Pierre Bourdieu

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Pierre Bourdieu, 1969

Pierre Félix Bourdieu [ pjɛːʀ feˈliks buʀˈdjø ] (born August 1, 1930 in Denguin , † January 23, 2002 in Paris ) was a French sociologist and social philosopher . He is one of the most influential sociologists of the second half of the 20th century and worked at the Paris elite university École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) and the Collège de France .


Pierre Bourdieu - son of the farmer and later postal worker Albert Bourdieu and his wife Noémie Bourdieu, b. Duhau - first attended the Lycée de Pau in his hometown of Denguin ( Département Pyrénées-Atlantiques ). In 1948 he moved to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris. From 1951 Bourdieu studied philosophy at the elite university École normal supérieure (ENS), where he received the Agrégation in 1954 . During his studies in the decade of French existentialism , Bourdieu heard, among others, logic and the history of science with Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem ; he studied Hegel and wrote a treatise on Leibniz .

Bourdieu began in 1954 with a dissertation at Canguilhem. His doctoral supervisor gave him a job as a high school teacher in Auvergne , which he held for about a year from 1954 to 1955. Drafted for military service in 1955, he was briefly stationed in Versailles , but for disciplinary reasons he was quickly used in the Algerian war. In 1957 he broke off his doctorate to devote himself to ethnological and sociological field research in Algeria. He had acquired the methods of ethnology himself.

Following his military service, he carried out field research on Berber culture from 1958 to 1960 in Kabylia in northern Algeria . Here Bourdieu worked with the pères blancs , Catholic missionaries from the Order of Africa Missionaries , who had long lived in Kabylia. He taught in the philosophy department of the University of Algiers . His first publication on Algeria appeared in 1958: Sociologie de l'Algérie .

From 1960 to 1961 Bourdieu was Raymond Aron's assistant at the philosophical faculty of the Sorbonne . He then taught sociology as a lecturer at the University of Lille until 1964 . He dealt with Émile Durkheim , Max Weber and Alfred Schütz , with American sociologists, British anthropology and the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure .

At the same time, he was studying the Arabic and Berber languages , which he had already started in Algeria. Until 1964, Bourdieu spent his free time in Algeria to continue his ethnological field studies. In the period between 1958 and 1964, around 3000 photos were taken about the war and everyday life in Algeria, especially in Algiers , of which only a part is still available. The photo documents were not published until shortly before his death; individual photos had previously served as cover images of his books. In 2006, an exhibition of Bourdieu's photographic works was shown in Hamburg.

In 1963, together with Alain Darbel , Jean-Paul Revet and Claude Seibel, he published treatises on the emergence of wage labor and an urban proletariat in Algiers . In 1964 a work appeared on the crisis in traditional agriculture, the destruction of society and the resettlement campaigns by the French army, which he had written together with Abdelmalek Sayad .

Other works by Bourdieu also refer in part to his ethnological and sociological research results in Algeria, in particular his publications on the theory of practice on the ethnological basis of Kabyle society in 1972 and Social Sense . Critique of Theoretical Reason from 1980, as well as his late work The Male Rule from 1998.

In 1964, Pierre Bourdieu switched to the Parisian elite university École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) and made a decisive contribution to shaping the institution in the years that followed

Bourdieu moved to the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) in 1964 . He had a long collaboration with the sociologist Jean-Claude Passeron . In the same year they jointly published the work The Illusion of Equal Opportunities . Studies on the sociology of education using the example of France , which attracted a great deal of attention in the specialist public and made Bourdieu known as a sociologist.

In 1968 he founded the Center de sociologie européenne (CSE) at EHESS with the help of Raymond Aron, who received funding from the Ford Foundation .

From 1962 to 1983 Bourdieu was married to the art historian Marie-Claire Brizard. The marriage had three children: Jérôme Bourdieu , Emmanuel Bourdieu and Laurent Bourdieu .

His main work The subtle differences , which is based on years of empirical research in France, was published in 1979; it appeared in German translation in 1982.

Since 1981 Bourdieu has held a chair in sociology at the Collège de France , one of the highest positions in the French university system. In 1985 he became director of the CSE at the Collège de France and the EHESS in Paris. In the same year, President François Mitterrand asked him to work out proposals for reforming the French education system.

Bourdieu's grave in the Pere Lachaise cemetery

Bourdieu was also, especially in later years, a political intellectual: His solidarity with striking railway workers became known at a works meeting in the Gare de Lyon on December 13, 1995. In 1998 he supported the unemployment movement in France and was a co-founder of the movement critical of globalization attac and in May 2000 advocated networking of social movements in Europe against neoliberalism . The tendency towards political statements, however, is not a late development, but is already expressed in his early writings on Algeria.

Although he had penetrated the center of academic power in France, the Collège de France, coming from the simplest of backgrounds, he remained inwardly distant from the conduct and customs of this institution throughout his life. His critically ironic inaugural lecture Leçon sur la leçon and the large-scale study Homo academicus bear witness to this.

Bourdieu died of cancer at the age of 71. He left behind his wife and three children.


In West German sociology at the time, there was a more intensive reception of Bourdieu's works, especially since the 1980s. The transfer of his theories into German turned out to be difficult. Bourdieu's sociological research, mostly rooted in everyday life , was predominantly empirically oriented and can be assigned to cultural sociology . Drawing on structuralism , Bourdieu tried to combine subjective factors with objective facts. In terms of philosophy of science, he advocated, among other things, the abolition of the dualism of subjectivism and objectivism , between idealism and materialism . Bourdieu also took a mediating position between nominalism and realism in the medieval dispute about universals .

For Bourdieu, sociology is much more than the reconstruction of objective relationships. It is also based on subjective experiences and orientations. Bourdieu assumes that an individual is limited in his development possibilities. He himself describes the individual as a habitus bearer.

Bourdieu developed his theoretical concepts taking into account the experiences of individuals. He used key terms such as habitus , social space , social field , capital and class . He developed all of these terms used in sociology and economics so that when viewed together they result in a new empirically founded sociological theory that is of great importance in today's sociological discourse and is often referred to as the “theory of practice”. With his concept of a praxeological mode of knowledge , which he formulated from his criticism of theoretical reason - the knowledge possibilities of a purely theoretical scientist - he did not want to negate objective knowledge, but to transcend it.

Bourdieu's cultural theory compares interactions in everyday life with a game. Individuals have a different number of potentials of various kinds that they can use and partially convert: economic capital , social capital , symbolic capital and cultural capital . The following applies: And everyone plays according to the amount of their chips . For example, the acquisition of cultural capital can serve to increase economic capital.

He further differentiates the social field and differentiates between the political and literary fields ( sociology of literature ). The respective fields are linked to a certain thought, perception and action scheme - i.e. a habitus - through which individuals in turn have an effect on social fields. Bourdieu thus advocates neither a structural determinism nor an individualistic approach.

Even in his early writings, Bourdieu put forward a theory of symbolic forms and symbolic violence , which he refined in his further studies. In The Subtle Differences. Criticism of social judgment , he presented his theory and terminology comprehensively. He coined the designation gain in distinction for the successful implementation of a new prevailing taste and lifestyle as a means in the struggle for social positions. These cultural struggles between the social classes take place in a so-called room of lifestyles . Thereby reproduce the hegemonic classes usually adapted to the respective new conditions.

According to Bourdieu, there are various limitations for human freedom, including through unconscious internalized factors, illusions , through socio-economic structures, historical circumstances, gender, nationality and worldview. However, every person has an individual scope for action within their limits, which is greater, the more complex society is organized. It is only against this limited background that there can be social change and innovation.

Scientific forerunners of Bourdieu were in particular Émile Durkheim , Max Weber and Karl Marx . His social epistemology is influenced by Émile Durkheim. Like him, Bourdieu uses the concept of social fact and shares the basic insight into the importance of cultural and social anthropology for sociology. With Weber who joined him inequality discourse which is located at the subjectively oriented concept Trias class , status and party oriented. From Marx he took over parts of the objectively oriented concepts of class , class struggle and capital , which he greatly expanded beyond the economic aspects. Friedrich Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals was the inspiration for Bourdieu's discussion of the relationship between the nobility and the common people.

Bourdieu's central conceptual concepts show clear parallels to Norbert Elias . Bourdieu himself emphasized that his writings were very important to him. Both were in correspondence from 1976 to 1990. References to content and correspondence have so far hardly been noticed. The correspondence is in the German Literature Archive in Marbach am Neckar .

His overall scientific work is characterized by its high level of complexity, as it not only connects different scientific systems, but also a multitude of newly connoted terms.

Bourdieu was also known as a politically engaged intellectual who turned against the ruling elite . The task of the new social movements , he rewrote the concept of economic literacy . Politically, he advocated forms of direct democracy . Although in his opinion only a relative autonomy can be achieved for scientists, he took the view that interventions in economic, political and social disputes only make sense for intellectuals on this basis.

Bourdieu used qualitative and quantitative methods of empirical social research in his research projects . In the work Das Elend der Welt he mainly worked with qualitative interviews . To carry out a field analysis, he often used the mathematical method of correspondence analysis , in which categorical variables are located in a two- or multi-dimensional space. Using the method developed by Jean-Paul Benzécri and widely used in French statistics, he reconstructed “social fields” and the dimensions on which they are based. In his later work homo academicus , but also in The fine differences , this is a method he often uses. He also used the results of his field research among the Berbers as points of reference, for example in his late work The Male Rule .

Some of the results of Bourdieu's empirical work are:

  • He showed that in France, despite the formal freedom of choice in questions of aesthetic taste, artistic preferences - such as classical music, rock and chanson - correlate strongly with (“cultural”) class affiliation .
  • Bringing in everyday observations, he demonstrated that the subtleties of language such as accent , grammar , pronunciation and style are an essential factor in social mobility , for example in achieving a better-paid and better-valued profession.
  • He described the educational dynamics triggered by educational policy and unemployment as "inflation of educational qualifications" or "educational expansion". The school qualifications lose value as a result, and the graduates from lower classes have poor opportunities to appropriately implement the cultural capital they have acquired through schooling (cf. educational paradox ).
  • According to Bourdieu, atypical employment relationships have become the rule due to increasing neoliberal globalization . This precariousness affects not only marginalized social groups, but increasingly also those with a secure income. The organized opposition of the wage earners is part of the neoliberal hegemony . The " structural violence " of competition should be given up in favor of recognizing common interests.

Research oriented towards Bourdieu and other reception

With the help of the methods and terms that Bourdieu used in his main work The Subtle Differences , the political scientist Michael Vester and other researchers at the University of Hanover carried out a qualitative as well as quantitative study in western federal states in 1992, which further divided the classes into social milieus and characterizes them. It is about the research of social groups, which was first carried out in 1993 under the title Social Milieus in Social Structural Change. Between integration and exclusion was published. In 1995, the supplementary work published by Michael Vester and others, Soziale Milieus in Ostdeutschland, appeared. Social structures between disintegration and new formation. The revised new edition Social Milieus in Social Structural Change provides a continuation of these studies . Between integration and exclusion from 2001 (→ literature ).

A different approach was taken by a group of thirty researchers who, coordinated by the University of Geneva, carried out fifty qualitative interviews with people from various fields of activity and the unemployed on the basis of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice from 2002 to 2004 . The results of the study, which follow Bourdieu's research results published in Das Elend der Welt , show similarities and differences between developments in France and Germany. The work Society with limited liability published by Franz Schultheis and Kristina Schulz in 2005 . Impositions and suffering in everyday German life shows that most problems exist in the eastern German federal states. But even in the West, the relative security of the social market economy is increasingly taking a back seat in favor of the unequal distribution of work and goods, and self-confidence is shaken by a lack of recognition and respect. The result is precarious working conditions and an increased vulnerability of people who are pushed to the margins of society through individualization in the sense of so-called self-responsibility, and who gradually lose their home through less income and poorer working conditions as well as physical and psychological stress .

The ancient historian at the University of Rostock Egon Flaig uses Bourdieu's methods in his interdisciplinary research and emphasizes his distance from the traditional instruments of ancient history.

The French sociologist and philosopher Didier Eribon places his “autobiographical analysis” of his childhood in a working-class district of Reims Retour à Reims (2009), in German: Return to Reims (2016), partly in the Bourdieu tradition. He emphasizes his interest in the histories of social classes and social differences in society and in the reproduction of social classes, e.g. B. through the school system.

In the 1980s, Annie Ernaux had developed a similar and in many ways complementary literary view of French class society in parallel to Bourdieu's "subtle differences". In the German-speaking countries, however, she was considered a trivial author until 2015, which was reflected in the poor quality and lurid titles of her German translations. It was only after Eribon's book that Ernaux's relation to Bourdieu was taken seriously, new translations were produced by Sonja Finck and widely received, while in France the analyzes of both authors had been part of the general knowledge of many interested parties since the 1980s.



Since 2005, the Pierre Bourdieu Foundation in Geneva has been promoting and coordinating international scientific and political debates and projects in the various social and human sciences in the sense of its namesake. Some of Bourdieu's key terms are now widely used in politics, culture and science.

Fonts (selection)

The main works are listed here; a selection of other important publications can be found in the writings of Pierre Bourdieu .

  • with Jean-Claude Passeron, Les héritiers: les étudiants et la culture , Les Éditions de Minuit, series. "Grands documents" No. 18, Paris 1964
    • German partial translation: The illusion of equal opportunities. Studies on the sociology of education using the example of France , translated by Barbara and Robert Picht, edited by Irmgard Hartig, Klett, Stuttgart 1971, ISBN 3-12-921120-9
    • German: The heirs. Students, education and culture , translated by Stephan Egger and Eva Kessler, UVK, Konstanz 2007, ISBN 978-3-89669-687-8
  • Esquisse d'une théorie de la pratique. Précédé de Trois études d'ethnologie kabyle , Librairie Droz, Geneva 1972, ISBN 978-2-600-04155-3
    • German: draft of a theory of practice. On the ethnological basis of Kabyle society , translated by Cordula Pialoux and Bernd Schwibs, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-518-27891-6
  • La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement , Les Éditions de Minuit, Paris 1979, ISBN 2-7073-0275-9 ; Reprinted in 2007, ISBN 978-2-7073-0275-5
  • Le Sens pratique , Les Éditions de Minuit, Le sens commun series , Paris 1980, ISBN 2-7073-0298-8
  • Homo academicus , Les Éditions de Minuit, Le sens commun series , Paris 1984, ISBN 2-7073-0696-7
  • Les règles de l'art: genèse et structure du champ littéraire , Seuil, Paris 1992, ISBN 2-02-018159-2
    • German: The rules of art. Genesis and structure of the literary field , translated by Bernd Schwibs and Achim Russer, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-518-58264-X
  • With Loïc Wacquant, Réponses: pour une anthropologie réflexive , Seuil, 1992, ISBN 2-02-014675-4
  • Méditations pascaliennes , Seuil, Liber series , Paris 1997, ISBN 2-02-032002-9
    • German: meditations. On the Critique of Scholastic Reason , translated by Achim Russer, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-518-58307-7
  • La domination masculine , Seuil, Liber series , Paris 1998, ISBN 2-02-035251-6
    • German: The male rule , translated by Jürgen Bolder, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-518-58435-9
  • Esquisse pour une auto-analyze , Paris, Raisons d'agir series , Paris 2004, ISBN 2-912107-19-9




Further secondary literature

  • Beatrice von Bismarck (Ed.): After Bourdieu: Visuality, Art, Politics . Turia and Kant, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-85132-527-0 .
  • Uwe H. Bittlingmayer (Ed.): Theory as a fight? On the political sociology of Pierre Bourdieu . Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2002, ISBN 3-8100-3352-9 .
  • Cornelia Bohn: Habitus and context. A critical contribution to Bourdieu's social theory . West German publishing house, Opladen 1991
  • Tobias ten Brink : Pioneers of the movement critical of globalization: Pierre Bourdieu, Susan George, Antonio Negri . Neuer Isp-Verlag, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-89900-020-X .
  • Catherine Colliot-Thélène (ed.) Pierre Bourdieu: German-French perspectives . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-518-29352-4 .
  • Jörg Ebrecht and Frank Hillebrandt (eds.): Bourdieus theory of practice . 2nd Edition. VS - Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-531-33747-5 .
  • Steffani Engler and Beate Krais (eds.): The cultural capital and the power of class structures. Social structural shifts and change processes of the habitus . Juventa, Weinheim 2004, ISBN 3-7799-1582-0 .
  • Rolf-Dieter Hepp: Bourdieu, socioanalysis, sociosemiotics . ÖGS / ISSS, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-900494-41-X .
  • Martin Herz: Disposition and Capital. A contribution to the Bourdieu debate . Braumüller, Vienna 1996
  • Markus Joch, Norbert Christian Wolf (ed.): Text and field. Bourdieu in literary practice . Niemeyer, Tübingen 2005.
  • Michael Hirsch, Rüdiger Voigt (Hrsg.): Symbolic violence: Politics, power and state in Pierre Bourdieu (Staatsverstandnisse) , TB, Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8487-3291-3 .
  • Joseph Jurt: The literary field. Pierre Bourdieu's concept in theory and practice . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1995, ISBN 3-534-11573-2 .
  • Joseph Jurt: France's committed intellectuals. From Zola to Bourdieu . Wallstein, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8353-1048-3 .
  • Jens Kastner: The dispute about the aesthetic view. Art and Politics between Pierre Bourdieu and Jacques Rancière . Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2012 (reprint 2013), ISBN 978-3-85132-679-6 .
  • Jens Kastner, Ruth Sonderegger (eds.): Pierre Bourdieu and Jacques Rancière. Think emancipatory practice . Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-85132-754-0 .
  • Markus König: Habitus and rational choice: a comparison of the action models in Gary S. Becker and Pierre Bourdieu . Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-8244-4540-9 .
  • Beate Krais and Gunther Gebauer: Habitus . transcript, Bielefeld 2002, ISBN 3-933127-17-3 .
  • Ansgar Kreutzer and Hans-Joachim Sander (eds.): Religion and social distinction. Pierre Bourdieu's resonances in theology. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2018, ISBN 978-3-451-02295-1 .
  • Egon Leitner: Bourdieu's Invasive Science. One handling . Turia and Kant, Vienna 2000, ISBN 978-3-85132-261-3 .
  • Eckart Liebau: Social subject and education. On the educational significance of the socialization theories of Pierre Bourdieu and Ulrich Oevermann . Juventa, Weinheim and Munich 1987, ISBN 3-7799-0679-1 .
  • Ingo Mörth (Ed.): The symbolic capital of lifestyles. On the cultural sociology of modernity according to Pierre Bourdieu . Campus, Frankfurt am Main and New York 1994, ISBN 3-593-34964-7 .
  • Hans-Peter Müller: Social Structure and Lifestyles. The more recent theoretical discourse on social inequality . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1997
  • Armin Nassehi (eds.): Bourdieu and Luhmann. A comparison of theories . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-518-29296-X .
  • Boike Rehbein, Gernot Saalmann, Hermann Schwengel (eds.): Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the social: Problems and perspectives . UVK, Konstanz 2003, ISBN 3-89669-734-X .
  • Franz Schultheis: Bourdieu's ways into sociology . UVK, Konstanz 2007, ISBN 978-3-89669-686-1 .
  • Franz Schultheis: Company Bourdieu. An experience report . transcript, Bielefeld 2019, ISBN 978-3-8376-4786-0 .
  • Margareta Steinrücke (ed.): Pierre Bourdieu - Political research, thinking and intervention . VSA, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-89965-037-9 .

Research results related to Germany

  • Sandra Beaufaÿs: How are scientists made? Observations on the mutual construction of gender and science . Transcript, Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 978-3-89942-157-6 .
  • Elisabeth Nöstlinger, Ulrike Schmitzer (ed.): Bourdieus heirs . Mandelbaum, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-85476-194-5 .
  • Jürgen Raschert, Georg Lind (ed.): Moral judgment . Beltz, Weinheim 1987, ISBN 978-3-407-34007-8 .
  • Franz Schultheis, Kristina Schulz (ed.): Society with limited liability. Impositions and suffering in everyday German life . UVK, Konstanz 2005, ISBN 3-89669-537-1 .
  • Michael Vester, Peter von Oertzen, Heiko Geilling, Thomas Herman, Dagmar Müller: Social milieus in social structural change . Bund-Verlag, Cologne 1993, ISBN 3-7663-2484-5 .
  • Michael Vester, Michael Hofmann, Irene Zierke (eds.): Social milieus in East Germany. Social structures between disintegration and new formation . Bund-Verlag, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-7663-2573-6 .
  • Michael Vester, Peter von Oertzen, Heiko Geiling, Thomas Hermann, Dagmar Müller: Social milieus in social structural change. Between integration and exclusion . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt a. M. 2001, ISBN 3-518-28912-8 .
  • Karin Wallenczus: Hospital practice area: Analysis of a field study based on Bourdieu's reflections . Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-86064-828-4 .


  • Sociology is a martial art . Documentary by Pierre Carles (2001)

Web links

Commons : Pierre Bourdieu  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files
Wikibooks: Pierre Bourdieu  - learning and teaching materials

Individual evidence

  1. Joseph Jurt: Introduction, in: Gerhard Fröhlich, Boike Rehbein (Ed.): Bourdieu-Handbuch. Life - work - effect . Stuttgart and Weimar 2009, p. 3.
  2. Jürg Altwegg : Pierre Bourdieu or The School of Sociologists. In: Jürg Altwegg, Aurel Schmidt: French thinkers of the present. Twenty portraits. Beck, Munich 1988, p. 56f.
  3. Pierre Bourdieu: Sociologie de l'Algérie . Presses Universitaires de France, coll. Que sais-je? (No. 802), Paris 1958.
  4. Florian Schumacher, Ulf Wuggenig: Foreword: Bourdieu and the love of art . In: Bourdieus Art Sociology . UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz 2011, ISBN 978-3-86764-221-7 , p. 11 ( halem-verlag.de [PDF]).
  5. Pierre Bourdieu. February 1, 2002, accessed September 18, 2019 .
  6. ^ Annette Treibel: Introduction to Sociological Theories of the Present, 5th Edition , Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2000, ISBN 3-8100-2756-1 , p. 210
  7. See correspondence from 1976 to 1990 , in: Inken Hasselbusch: Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu in comparison. An investigation into theory development, terminology and reception. Karlsruhe 2014, pp. 249-270.
  8. Bowen Paulle, Bart van Heerikhuizen, Mustafa Emir Bayer: Elias and Bourdieu , in: Simon Susen; Bryan S. Turner: The Legacy of Pierre Bourdieu: Critical Essays. London 2013, pp. 145-172.
  9. Joseph Jurt: Introduction, in: Gerhard Fröhlich, Boike Rehbein (Ed.): Bourdieu-Handbuch. Life - work - effect . Stuttgart and Weimar 2009, p. 8.
  10. Angelo Maiolino: Political Culture in Times of Neoliberalism. A hegemony analysis. Bielefeld 2014, p. 395.
  11. Enrico Ippolito: Working Class and Homosexuality: The Myth of the Revolution ; Spiegel Online, June 30, 2016, accessed September 25, 2016
  12. Return to Reims . Fayard, Paris 2009. ISBN 978-2-213-63834-8 . Return to Reims ; Translation Tobias Haberkorn, Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2016. ISBN 978-3-518-07252-3 .
  13. Didier Eribon on the crisis of the left: “You are not the people”; taz.de, September 23, 2016, accessed on September 25, 2016
  14. ↑ In detail, Franz Schultheis : "The Ethos of the Researcher". Schultheis' interview with Jens Kastner in Dschungel, supplement to jungle world , July 31, 30, 2020, pp. 10–13, also online
  15. ^ Deceased Fellows. British Academy, accessed May 7, 2020 .
  16. Interview by Reinhard Jellen with Michael Hirsch: Internet partner exchanges are Bourdieu machines . Heise online (here: Telepolis), October 21, 2017.