a photoelectric converter, an image sensor .
A photographic apparatus (camera) is used for the photographic recording . By manipulating / changing the optical system (including setting the f-number , focusing , color filtering , the choice of exposure time , lens focal length , lighting and, last but not least, the recording material), a photographer has numerous design options. The single-lens reflex camera has established itself as the most versatile camera design in both the analog and digital sectors . A wide variety of special cameras are still required and used for many tasks.
In film-based photography (e.g. silver photography) the light-sensitive layer on the image plane is a dispersion (in general usage an emulsion ). It consists of a gel in which evenly small grains of a silver halide (for example silver bromide ) are distributed. The smaller the grain, the less sensitive the layer is to light ( see ISO 5800 standard ), but the better the resolution (“ grain ”). This photosensitive layer is given stability by a support. Carrier materials are cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate ( celluloid ), plastic films , metal plates, glass plates and even textiles (see photo plate and film ) were used for this .
Development and fixation
By developing in film-based photography, the latent image is made visible by chemical means. During fixing , the unexposed silver halide grains are made water-soluble and then washed out with water so that an image can be viewed in daylight without it darkening.
Another older process is the dust process , which can be used to produce burn-in pictures on glass and porcelain.
With the exception of raw data (RAW files), digital image files do not have to be developed in order to be able to view or process them on the monitor; they are stored electronically and can then be processed with electronic image processing on the computer and, if necessary, printed out on photo paper or printed out with an inkjet printer, for example . Raw data are converted into usable formats (e.g. JPG, TIF) in advance using special development software or RAW converters on the computer, which is referred to as digital development.
Contact prints are the same size as the dimensions of the recording format ; If an enlargement is made from a negative or positive , the size of the resulting image is a multiple of the size of the original, but the aspect ratio is usually retained, which is 1.5 or 3: 2 in classic photography or 5 in the USA : 4 lies.
An exception to this is the enlargement of a section , the aspect ratio of which can be set as desired on the stage of an enlarger ; however, the enlarged section is usually also exposed on a paper format with certain dimensions.
The print is a frequently chosen form of presentation in amateur photography , which is collected in special cassettes or albums . In the form of presentation of slide projection , one usually works with the original slide , i.e. a unique specimen , while prints are always copies.
History of Photography
Precursors and prehistory
The name camera is derived from the forerunner of photography, the camera obscura ("dark chamber"), which has been known since the 11th century and was used by astronomers to observe the sun at the end of the 13th century. Instead of a lens , this camera only has a small hole through which the light rays fall onto a projection surface, from which the inverted, reversed image can be drawn. In Edinburgh and Greenwich near London, walk-in, room-sized camerae obscurae are a tourist attraction. The German Film Museum also has a camera obscura in which an image of the opposite bank of the Main is projected.
A breakthrough in 1550 was the reinvention of the lens , with which brighter and at the same time sharper images can be produced. In 1685 the deflecting mirror was invented, with which an image could be drawn on paper.
The early proceedings
The probably first photograph in the world, " View from the study ", was made in the early autumn of 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using the heliography process. In 1837, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre used a better method based on developing the photos with the help of mercury vapors and then fixing them in a hot saline solution or a normal temperature sodium thiosulphate solution . The images produced in this way, all of which were unique on silver-plated copper plates, were called daguerreotypes . The Englishman William Fox Talbot had already invented the negative-positive process in 1835 . Even today, some of the historical processes are still used as fine printing processes in the fine arts and artistic photography.
On April 13, 1839, four months before Daguerre, Carl August von Steinheil and Franz Ritter von Kobell published the Steinheil method they had developed . They used chlorine silver paper as a light-sensitive material . They photographed the negatives again and thus received positives. Her first photos showed the Glyptothek and the towers of the Frauenkirche in Munich .
In 1883, the important Leipzig weekly Illustrirte Zeitung appeared for the first time in a German publication with a rasterized photo in the form of an autotype that Georg Meisenbach had invented around 1880.
The American Baptist preacher and daguerre typist Levi Hill was the first to claim the invention of color photography around 1850/1851. Hill refused to disclose how his process worked. In 1860 Niépce de Saint-Victor worked on a method to record all colors on a single light-sensitive layer (heliochromy).
An illustration by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 is considered to be the first color photograph.
Social significance of early photography
Two years after the invention of photography, the first photo studios were opened in 1840/41. By Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling and Humboldt photographs were taken even in their old age. Pictures of rulers emerged, including Abraham Lincoln , Otto von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm I. Countless copies of them were kept in private homes, but were only distributed as mass articles from the 1880s onwards with the advent of the press. Documentary photographs were taken at the same time, for example of natural events. The first German photographer Hermann Biow photographed the major fire in Hamburg's Alster district in May 1842. Photographs were taken in all subsequent wars, such as the Crimean War (1853–1856) and the American Civil War (1861–1865). The artistic character of photography initially stood behind its documentary, technical-objectifying claim. Photography found its way into the natural sciences, including astronomy and medicine ( x-rays ). The world of work was photographed from the 1860s, travel photography was created. Travel photography brought previously little-known regions of the world closer to people in a new form. The magnificent eight-volume work “The Peoples of India” (1865–1875) contained 460 recordings. The four-volume illustration of China and Its People (1873) documented a country unknown to Europeans at the time. The same photographer, John Thomson later turned his camera on the poor in London. Photo studios were set up in the big cities. By the end of the 19th century, the family picture or the group photo at work had long been part of the basic cultural equipment. Photography had penetrated everyday life, including advertising, propaganda, picture postcards and postcards . Finally, the private use of photography was strongly promoted by the roll film camera.
Initially, photographs could only be produced as one-offs; with the introduction of the negative-positive process, it was possible to reproduce using the contact process. In both cases, the size of the finished photo corresponded to the recording format , which required very large, unwieldy cameras. With the roll film and especially the 35 mm camera developed by Oskar Barnack at Leitz Werke and introduced in 1924, which used the conventional 35 mm cinema film, completely new possibilities for mobile, fast photography emerged. Although, due to the small format, additional devices were required for enlargement and the image quality could not keep up with the large formats by far, the small format established itself as the standard format in most areas of photography.
The digital photography, introduced technologically in the 1990s, from the 2000s onwards in the professional field and later also for amateur photographers, changed photography permanently. As a disruptive process, it changed the photo industry, the processing chain and, above all, usage. Instead of a chemical film, an image sensor was now the memory of photography. Digital images can now be freely transferred to the computer and edited (or manipulated) with digital image processing programs . This may also have influenced the quality of the images, because the camera automatic or subsequent image processing could now compensate for errors in the creation of the recording.
The technology led to a tremendous flood of images and massive amounts of image authorship, which was increased even further through its dissemination on social platforms or through smartphone photography, in which the camera function is only a part of many functionalities.
Independent of amateur photography, as a mass market, digital photography has also changed the work of professional photographers. From a technical point of view, their images can be significantly improved in quality today. At the same time, in the case of commissioned work, the time between the creation of the image by the photographer and use by the client is reduced to a minimum - creation and use were "promptly".
To distinguish it from the new photographic processes of digital photography , the term analog photography appeared again at the beginning of the 21st century, or instead the spelling photography , which was already outdated at that time .
In order to explain the new technology of digital storage of image files to the public from 1990 onwards , some publications compared it technically with the analog image storage of the still video camera used until then . Due to translation errors and misinterpretations as well as the lack of technical understanding of digital camera technology that had prevailed until then, some journalists erroneously referred to the previous classic film-based camera systems as analog cameras.
The term has survived to this day and now incorrectly no longer describes photography using analog storage technology in the first digital still video cameras, but only the technology of film-based photography. However, this is neither digitally nor analogue 'stored', but chemically / physically fixed.
A photograph can neither be analog nor digital . Only the image information can be determined selectively by means of physical , analog measurable signals ( densitometry , spectroscopy ) and, if necessary, subsequently digitized.
After the film has been exposed, the image information is initially only latent . This information is not stored in the analog camera , but only when the development of the film by chemical reaction in a three-dimensional gelatin layer ( film has a plurality of superposed sensitizing layers ). The image information is then immediately available on the original recording medium (slide or negative). It is visible as a photograph ( unique ) in the form of developed silver halides or color couplers without any further aids . If necessary, a paper image can be generated from such photographs in a second chemical process in the photo laboratory, or this can now also be done by scanning and printing.
With digital storage, the analog signals from the camera sensor are digitized in a second stage and can therefore be interpreted and processed electronically. The digital image storage by means of an analog-digital converter after reading out from the chip of the digital camera works (simplified) with a digital interpretation of the analog image information generated only two-dimensionally and generates a file that can be copied as often as required (practically loss-free) in the form of differentially determined digital absolute values. These files are stored in memory cards in the camera immediately after the recording . Using suitable image processing software, these files can then be read out, further processed and output as a visible photograph on a monitor or printer.
The first CCD (charge-coupled device) still video camera was designed by Bell in 1970 . In 1972, Texas Instruments filed the first patent for a filmless camera that used a television screen as a viewfinder.
In 1973, Fairchild Imaging produced the first commercial CCD with a resolution of 100 × 100 pixels .
This CCD was used in the first working Kodak digital camera in 1975 . It was developed by inventor Steven Sasson . This camera weighed 3.6 kilograms , was larger than a toaster and took another 23 seconds to transfer a black and white image with a resolution of 100 × 100 pixels onto a digital magnetic tape cassette; To make the image visible on a screen, it took another 23 seconds.
In 1986 Canon introduced the RC-701, the first commercially available still video camera with magnetic recording of image data, Minolta presented the Still Video Back SB-90 / SB-90S for the Minolta 9000 ; by replacing the rear wall of the 35mm SLR camera, the Minolta 9000 became a digital SLR camera; the image data was saved on 2-inch floppy disks .
In 1987 further models of the RC series from Canon as well as digital cameras from Fujifilm (ES-1), Konica (KC-400) and Sony (MVC-A7AF) followed. This was followed in 1988 by Nikon with the QV-1000C, in 1990 by Kodak with the DCS (Digital Camera System) and in 1991 by Rollei with the Digital Scan Pack . From the beginning of the 1990s, digital photography can be regarded as introduced in the commercial image production sector.
The Photokina 2006 showed that the time of film-based camera is finally over. In 2007, 91 percent of all photo cameras sold worldwide were digital, and conventional photography on film was reduced to niche areas. In 2011 around 45.4 million people in Germany had a digital camera in their home and in the same year around 8.57 million digital cameras were sold in Germany.
Photography as an art form
Pioneers and critics
The art character of photography was controversial for a long time: Charles Baudelaire already mentioned this in his work " Photography and the Modern Audience " in 1859. Baudelaire dealt with the influence of photography on art and also with the profound changes in the perception of art: Aesthetic education and taste formation were now determined not only by the classical arts but also by photography. Baudelaire saw the unity of the arts here expanded by a new medium. Baudelaire also recognized the competition within art: the portrait painter was now facing the portrait photographer. Baudelaire criticized the efforts to copy nature without knowing its essence as a doctrine that was hostile to true art. This criticism is still evident today: The realistic or idealized representation is often criticized. To this day, artistic photography means perception, dialogue and creation. The art theorist Karl Pawek put it pointedly in his book The Optical Age (1963): "The artist creates reality, the photographer sees it."
This view, represented by Walter Benjamin , among others , regards photography only as a technical, standardized, mechanically reproduced process with which a reality is depicted in an objective, quasi “natural” way, without any creative and thus artistic aspects coming into play : “The invention of an apparatus for the purpose of production ... (perspective) images ironically reinforced the conviction ... that this is a natural form of representation. Obviously something is natural if we can build a machine that does it for us. ”Nonetheless, photographs soon served as a teaching aid or model in the training of visual artists ( Études d'après nature ).
Even in texts of the 19th century, however, the artistic character of photography was already pointed out, which is justified with a similar use of technology as in other recognized contemporary graphic processes ( aquatint , etching , lithography , ...). This also turns photography into an artistic process with which a photographer creates his own image realities. The first steps in the direction of artistic photography were made with thoughts on a conceptual photography, i.e. a photography that, in addition to the real capture of a moment, sets image statements, visual language and a structured order of the image elements in the sense of a composition .
Numerous painters of the 19th century, such as Eugène Delacroix , recognized this and used photographs as a means of finding images and designing them, as an artistic drafting tool for painterly works, but still without assigning them any artistic value of their own. However, there was also the camera obscura before, which Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) probably used as an aid in his application of the central perspective. The method of painters of photography as a sketch element was also used in the 20th and 21st centuries. David Hockney uses photographic templates (as Polaroid or on film) for portraits or in landscape painting, but also uses them for photo collages in the sense of panography .
Photographers also criticized the lack of artistic standards. The photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson , himself trained as a painter , did not want photography to be seen as an art form either, but as a craft : “Photography is a craft. Many want to make an art out of it, but we are simply craftsmen who have to do their job well. ”At the same time, however, he also made use of the pictorial concept of the“ decisive moment ”, which was originally developed by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in terms of drama and poetry. He thus directly relates to an artistic process for the production of works of art. Cartier-Bresson's arguments thus served on the one hand to poetological ennoblement and on the other hand to immunize the craftsman against criticism that could question the artistic quality of his works. Cartier-Bresson's photographs were shown very early in museums and art exhibitions, for example in the MoMa retrospective (1947) and the Louvre exhibition (1955). Cartier-Bresson even criticized colleagues: "The world is falling to pieces and people like Adams and Weston are photographing rocks!"
Photography was practiced as art from an early age ( Julia Margaret Cameron , Lewis Carroll and Oscar Gustave Rejlander in the 1860s). The decisive step towards the recognition of photography as an art form is thanks to the efforts of Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946), who prepared the breakthrough with his magazine Camera Work . The object artist and photographer Man Ray also tried to create art with photographic methods, but also with methods of abstraction , visual language or symbolism , with which he tried to stand out from a realistic depiction.
Establishment in exhibitions
Photography appeared for the first time in Germany in the Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart in 1929 to a remarkable extent with international artists such as Edward Weston , Imogen Cunningham and Man Ray. Since the MoMA exhibitions by Edward Steichen ( The Family of Man , 1955) and John Szarkowski (1960s), photography has been recognized as art by a wide audience, and the trend towards practical art began at the same time. An important milestone was the founding of Magnum Photos , an independent photo agency and photographer agency, in 1947 . The numerous well-known Magnum photographers brought pictures of high quality and message into the mass media and thus also changed the perception of photography by the public. Current events were often commented on with artistic statements from the Magnum photographers - iconographic images were created .
Another aspect is the use of photography in fashion or architecture. These "works of art" became objects of artistic photography from the 1920s at the latest. Fashion photography and architectural photography now also created iconographic images.
Susan Sontag sees the criterion of the new as a possible criterion for photography as an art form . New here means showing new formal possibilities or deviations from traditional visual language, so today we would speak of visual language or " photographic seeing ". As with any art form, " the new " is an essential requirement for artistic photography. Sontag counters the flaw in photography pointed out by Walter Benjamin , that of a mechanically reproduced object that lacks the craftsmanship of painting and its ability to create an original, that photographs can show a certain authenticity . Photographs that can produce their own visual language and enter into a dialogue with the viewer can very well be art. Last but not least, the reception in museums and exhibitions since the middle of the 20th century has been a possible indicator for the increasing development of an aesthetic judgment about photography as art.
In 1974, within the chemogram , the interface between the artistic media of painting and photography that had existed up to that point in time was closed in a manner relevant to art history. The chemogram by the photo designer Josef H. Neumann , invented and precisely specified in the early 1970s, combines photography and painting for the first time worldwide within the black and white photographic layer.
In 1977, documenta 6 in Kassel , as an internationally important exhibition in the famous photography department, put the works of historical and contemporary photographers from the entire history of photography in a comparative context to contemporary art in connection with the “150 Years of Photography".
Establishment in museums
Today photography is accepted as a fully fledged art form. Indicators for this are the growing number of museums, collections and research institutions for photography, exhibitions, the increase in the number of professorships for photography and, last but not least, the increased value of photographs in art auctions and collectors' circles. Numerous often indistinguishable genres have developed, including landscape , nude , industrial , architectural photography and many more, which have developed their own fields of activity within photography. In addition, the artistic photomontage develops into an art object of equal value to painting.
More recent discussions within the photography and art sciences point to an increasing arbitrariness in the categorization of photography. Accordingly, art and its institutions are increasingly absorbing what once belonged exclusively to the applied areas of photography.
Digital photography and the massive spread of cameras led to new discussions about the artistic claim of photography. Today, the usual and constantly increasing aesthetics are often a point of criticism and the skillful marketing of well-known photographers, which is reflected in ever new records at auctions. Technically perfect pictures can be kitsch and only reproduce familiar patterns without showing what is new. Critics of beautiful or perfect pictures return to Baudelaire: It depends on recognizing a statement, on criticism, on the new. Photography as an art form has to ask questions and trigger a dialogue.
The reception of artistic photography in museums and exhibitions, the numerous competitions clearly show that photography can be an art form. The American essayist Susan Sontag commented: "The true extent of the thriumph of photography as art and over art is only gradually being grasped."
A photo can enjoy copyright protection if it is to be regarded as a photographic work within the meaning of Section 2 Paragraph 1 No. 5 UrhG. This requires a personal intellectual creation (§ 2 Abs. 2 UrhG), i. H. the photo requires a certain level of design. The level of design can be achieved through the selection of the location, a specific lens or through the choice of aperture and time. If the level of design is missing, the photographer can enjoy ancillary protection according to § 72 UrhG instead of copyright protection. 72 UrhG, the regulations for photographic works are also applicable to photographs.
From 1909, the photographers who photographed the emperor and the imperial family had to cede the rights to these photographs to them.
Photography as an object of art history was shaped by outstanding photographers such as - regardless of the history and style of photography - Tina Modotti , Gerda Taro , Franz Xaver Setzer , Jacob Wothly , WH Talbot , ES Curtis , August Sander , Henri Cartier -Bresson , Paul Wolff , Ansel Adams , before the Second World War, Marie Karoline Tschiedel , Otto Steinert , Richard Avedon , Diane Arbus and countless others up to "moderns" like Helmut Newton , Manfred Baumann , Walter E. Lautenbacher , Thomas Ruff , Jeff Wall , Andreas Gursky , Josef H. Neumann , Gerhard Vormwald and Rafael Herlich . Each of these famous photographers has a certain time, a certain conception of photography, a personal style - possibly within a certain specialty of photography - and a specific topic.
Some photographers organized themselves in artist groups such as f / 64 around Edward Weston in the USA in the first half of the 20th century or worked together in photo or picture agencies such as Magnum Photos or Bilderberg - the photographers ' archive , while others prefer to work alone.
Often artistically well-known photographers tend to be inconspicuous in their "bread-and-butter" job and are average "craftsmen". Only in their free work do they come into the public eye with exhibitions or award ceremonies. Examples are the fashion photographer Helmut Newton , the advertising photographer Reinhart Wolf , the landscape and architecture photographer Robert Häusser and the German railway photographer Carl Bellingrodt . They became known with completely different subjects than those of their daily work, such as nude , train, food, architecture and artistic black and white photography . However, photography is not an exclusive art form, but is also practiced by countless amateur photographers: amateur photography is the engine of the photo industry and the motivation for the production of most pictures, the number of which is in the billions worldwide.
Genres of photography
- Abstract photography
- Nude photography
- Worker photography
- Architectural photography
- Documentary photography
- Erotic photography
- Experimental photography
- Food photography
- Wedding photography
- Industrial photography
- Concert photography
- War photography
- Artistic photography
- Landscape photography
- Fashion photography
- Nature photography
- Product photography
- Ruins photography
- Black and white photography
- Social documentary photography
- Sports photography
- Street photography
- Theater photography
- Wildlife photography
- Environmental photography
- Underwater photography
- Space photography
- Advertising photography
- Scientific photography
Most expensive pictures
The currently most expensive photograph "Phantom" by Peter Lik was sold in December 2014 for 6.5 million dollars, according to press reports. The English Guardian "in any case could very well imagine the picture as a " trite poster in a chic hotel ". Perhaps one has to ask the question whether the price of a picture currently being traded says something about the artistic value or rather about the marketing. Gursky , Salgado and other artists developed their own visual language - and probably created works of art with it.
theory and practice
Photography is discussed in numerous individual theories, a unified and comprehensive “theory of photography” has so far been missing, instead there are very different perspectives that look at photography from a philosophical, psychological or art-historical perspective, for example.
The creative tightrope walk between the photographic technique and the desired image statement, up to a conceptual photography , perhaps with a visual language as used by professional photographers, characterizes the multi-layered, differentiated photo practice of the present.
“Taking pictures is easy. But photography is a very difficult art. "
"Photography is like writing with light, like making music with color tones, like painting with time and seeing with love."
"The fact that a technically flawed photograph (in the conventional sense) can be emotionally more effective than a technically flawless image will shock those who are naive enough to believe that technical perfection is the true value of a photo."
“Of course there will always be those who just look at the technology and ask“ how ”, while others of a curious nature will ask“ why ”. Personally, I have always preferred inspiration over information. "
“There are many photos that are full of life but still difficult to remember. Effectiveness is important. "
"Photography is a wonderful discovery, a science that attracts the greatest minds, an art that stimulates the brightest thinkers - and yet can be practiced by any fool."
"Dare to be irrational, keep yourself free from formulas, stay open to any fresh influence, stay flexible ..."
“Let me draw your attention to one of the most popular misconceptions about photography - the misconception that you classify outstanding work or what you think is a professional one and use the term amateur for all immature or miserable photographs. The fact of the matter is that pretty much all important work comes and came from people who take photos for the love of their work, not for financial reasons. As the name suggests, the amateur works out of love for the subject, and in the face of this, the untenability of this popular distinction must become evident. "
“I've never taken a picture like I intended. They are always worse or better. "
"A good photo is a photo that you look at for more than a second."
“Two people are always involved in a picture: the photographer and the viewer. A photo is usually only looked at - one rarely looks into it. Twelve good photos in a year are a good result. "
"Good photography knows where to stand."
“Lively photography creates something new, it never destroys. It proclaims human dignity. Living photography is already positive in its beginnings, it sings the praises of life. "
"Photography helps people to see."
“In fact, every photo from A to Z is a fake. A completely factual, unmanipulated photo is practically impossible. In the end it is all a question of measure and ability. "
“The photographer's main instrument is his eyes. As crazy as it seems, many photographers choose to see through the eyes of others - past or present - photographers. These photographers are blind. "
Photography collections in museums
- Victoria & Albert Museum , London (UK)
- National Science & Media Museum , West Yorkshire (UK)
- Royal Photographic Society (UK)
- Boston Museum of Fine Arts , Boston (USA)
- MoMa , New York City (USA)
- Whitney Museum of American Art , New York City (USA)
- SFMoMa , San Francisco (USA)
- Art Institute of Chicago , Chicago (USA)
- Chicago Museum of Contemporary Photography , Chicago (USA)
- Getty Research Institute , Los Angeles (USA)
- New York Public Library , New York City (USA)
- Antwerp Photo Museum , Antwerp (B)
- Nederlands Fotomuseum , Rotterdam (NL)
- Musée d'Orsay , Paris (F)
- MEP Maison européenne de la photographie , Paris (F)
- Museum for Photography , Berlin (D).
- Collection of photography in the Berlinische Galerie
- Photography collection in the LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn
- Photographic collection in the Museum Folkwang Essen
- Photographic collection of the Ruhr Museum Essen
- House of Photography in the Deichtorhallen Hamburg
- Photography and media in the Sprengel Museum Hannover
- State collection on the history of photography in the House of Photography (ground floor of the tower unnamed) of the State Museum Koblenz
- Collection of photography in the Museum Ludwig , Cologne
- The photographic collection of the SK Stiftung Kultur, Cologne
- Collection of photography in the Munich City Museum
- Photographic collection of the Saarland Museum , Saarbrücken
- 2012/013, Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen , Mannheim : The hour of birth of photography - Milestones of the Gernsheim Collection
- 2018/019, Museum Five Continents , Munich : Questioning looks. Nine approaches to ethnographic photographs
- 2020, Kunstmuseum Basel : The Incredible World of Photography - Ruth and Peter Herzog Collection (until October 10)
Photo technology, design and photo practice
- Andreas Feininger's great photo theory. Heyne Verlag , ISBN 3-453-17975-7 .
- Andreas Feininger : The high school of photography. Heyne Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-453-41219-4 .
- Harald Mante : The photo. Verlag Photographie 2010, ISBN 978-3-933131-79-9 .
- Willy Puchner : Design with light, shape and color. Munich 1981, ISBN 3-87467-207-7 .
- John Hedgecoe : Photo Manual, Technique Equipment Image Composition. Book Club Ex Libris, Zurich, 1985.
- Harald Mante , Josef H. Neumann : Using films creatively. PHOTOGRAPHIE publishing house, Schaffhausen 1987, ISBN 3-7231-7600-3 .
- Boris von Brauchitsch : A short history of photography. Philipp Reclam jun., Ditzingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-15-020519-8 .
- Bodo von Dewitz , Reinhard Matz : Silver and Salt: In the early days of photography in the German-speaking area. Edition Braus, Cologne / Heidelberg 1989, ISBN 3-925835-65-2 .
- Helmut Gernsheim : History of Photography: The First Hundred Years. Propylaea, Berlin / Vienna 1983, ISBN 3-549-05213-8 .
- Jörn Glasenapp : German Post-War Photography: A History of Mentalities in Pictures. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-7705-4617-6 .
- Wolfgang Kemp : Photo essays: On the history and theory of photography. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1978/2006, ISBN 3-8296-0240-5 .
- Reinhold Mißelbeck (Ed.): Prestel-Lexicon of Photographers. From the beginning in 1839 to the present. Prestel, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7913-2529-9 .
Photo theory, art, society
- Roland Barthes : The bright chamber . Comment on photography. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1994/2005, ISBN 3-518-38142-3 .
- Walter Benjamin : The work of art in the age of its technical reproducibility. (next to Barthes one of "the" standard works)
- Pierre Bourdieu : An illegitimate art: the social uses of photography. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1983 / European Publishing House 2006, ISBN 3-434-46162-0 .
- Vilém Flusser : For a philosophy of photography. European Photography, 2018, ISBN 978-3923283484 .
- Gisèle Freund : Photography and Society. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993/2002, ISBN 3-499-17265-8 .
- Michel Frizot : New History of Photography . Könemann Verlag, Cologne 1994, ISBN 3-8290-1327-2 .
- Klaus Honnef : 150 years of photography. Extended special edition of Kunstforum International: 150 Years of Photography III / Photography at documenta 6 , Volume 22. Two thousand and one, Frankfurt am Main 1977.
- Klaus Honnef (ed.): The work of the photographer. Kunstforum International, Volume 16. Mainz 1976.
- Klaus Honnef (ed.): Photography - aspects of a medium. Kunstforum International, Volume 18. Mainz 1976.
- Wolfgang Kemp (Ed.): Theory of Photography. Complete edition in one volume. Schirmer / Mosel, 2006, ISBN 3-8296-0239-1 .
- Rosalind Krauss : The originality of the avant-garde and other myths of modernity. Translated by Jörg Heininger, reviewed and revised by Wilfried Prantner. Verlag der Kunst, Amsterdam and Dresden 2000, ISBN 3-86572-458-2 .
- François Laruelle : The non-photographic vision. In: Herzattacke 4/1994, VI. Volume, double issue, volume II, pp. 196–228.
- Herbert Molderings : The Modern Age of Photography. EVA, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-86572-635-3 .
- Susan Sontag : About Photography. 17th edition. English original edition 1977, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M., 2006, ISBN 978-3-596-23022-8 . (Standard work of the late 20th century)
- Forgetting digital images - theses on the future of photography
- Graphic Techniques, book in PDF form by M. Riat, which also describes the most important photographic techniques
- Information and explanations about all the basics of photography (Peter Rohr) (private page)
- Good prospects: Young German Photography (private site)
- Online magazine for contemporary photography
- Photolit international database for photo literature
- Photo studies in Germany
- German Society for Photography
- Knowledge portal about digital SLR photography (private site)
- Video tutorials, photo technology, information, lens tests (private site)
- Gottfried Jäger: Photography as a generative system. Gieselmann Publishing House, Bielefeld 2007.
- Erich Stenger : The origin of the word "photography". In: der free lichtbildner (official organ of the Arbeiter-Lichtbild-Bund ), Vol. 2, No. 2, February 15, 1933, pp. 14f.
- Artistic Photography: Folkwang University of the Arts .
- Kurt Wilhelm: Where God would live on earth. Paul Neff Verlag, Vienna 1987, ISBN 3-7014-0247-7 .
- Fotonexus: Paper as a photographic image storage ( Memento from August 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- Jürgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world. A story of the 19th century. CH Beck, 2nd edition of the special edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-61481-1 , p. 77
- Jürgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world. A story of the 19th century. CH Beck, 2nd edition of the special edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-61481-1 . P. 78
- Jürgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world. A story of the 19th century. CH Beck, 2nd edition of the special edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-61481-1 . P. 79f
- Article in CP from September 6, 2001 - the term “analogue photography” appears for the first time in the German-speaking area ( Memento from May 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
- Harvey W. Yurow Ph.D. Whither Analog Photography? (English) .
- Article from January 1987 in the Swedish magazine 'aktuell fotografi' (Swedish) .
- Richard Meusers: The main trends of the Photokina 2006. In: Spiegel Online. September 26, 2006, accessed December 10, 2014 .
- Andreas Donath: Seven million digital SLR cameras sold in 2007. In: golem.de. December 4, 2007, accessed December 10, 2014 .
- Digital Photography ( Memento from January 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). Accessed December 29, 2012.
- Karl Pawek: The optical age. Olten / Freiburg i. Br., 1963, p. 58.
- WYD Mitchell: Image Theory. Frankfurt am Main 2008, p. 63.
- cf. Wolfgang Kemp : Theory of Photography. Munich 2006.
- Susan Sontag: About photography . 17th edition. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 978-3-596-23022-8 , pp. 135 f .
- Hannes Schmidt: Comments on the chemograms by Josef Neumann. Exhibition in the photography studio gallery of Prof. Pan Walther. in: Photo press. Issue 22, 1976, p. 6
- Harald Mante , Josef H. Neumann : Films creatively using Verlag PHOTOGRAPHIE, Schaffhausen, 1987, ISBN 3-7231-7600-3 , pp. 94, 95
- Topic 3 - The glossy world of Josef H. Neumann in the city journal of the WDR. Retrieved March 16, 2016 .
- Gabriele Richter: Josef H. Neumann. Chemograms. in: COLOR PHOTO. Issue 12, 1976, p. 24
- Susan Sontag: About Photography . 17th edition. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2006, ISBN 978-3-596-23022-8 , pp. 140 .
- "The German Kaiser against the distribution of his photographs", in: Österreichische Photographen-Zeitung , Heft 7, 1909, p. 119.
- Report in Forbes Magazine: A Shot in the Dark: Peter Lik's $ 6.5 Million 'Phantom' Now the World's Most Expensive Photograph . In: Forbes Magazine , December 12, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- DER SPIEGEL: "Phantom" by Peter Lik: The most expensive photo in the world - DER SPIEGEL - culture. Retrieved January 19, 2020 .
- Jonathan Jones: The $ 6.5m canyon: it's the most expensive photograph ever - but it's like a hackneyed poster in a posh hotel . In: The Guardian . December 10, 2014, ISSN 0261-3077 ( theguardian.com [accessed January 19, 2020]).
- Kitsch instead of art? The new most expensive photo in the world. Retrieved January 19, 2020 .
- Pontus Hulten, Pantheon of Photography (1992)
- The hour of birth of photography ( memento of December 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), on rem-mannheim.de
- Questioning looks | Museum five continents. Retrieved July 14, 2018 .
- Exhibition of ethnographic photos - a plea for difference and tolerance . In: Deutschlandfunk . ( deutschlandfunk.de [accessed on July 14, 2018]).
- zephir.ch: The Incredible World of Photography at the Kunstmuseum Basel. Retrieved July 26, 2020 .
- Badische Zeitung: Photographic Encyclopedia of the Industrial Age - Basel - Badische Zeitung. Retrieved July 26, 2020 .