|Berber ( ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ / Tamaziɣt )|
|Morocco , Algeria , Libya , Niger , Mali , Burkina Faso , Tunisia , Egypt , Mauritania , also in the diaspora in Europe|
|speaker||about 40 million|
|Official language in||
|Other official status in||
Niger Mali ("national language")
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
The Berber languages or Berber ( ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ Tamaziɣt ) are a branch of the Afro-Asian languages spoken by Berbers in some parts of North Africa . The language area stretches in a west-east direction from the Atlantic to Egypt , in a north-south direction from the Mediterranean to Niger . Berber has around 40 million speakers. Up until the Middle Ages, the Berber languages were a dialect continuum that was only broken up by the penetration of Arabic . Important Berber languages are Kabyle , which is the most developed Berber language, Taschelhit , Tamascheq , Tarifit and the Central Atlas Tamazight .
History and linguistic position
The Berber languages are one of five or six primary branches of the Afro-Asian languages (also called Hamito-Semitic and Semito-Hamitic languages) common in North and East Africa and Southwest Asia, which, in addition to Berber, also include Semitic , Cushitic , Chadian , Egyptian and possibly the Omotic belong. With which of these languages Berber is most closely related has not yet been conclusively clarified. The following examples illustrate the relationships between Afro-Asian languages, both in the lexical and morphological areas, with particular verb inflections ("preformative conjugation") being very similar (see the last three examples below), so much so that there is hardly any other explanation for the There are similarities between Semitic, Berber and Cushitic as a common original language. The relationship of these three to Egyptian and Chadian is less obvious and has also been questioned, while that to Omotic is highly controversial.
|"Tongue"||Kabyle I ləs *||Arabic lisān||* lés||Bole lisìm||Dime lits'- ("lick")|
|"Water"||Kabyle a-ma-n *||Arabic māʾ||* máw||Dahalo maʔa||Bole àmma||Mocha amiyo ("to rain")|
|"he"||Kabyle - s||Akkadian - šu||sw||Somali isa-||Hausa shi||Dizi iz-n|
|"two"||Kabyle sin||Hebrew šənay-im *||sinéwwVj|
|"You (m.) Die"||Tuareg tə-mmut *||Arabic ta-mūtu *||Rendille ta-mut *||Hausa ka mutù *, **|
|"he dies"||Tuareg yə-mmut *||Arabic ya-mūtu *||Rendille ya-mut *||Hausa ya mutù *, **|
|"we die"||Tuareg nə-mmut *||Arabic na-mūtu *||Rendille na-mut *|
* For a better understanding of the relationship, the hyphen divides the form-forming prefixes and suffixes from the stem, accordingly one could subdivide the German word "Gedenken" into "Ge-denk-en"; to illustrate the relationship with the English "think". ** Past tense .
The oldest possible evidence of Berber languages are some names and words in Egyptian sources, such as the title ms "prince" used in the Egyptian 22nd dynasty (cf. Tuareg măss "lord"). According to general research opinion, the previously little-known Libyan language , which is documented on over a thousand mostly short inscriptions from North Africa, was an early Berber language. Names in Punic, Roman and Greek sources can also be identified as Berber. Already a few centuries before the birth of Christ, the Berbers came into contact with the Phoenician language through the Phoenician colonization of the western Mediterranean area , as borrowed from loan words in the modern Berber languages, such as the agadir "fortification" < Punic gdr . After the Roman conquest of North Africa, Berber took up large amounts of Latin verbatim, such as Taschelhit fullus "chick" <Latin pullus .
Until the Arab conquest of North Africa in the course of Islamic expansion , the Berber languages probably formed a dialect continuum from the Atlantic to Egypt, but since the spread of Islam, Berber has been continuously displaced by Arabic. The north of the Berber language area in particular is therefore very fragmented today. Due to their coexistence, Arabic and Berber exert a strong influence on each other, which was particularly reflected in the vocabulary on both sides. This is borne out by loan words such as local Arabic arāɡāʒ "man" <Berber argaz as well as Kabyle ssuq "market" <Arabic as-sūq . More recently, European languages, especially French, have had a considerable influence.
The first long texts on Taschelhit date from the 12th century and were written in Arabic script, for example the dictionary Kitāb al-asmāʾ from 1145. The other languages have only been documented since the 19th century, when Europeans in connection with the French colonization of North Africa were theirs Exploration began.
Languages and Dissemination
The Berber languages are spoken in large parts of North Africa, from the Nile in the east to the Atlantic in the west and from the Mediterranean in the north to Niger in the south. After the French colonization of most of North Africa in the 19th century, many Berbers emigrated to Europe, which is why there is a considerable number of Berber speakers in France in particular.
Although there is no traditional self-designation for the entirety of the Berber languages, they are traditionally viewed in Berberology as a language that is divided into several dozen or even several hundred individual dialects. Based on the self- names Tamazight , Tamascheq and Tamahaq , which are dialectal variants of a single word, Tamazight was adopted by many Berbers as an autochthonous term for "Berber" in the second half of the 20th century . However, the Berber languages are increasingly viewed as independent languages in science. The subclassification of Berber is problematic as there are dialect continua in many places . In general, a northern dialect continuum and the Tuareg are distinguished, to which a number of scattered individual languages come. In the subdivision of northern Berber, the groups Zenati and Atlas Berber are widely recognized, individual languages such as Tamazight or Taschelhit are either subordinate to these groups (as by Kossmann 1999) or classified as branches of equal importance. The following subdivision is based on that of Ethnologue . Most of the speakers were also taken over by Ethnologue.
The languages and dialects of the eastern group are only spoken in isolated Libyan and Egyptian oases that are completely surrounded by the Arabic-speaking area. Some of them are already extinct or are only used by older speakers.
- Audschila ( Libya : Cyrenaica , 3,000)
- Sokna (Libya: Tripolitania , 5,500)
- Siwi ( Egypt : Siwa Oasis , 20,000)
- Elfoqaha (Libya: Elfoqaha oasis in Fezzan , extinct)
The northern group forms one or more dialect continua in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
- Atlas Berber: This group includes several dialect groups in the western, Moroccan part of the Atlas Mountains .
- Chenoua (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, 76,300)
- Kabyle (Algeria, 5 million)
Zenati is a collective term for a large number of languages which are distributed from western Libya to northern Morocco.
- eastern Zenati
- Ghomara (Morocco)
- Mzab-Wargla (language of the Mzabites )
- Shawiya (Chaouia) (Algeria, 2.1 million)
- Tidikelt (Algeria, 9,000)
The Tuareg is spoken by the eponymous group of tribes that are native to southern Algeria and Libya as well as northern Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. All tribes designate their language with a derivative of the Protoberberian root * mzɣ, which dialectally fluctuates between Tămahăqq, Tămašăqq (Tamascheq) and Tămažăqq (Tamascheq). The corresponding tribal names are used for clearer identification: Tăwăllămătt, for example, denotes the language of the Iwllămmădăn. Heath breaks down the Tuareg as follows:
- northern Tuareg
- Tamahaq / Tahaggart (Algeria, Libya, Niger, 77,000)
- southern Tuareg
The Zenaga is the language of a small Berber tribe in southwest Mauritania. Due to the spatial distance to the other Berber languages, Zenaga differs greatly from the rest of Berber.
Languages of uncertain assignment
- Guanche : the extinct language of the indigenous people of the Canary Islands ( Spain ), although it is not certain that it is a Berber language because the language material is too sketchy.
- Libyan ( Numidian , Old Libyan ): an ancient language spoken in North Africa and so far hardly deciphered, whose affiliation with Berber is also not entirely clear.
In most cases, the local Berber is still spoken as a colloquial and lingua franca, although there is often bilingualism with supra-regional lingua franca, especially Arabic and French . There is no standardized form of Berber; However, since many local variants are easy to understand among each other, dialectal differences were leveled out in many places, not least in the diaspora . Only in Morocco is a Berber language ( Moroccan Tamazight ) an official language ; Local Berber languages are recognized as official languages in Niger, Mali and, since 2002, in Algeria. In Algeria, Niger, Mali and especially Morocco, Berber languages are taught in some schools. They are only used to a limited extent as literary language.
Berber culture is primarily an oral culture. However, the Tuareg use an alphabetic consonant writing called Tifinagh , in which short inscriptions are written on rocks and on utensils; it goes back to the ancient Libyan script . Especially in the north of the Berber language area, the fixation in a slightly modified form of the Arabic script has a tradition that goes back at least to the 12th century. In the 20th century, institutions such as the Berber Academy suggested the use of Tifinagh also for northern dialects, which is now officially recognized in Morocco . In addition, not least in digital media as well as in science, the use of Latin letters is preferred. This article uses a phonemically based Latin transcription as far as possible.
The sound system of the various Berber languages has fundamental similarities, but due to the difficult-to-understand sound changes and an almost confusing variety of allophones , the reconstruction of proto-Berber sounds is difficult. The existence of pharyngeal consonants can be considered a characteristic of the Berber languages, as well as other Afro-Asian languages . The phonemic character of the gemination associated with Fortis articulation is also typically Afro-Asian. However, caution is sometimes advised with such parallels, as the influence of Arabic on Berber should not be underestimated. So were phonemes / s /, / ħ / and / ʕ / three typical Afro-Asiatic consonants taken from Arabic and can not be reconstructed for the Proto-Berber. Maarten Kossmann uses the following consonantic phonemes for Proto-Berber (in Kossmann's transcription):
|bilabial / labiodental||alveolar||postalveolar / palatal||velar||glottal|
and Lateral Approximants
Most consonant phonemes could also appear elongated, with the articulation location and articulation type of the elongated allophone sometimes deviating, for example qq was the elongated version of γ . Most of the northern Berber languages have the four vowels a , i , u and wobei , although the latter partly has no phonemic status, as it is predictable in certain languages from the syllable structure. Vowel length and accent are generally not phonemic there. In the Tuareg and Ghadames, on the other hand, there are the long vowels a , i , u , e , o and the short vowels ə and ă (also transcribed ä / æ ). For the Protobberian, the short vowels / a /, / i /, / u / and the long vowels / aa /, / ii /, / uu /, / ee / are reconstructed, while / oo / probably does not go back to the proto language. In the Tuareg, almost only V, VC, CV, CVC (C stands for any consonant, V for any vowel) are allowed as syllable structures , in many northern dialects, on the other hand, stronger consonant clusters are possible. The accent has so far only been researched to a limited extent; the only comprehensive analysis is Heath 2005 on the Tuareg.
The morphology of Berber is fusional and strongly inflected , which is particularly reflected in the frequent use of the ablaut . The basis is the root , which consists of a sequence of usually three, less often one, two or four consonants. It contains only lexical information, grammatical information is largely provided by its vocalization.
The Berber noun distinguishes the two genera masculine and feminine as well as the numbers singular and plural. Similar to the case system of other languages, the Berber noun has two so-called statuses, the status absolutus and the status annexus . For most nouns, number, gender, and status are marked by prefixes, which in Kabyle have the following forms:
|Status absolutus||a -||i -||ta -||ti -|
|Status annexus||wə -||yə -||tə -||tə -|
The status absolutus is used both as a citation form and as an extracted topic as well as as a function of the direct object, i.e. it essentially corresponds to the absolute of other languages. The status annexus, on the other hand, appears as the subject of a verbal sentence and as an object of prepositions, for more information see the section on syntax. Attributive relationships between noun phrases are expressed with the preposition n ( Kabyle ) afus n wə-rgaz "the man's hand". N is also often used with personal pronouns: akal-n-sən "her country".
The feminine can also be marked with a suffix - t : Taschelhit a-ɣyul "donkey" - ta-ɣyul-t "female donkey". Plural forms also have additional options for labeling. In addition to the suffix - ăn / - ən ( Kabyle a-rgaz "man" - i-rgaz-ən "men") the ablaut also plays a role. The last vowel of a word becomes a , the first partially to u ( Kabyle a-ɣɣul "donkey" (singular) - i-ɣɣal "donkey" (plural)).
The personal pronouns of Berber can basically be divided into two groups: free and clitic forms, whereby the latter can be further subdivided according to their syntactic function. The following forms are taken from the Tahaggart, a dialect of the Tuareg, whereby the plural of the absolute pronouns in other languages in particular can differ greatly:
|Absolutely||Direct object||Indirect object||possessive / prepositional|
|1||năkk , năkkunan||- i||- i||- i|
|2 m.||kay , kayunan||- kay||- ak||- (i) k|
|2 f.||kəm , kəmunan||- kăm||- on||- (i) m|
|3 m.||ənta||- t||- as||- (i) s|
|3 f.||əntat||- tăt||- as||- (i) s|
|Plural||1 m.||năkkăniḍ||- anăɣ||- anăɣ||- (i) năɣ|
|1 f.||năkkănătiḍ||- anăɣ||- anăɣ||- (i) năɣ|
|2 m.||kawaniḍ||- kawăn||- awăn||- (i) wăn|
|2 f.||kămăntiḍ||- kămăt||- akmăt||- (i) kmăt|
|3 m.||əntəniḍ||- tăn||- asăn||- (i) săn|
|3 f.||əntənətiḍ||- tănăt||- asnăt||- (i) snăt|
Absolute pronouns have a stressful effect and are particularly at the beginning of a sentence. The object pronouns appear as clitics in verb complexes (see below), the “prepositional” pronouns are suffixed to prepositions as their object: ɣur-i “with me”. With certain restrictions, they can also appear as suffixed possessive pronouns, for example Tuareg ma-s "his mother", Kabyle a -am-is "his house". Most of the time they are added - like nouns - with the preposition n , compare Kabyle akal-n-sən “their country”.
Various stems can be derived from the verbal root, which usually consists of two or three consonants, on the one hand for conjugation purposes and on the other for derivation . Most languages have four stems, through which different aspects are expressed:
- Intense aorist (has frequent and durative meaning)
- Negative perfect (negated form of the perfect)
Other tribes exist in different dialects of the Tuareg, the number of which varies from dialect to dialect. The following two tribes are present in all forms of the Tuareg:
- Resultative perfect tense (expresses the effects of a past action)
- Negative intense aorist (negated form of the intense aorist)
The tribes are for the most part formed exclusively by ablaut, as the following examples from the Chaouia show:
|Aorist||Perfect (affirmative)||Perfect (negative)||Intense aorist||meaning|
|əns||nsi / -a||nsi||tt-nus||"to spend the night"|
|bni / -a||bni / -a||bni / -a||bənni / -a||"to build"|
|ili||lli / -a||lli||tt-ili||"be"|
In certain verbs, a vowel change occurs within one aspect: uf i -ɣ “I found” next to y-uf a “he found”. In addition, the Berber languages have a system of verbal derivation that is inherited from Proto-Afro-Asian and mainly works with affixes (examples from the Tuareg):
|Aorist||Positive perfect||Intense aorist||meaning|
|Causative with s-||əlməd "understand"||s-əlməd||əss-əlmăd||s-almad||"to inform"|
|Passive with t-||ərməs "take"||ətt-ărmăs||ətt-ərmăs||t-ermas||"To be taken"|
|Medium with m-||ədəd "bite"||ămm-ădăd||əmm-ədăd||t-am-ădad||"to be bitten"|
|Reciprocal with nm-||əɣər "call"||ənm-əɣər||ănm-ăɣra||t-inm-əɣri||"Call each other"|
The verb is conjugated primarily with personal prefixes, some of which are supplemented by suffixes. The personal affixes are the same in all verbal stems, the aspects are only differentiated by the verbal stem. The conjugation of the Aorist tribe of əkkəs "to take out" in the Tuareg is:
In Kabyle and Tuareg, the perfect tense of verbs expressing a property is conjugated with suffixes:
"to be black"
Pre- or post-verbal clitics can be used to express further temporal or modal distinctions (examples from the Taschel hit):
- Present tense with ar : ur-ar-yaf non-present tense-he finds "he does not find"
- Perfect with əlli : ríɣ-əlli "I wanted"
In the singular, the imperative corresponds to the verbal stem of the aorist and therefore serves as a citation form of the verb: əkkəs “take out” (Tuareg). In addition, an imperative of the intensive strain can also be formed. In the plural, the imperative is given an affix that is based on the gender of the person addressed: əkkəs-ăt "take out" (masculine), əkkəs-măt "take out" (feminine). Active participles can be formed from several aspect stems, some of which are inflected according to number and gender. Essentially, the conjugation form of the corresponding 3rd person is provided with suffixes; in the Tuareg there are additional ablaut characteristics. The participles are used in relative clauses, the subject of which is identical to the external reference word: Kabyle ikšəm wərgaz “the man has entered” (normal verbal sentence)> argaz ikšəm-ən “the man who has entered” (relative clause).
Deverbal nouns can be formed by superimposing a sequence of vowels on the consonant root, as the following examples from the Tuareg show:
- əddăh "pound" - t-idhăw-t "the pounding"
- əggəš "to enter " - ugəš "to enter "
- sarad "washing" - asirəd "washing"
- ibhaw "to be gray" - abhaw "gray"
- by "desire" - derhan "desire"
Prefixes can also be involved in the formation of deverbal nouns. The prefix am- , em- occurs very often in this function :
- em-ăsăww “drinker; Source "- əsəw " drink "
- am-idi "friend" - idaw "accompany"
- em-ăls "clothes" - əls "to wear (clothes)"
Today's northern Berber languages mainly use numerals borrowed from Arabic , whereas the original Berber forms are progressively being displaced. They read in the hit hit:
They congruent in gender with their reference word, feminine forms are derived with a suffix - t : ya-t "one", sn-at "two", smmus-t "five". There are some deviations from this system in various Berber languages, the most important being the system based on the number “five”, for example in Nafusi: ufəs “hand; five ”, ufəs d sən “ one hand and two ”=“ seven ”, okkos n ifəssən “ four hands ”=“ twenty ”.
|"I gave the money to the man."|
|he will go||man||to market|
|"The man will go to the market."|
All parts of the sentence except the predicate can be placed as a topic at the beginning of the sentence; they are then represented in the sentence by sumptive pronouns . In the thematized position, nouns have the status absolutus and personal pronouns as absolute pronouns:
|man||I gave him||money|
|"I gave the man the money."|
A chain of several clitics can appear before or after the conjugated verb. The following morphemes can be used:
- Negation particle wăr , wər , ur (depending on the language)
- different aspect or modal particles like ad , a (depending on the language)
- Object pronouns in the order indirect object pronoun - direct object pronoun
- "Distance morphemes"
The distance morphemes d and n represent a specialty of Berber. While d expresses proximity or movement to the speaker ( Ventiv ), n stands for distance or movement away from the speaker.
Examples of verbal complexes from the Tuareg:
|he said||them (f.)|
|"He said to them"|
|Future markers||Indirect object||verb|
|(Future tense)||him||I say|
|"I will say to him"|
|verb||Indirect object||Distance morpheme|
|"He came to me"|
|negation||Indirect object||Direct object||verb|
|"He didn't kill him for me"|
Even nominal and prepositional phrases can form a sentence, for example, (Tamazight) into the Berber languages the predicate ism-ns Muha "his name is Muha" (Kabyle) ɣur-i lbhaim "mine is cattle" = "I have cattle." In some dialects, however, the use of a copula d is required: Kabyle ntta d aqbaili. "He is Kabyle". In nominal sentences the subject is also in the status absolutus.
The Berber languages are very similar, especially when it comes to basic vocabulary. In particular, the economic vocabulary of settled tribes is significantly different than that of nomads: While the Tahaggart only knows two or three names for palm species, up to 200 such words can be found in other languages, but the Tahaggart has a rich vocabulary for describing camels. The northern Berber languages in particular have replaced a large part of the inherited vocabulary with Arabic borrowings. On the one hand, words and phrases associated with Islam were adopted, such as Taschelhit bismillah "in the name of Allah " <classic Arabic bi-smi-llāhi , Tuareg ta-mejjīda "mosque" (Arabic masǧid ), on the other hand Berber also took cultural terms such as Kabyle ssuq "market" in Arabic Sūq as- , tamdint "city" <Arab Madina on. Even phrases like the Arabic greeting as-salāmu ʿalaikum “Peace be upon you!” Have been adopted (Tuareg salāmu ɣlīkum ). In addition to Arabic loanwords, Berber languages often have original Berber names such as in Kabyle, where the words ataram and lɣərb (Arabic al-ġarb ) coexist for “west” . More recently, European languages have also had an influence on the Berber languages, as a result of which words such as "Internet" penetrated Berber ( Kabyle intərnət ).
- André Basset: La langue berbère. Handbook of African Languages, part I. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1952
- Lamara Bougchiche: Langues et littératures berbères des origines à nos jours. Bibliography international. Ibis Press, Paris 1997 ISBN 2-910728-02-1 .
- Moha Ennaji (Ed.): Berber Sociolinguistics. (Joshua A. Fishman: International Journal of the Sociology of Language , Volume 123) Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1997.
- Ekkehard Wolff: The Berber languages. In: Bernd Heine, Thilo C. Schadeberg and Ekkehard Wolff: The languages of Africa. Buske, Hamburg 1981, ISBN 3-87118-496-9
Literature on important sub-areas
- Salem Chaker: Linguistique berbère: Études de syntaxe et de diachronie. Peeters, Paris 1995 ISBN 2-87723-152-6 .
- Maarten G. Kossmann: Essai sur la phonologie du proto-berbère. Grammatical analyzes of African languages 12. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, Cologne 1999 ISBN 3-89645-035-2
- Karl G. Prasse: The Reconstruction of Proto-Berber Short Vowels. In: James Bynon, Theodora Bynon: Hamito-Semitica. Mouton, Den Haag / Paris 1975, pp. 215-231
- Karl-G. Prasse: Manuel de grammaire touarègue (tăhăggart). 3 volumes, Copenhagen 1972–1974. ISBN 87-500-1489-7 , ISBN 87-500-1310-6 , ISBN 87-505-0205-0 (historical grammar of Berber with special consideration of the Tuareg)
- Vermondo Brugnatelli: Semitic-Berber Relations. In: Stefan Weninger et al. (eds.): The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. DeGruyter - Mouton, Berlin 2011, pp. 18-27.
- Kamal Naït-Zerrad: Dictionnaire des racines berbères (formes attestées) Vol. I, 1998 ISBN 90-429-0579-4 ; II, 1999 ISBN 90-429-0722-3 ; III, 2002 ISBN 90-429-1076-3 .
Literature on important individual languages
- Jeffrey Heath: Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali) . ( Mouton Grammar Library, 35 ) Mouton de Gruyter, The Hague 2005. ISBN 3-11-018484-2
- "How does Berber sound?" (Tamazight poems as text & MP3)
- Ernst Kausen: The classification of Berber languages within the Afro-Asian languages (DOC; 127 kB)
- Les Berbères en Afrique du Nord French
- Key points of draft revised Constitution (English)
- J. Yoyotte: Anthroponymes d'origine libyenne dans le documenzs égyptiens . In: Comptes rendus du Groupe Linguistique d'Études Chamito-Sémitiques . tape 8 , p. 22-24 (1957-1960). Wilhelm Hölscher: Libyans and Egyptians. (Egyptological research, volume 4) Augustin, Glückstadt 1937; Rafed El-Sayed: Leaning vocabulary of African origin in older Egyptian: Studies on Egyptian-African lexical interference in the third and second millennium BC Chr. Peeters, Leuven 2011, ISBN 978-90-429-2572-4 . Critical: Kossmann 1999, page 17.
- Kosmann 1999, page 17
- Zuzana Malášková, Václav Blažek: Phoenician / Punic loans in Berber languages and their role in chronology of Berber. Abstract to Rethinking Africa's transcontinental continuities in pre-and protohistory . ( Memento of December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) Leiden 2012
- Hugo Schuchardt: The Romance loanwords in Berber. Meeting reports of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna 188.4 , Vienna 1918, uni-graz.at (PDF)
- Maarten Kossmann: The Arabic Influence on Northern Berber. Brill, Leiden 2013.
- N. van den Boogert: The Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous. With an edition and translation of 'The Ocean of the Tears' by Muhammad Awzal (d. 1749) . Suffer.
- See Salem Chaker: Amaziɣ, "(le / un) Berbère". In: Encyclopédie Berbère. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence 1984-. ISBN 2-85744-201-7 . Delivery IV, pp. 562-568.
- ethnologue.com .
- Heath 2005, p. 2.
- Mohammed Errihani: Language policy in Morocco. Problems and prospects of teaching Tamazight. In: The Journal of North African Studies , No. 11, 2 (June 2006). Routledge, London 2006, , pp. 243-154
- for examples see Ethnologue report for language code: ttq . ethnologue.com. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
- Kossmann 1999, for ʔ : Maarten Kossmann: The Origin of the Glottal Stop in Zenaga and its Reflexes in the other Berber Languages . In: Africa and overseas . tape 84 , 2001, p. 61-100 .
- Kossmann does not explicitly name the type of articulation
- Maarten Kossmann: The Origin of the Glottal Stop in Zenaga and its Reflexes in the other Berber Languages . In: Africa and overseas . tape 84 , 2001, p. 61-100 . ; K.-G. Prasse: New Light on the Origin of the Tuareg Vowels E and O , in: HG Mukarovsky (Ed.): Proceedings of the Fifth International Hamito-Semitic Congress , Vienna 1991, I, pages 163-170 .; K.-G. Prasse: The Reconstruction of Proto-Berber Short Vowels. In: J. and T. Bynon (eds.): Hamito-Semitica. The Hague, Paris 1975. Kossmann 1999 also starts with * o.
- L'intonation ( Memento of November 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Salem Chaker: données en exploratoires prosodie berbère. ( Memento of October 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). Olivier Durand: Le vocalisme bref et la question de l'accent tonique en arabe maroccain et berbère. In: Rivista degli Studi Orientali, Volume LXIX (1995), pages 11-31. Bardi, Rome 1996. Werner Vycichl, Salem Chaker: Accent. In: Encyclopédie Berbère. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence 1984-, ISBN 2-85744-201-7
- compare Kossmann 1999, p. 50 ff.
- Prasse 1972–1974, Volume I, p. 164 ff.
- Maarten Kossmann: L'origine de l'aoriste intensif en berbère . In: Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris , 97 (2002), pp. 353-370
- Basset 1952
- Heath 2005, 439-481
- David Sudlow: The Tamasheq of North-East Burkina Faso Ruediger Koeppe Verlag, Cologne 2001. ISBN 3-89645-380-7 , p 125
- Kamal Naït-Zerrad: Grammaire du modern kabyle . Karthala, Paris 2001.
- Heath 2005, p. 437
- Hans Stumme: Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Hinrichs, Leipzig 1899, § 108 ff .; Changed transcription.
- Hans Stumme: Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Hinrichs, Leipzig 1899, § 169; Changed transcription.
- Adolphe de Calassanti-Motylinski: Le Djebel Nefousa. Publications de l'École des Lettres d'Alger, XXII. Ernest Leroux, Paris 1898, p. 31 ff.
- Examples from Wolff 1981
- In the dialect of Heath 2005; Sentences (6) and (7) adopted from there.
- Basset 1952, p. 45
- J.-M. Cortade, M. Mammeri: Lexique français-touareg, dialecte de l'Ahaggar. Paris 1967, 91-93
- text Touaregs en prose de Charles de Foucauld et Adolphe de Calassanti-Motylinski. Édition critique avec traduction par Salem Chaker, Hélène Claudot, Marceau Gast. Edisud, Aix-en-Provence 1984, ISBN 2-85744-176-3 , p. 302
- kab: Internet