A memory card , sometimes also called a flash card or memory card , is a compact, rewritable storage medium that can be used to store any data such as text, images, audio and video. The data is saved using flash memory technology. They are used for small, mobile devices such as digital cameras or cell phones , but also as a means of data porting together with a USB stick on a personal computer .
Most current devices use flash technology, although other technologies are being developed. There are a variety of memory cards on the market:
- CompactFlash (CF) Type I, CompactFlash Type II, CompactFlash ATA Serial Transfer (CFast) Type I, CFast Type II
- Memory Stick (MS), Memory Stick Select, Memory Stick-ROM, Memory Stick PRO, Memory Stick Duo, Memory Stick PRO Duo, Memory Stick PRO-HG Duo, Memory Stick XC Duo, Memory Stick XC-HG, Memory Stick Micro ( M2), Memory Stick HG Micro (M2-HG), Memory Stick XC Micro (M2 XC), Memory Stick XC-HG Micro (M2 XC-HG)
- Multimedia Card (MMC), RS-MMC, MMCmobile, MMCmicro
- Secure Digital Memory Card (SD), SDHC, SDXC, miniSD, miniSDHC, T-Flash / TransFlash, microSD, microSDHC, microSDXC
- Smart Media (SM) / Solid State Floppy Disc Card (SSFDC) is no longer manufactured
- xD-Picture Card (xD)
Not a memory card in the true sense of the word, but due to its similar application and structure, the USB stick is included here . There are also compact memory card readers (without their own memory) with their own slot for a micro SD card, for example, so that they can be used as an adapter from the plug standard of these cards to USB .
The flash memory cards are of different sizes, whereby the storage capacity usually corresponds directly to the price. The CompactFlash card is roughly the size of a matchbook, while the MultiMedia Card (MMC) and SD card are the size of a postage stamp. Newer developments are only the size of a fingernail. In 2009, memory cards with 64 gigabytes came on the market.
Since 2010 Sony (formerly exclusively Memory Stick) and Olympus (formerly exclusively xD-Card and before that SmartMedia-Card) have also been offering SD-Card slots in their new models. With this the format war with memory cards of the SD card is tending .
The transmission speed of memory cards is usually not specified directly, but as a factor based on the reading speed of CDs (= approx. 150 kB / s for the original single-speed or 1 × drives). Starting from CD burners , this notation has also spread to other writable storage media. Example: SD card 50x = approx. 7.5 MB / s transfer speed. The terms High Speed or HyperSpeed etc. are not subject to any standardization, so it is not possible to say that a HighSpeed card has to be very fast. In addition, the measurement methods for speeds are not standardized. In this way, exorbitant write values can be determined with a few large files, which are of no relevance to many small files.
When comparing the X speed factors of flash memory cards from different manufacturers, however, it should be noted that the individual manufacturers define this speed differently or not at all. Some definitions describe the X-factor on the basis of the writing speed, others on the basis of the reading speed. Still others speak of the data transfer speed and mean both reading and writing speed.
Well-known manufacturers have data sheets that define the speed designation more precisely.
Overview of memory card standards
|Type||Dimensions [mm]||Controller in card||interface||Connections (pins)||DRM||File system||theoretically possible capacity [GB]||commercially available capacity [GB]||theoretical data rate (read) [MByte / s]||Operating voltage [V]|
|CompactFlash Type I.||42.8 x 36.4 x 3.3||Yes||PATA||50||(optional, including CPRM)||any (FAT16 / FAT32 recommended)||128 (134217728 for CF5.0)||100||133 (167 for CF6.0)||3.3 / 5.0 (3.3 with CF5.0)|
|CompactFlash Type II||42.8 x 36.4 x 5.0||Yes||PATA||50||(optional, including CPRM)||any (FAT16 / FAT32 recommended)||128 (134217728 for CF5.0)||-||133 (167 for CF6.0)||3.3 / 5.0 (3.3 with CF5.0)|
|CFast type I.||42.8 x 36.4 x 3.3||Yes||SATA||24||(optional, including CPRM)||any (FAT32 recommended)||2048||64||300||3.3|
|CFast type II||42.8 x 36.4 x 5.0||Yes||SATA||24||(optional, including CPRM)||any (FAT32 recommended)||2048||-||300||3.3|
|MMC||24.0 x 32.0 x 1.4||Yes||MMC / SPI||7th||-||any||128||-||2.3||3.3|
|MMCplus||24.0 x 32.0 x 1.4||Yes||?||13||-||any||128||8th||52||3.3|
|MMC DV||24.0 x 32.0 x 1.4||Yes||?||7th||-||any||128||8th||2.3||3.3 / 1.8|
|RS-MMC||24.0 x 18.0 x 1.4||Yes||?||7th||-||any||128||4th||2.3||3.3|
|RS-MMC DV / MMCmobile||24.0 x 18.0 x 1.4||Yes||?||13||-||any||128||4th||52||3.3 / 1.8|
|MMCmini||20.0 x 21.5 x 1.4||Yes||?||11||-||any||2||?||26th||3.3 / 1.8|
|MMCmicro||14.0 x 12.0 x 1.1||Yes||?||10||-||any||128||2 (4)||10||3.3 / 1.8|
|SD||24.0 x 32.0 x 2.1||Yes||SD / SPI||9||CPRM||FAT16||2 (4)||2 (4)||25th||2.7-3.6|
|SDHC||24.0 x 32.0 x 2.1||Yes||SD / SPI||9||CPRM||FAT32||32||64||25th||2.7-3.6|
|SDXC||24.0 x 32.0 x 2.1||Yes||?||9||CPRM||exFAT||2048||256||300||2.7-3.6|
|miniSD||20.0 x 21.5 x 1.4||Yes||SD / SPI||11||CPRM||FAT16||2||2||25th||2.7-3.6|
|miniSDHC||20.0 x 21.5 x 1.4||Yes||SD / SPI||11||CPRM||FAT32||32||8th||25th||2.7-3.6|
|microSD (TransFlash)||11.0 x 15.0 x 1.0||Yes||SD / SPI||8th||CPRM||FAT16||2||2||25th||2.7-3.6|
|microSDHC||11.0 x 15.0 x 1.0||Yes||SD / SPI||8th||CPRM||FAT32||32||32||25th||2.7-3.6|
|microSDXC||11.0 x 15.0 x 1.0||Yes||?||8th||CPRM||exFAT||2048||1024||300||2.7-3.6|
|xD||25.0 x 20.0 x 1.78||No||?||18th||-||any||0.512||0.512||5||3.0-3.3|
|xD type M||25.0 x 20.0 x 1.78||No||?||18th||-||any||8th||2||4th||3.0-3.3|
|xD type M +||25.0 x 20.0 x 1.78||No||?||18th||-||any||8th||2||6th||3.0-3.3|
|xD type H||25.0 x 20.0 x 1.78||No||?||18th||-||any||8th||2||15th||3.0-3.3|
|Memory stick||21.5 x 50.0 x 2.8||Yes||?||10||MagicGate||any||0.128||0.128||2.5||3.3|
|Memory Stick Select||21.5 x 50.0 x 2.8||Yes||?||10||MagicGate||any||0.256||0.256||2.5||3.3|
|Memory Stick PRO||21.5 x 50.0 x 2.8||Yes||?||10||MagicGate||any||32||-||20th||2.7-3.6|
|Memory Stick PRO Duo||20.0 x 31.0 x 1.6||Yes||?||10||MagicGate||any||32||8th||20th||2.7-3.6|
|Memory Stick PRO-HG Duo||20.0 x 31.0 x 1.6||Yes||?||14th||MagicGate||any||32||32||60||2.7-3.6|
|Memory Stick XC Duo||20.0 x 31.0 x 1.6||Yes||?||10||MagicGate||exFAT||2048||not yet on the market||20th||3.3|
|Memory Stick XC-HG Duo||20.0 x 31.0 x 1.6||Yes||?||14th||MagicGate||exFAT||2048||not yet on the market||60||3.3|
|Memory Stick Micro||12.5 x 15.0 x 1.2||Yes||?||11||MagicGate||any||32||8th||20th||3.3|
|Memory Stick HG Micro||12.5 x 15.0 x 1.2||Yes||?||20th||MagicGate||any||32||16||60||3.3 / 1.7|
|Memory Stick XC Micro||12.5 x 15.0 x 1.2||Yes||?||11||MagicGate||exFAT||2048||not yet on the market||20th||3.3|
|Memory Stick XC-HG Micro||12.5 x 15.0 x 1.2||Yes||?||20th||MagicGate||exFAT||2048||not yet on the market||60||3.3|
|SmartMedia||45 × 37 × 0.76||No||?||18th||ID||any (FAT12 / FAT16 recommended)||0.128 (0.256)||0.128||0.8||5 / 3.3|
- "Format war decided: SD card prevails" , January 14, 2010
- partly also 13, but only 7 used
- CPRM = Content Protection for Recordable Media
- Smartphone and Tablet microSDHC / XC Class 10 UHS-I U1 | Integral memory. Accessed March 19, 2018 (English).
- is no longer produced
Memory cards for game consoles
Memory cards are mainly used here to save scores ( savegames ).
Manufacturers of game consoles usually do not adhere to memory card standards, so every game console system has its own memory card format, even if it is only the design. The proprietary formats are designed to promote sales of the original accessories; However, there are usually memory cards from third-party manufacturers that often also provide more memory. Since the introduction of the Xbox in 2001, more and more game consoles such as the Wii , Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 have , in addition to conventional memory cards, also integrated memory in the form of a hard drive or flash memory.
The memory card is usually plugged into the console (for example in the products Neo Geo , Sega Saturn , PlayStation , PlayStation 2 and Nintendo GameCube ). With the Dreamcast , the memory card ( called VMU here ) is attached to or inserted into the gamepad, just like with the Xbox and Nintendo 64 developed by Microsoft .
N64 Controller Pak
- Tapeless recording : memory cards in the field of radio, film and television production such as Panasonic P2 , Sony SxS or Ikegami Editcam Flashpak
- Benjamin Benz - memory cards, c't 23/2006
- Horst Völz : Storage as the basis for everything. Shaker Verlag, Düren 2019, ISBN 978-3-8440-6964-8 .
- Information page on the subject of memory cards and storage space or flash memory media on Infotexte.de