Christian-Social Union in Bavaria
|Christian Social Union in Bavaria V.|
|Party leader||Markus Söder|
|Secretary General||Markus Blume|
|Chief Executive||Tobias Schmid|
|founding||October 13, 1945
founding assembly )
|Place of foundation||Munich and Würzburg|
|Youth organization||Young Union (JU)|
|Affiliate foundation||Hanns Seidel Foundation|
Social Market Economy Economic Liberalism
blue and light blue
black ( union color )
|Seats in state parliaments|
|Chief administrative officer at the district level|
|Government grants||14,695,344.40 euros (2019)
(as of April 30, 2020)
|Number of members||140,876
(as of December 9, 2019)
|Minimum age||16 years|
|Average age||59 years old
(as of December 31, 2016)
|Proportion of women||20 percent
(as of December 31, 2016)
|International connections||International Democratic Union (IDU)|
|European party||European People's Party (EPP)|
|EP Group||European People's Party (EPP)|
The CSU and its sister party , the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), are referred to as Union Parties or Union for short. The CDU does not run in Bavaria , the CSU does not participate in the elections in the rest of Germany. Both parties form a parliamentary group in the Bundestag , the CDU / CSU parliamentary group . At the European level , the CSU is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and, with Manfred Weber, is its group chairman in the European Parliament .
The CSU was founded in 1945. It is divided into 10 district and 105 district associations. The CSU has provided the Bavarian Prime Minister without interruption since 1957 . This is currently their current chairman, Markus Söder . It is also the strongest party in Bavaria at the municipal level. It includes 40% of the district councils and city councils in independent cities and 52 of 77 mayors or district administrators.
In the 2017 federal election , the CSU won all 46 direct mandates in Bavaria despite double-digit losses . It is involved in the grand coalition with the CDU and SPD and thus supports the federal government ( Merkel IV cabinet ). At the federal level, the Union has been in government for longer than any other German party since the Federal Republic was founded. The longest time, the CSU formed a coalition alongside the CDU with the FDP in black-yellow coalition . In the years 1969–1982 and 1998–2005, the Union parties were in the opposition .
The CSU conditionally continues the tradition of the Bavarian People's Party (BVP) . It is true that it split off from the Center Party in 1918 in protest against the Unitarianist course pursued by the Center Party and from then on emphasized the Bavarian special interests. However, the strongly right-wing conservative and restorative positions of the BVP can only be found very sporadically in the CSU. Another important difference is that the CSU saw itself from the beginning as a party for Protestant Christians, while the BVP was an exclusively Catholic party , which also radically rejected any socialist conception, whereas in the CSU in its early years there were definitely tendencies towards socialist demands ( Nationalization , land reform ) existed.
The continuing supremacy of the CSU in Bavaria is essentially based on the fact that after the ousting of the Bavarian party and the decline of the GB / BHE in the 1960s, it was also able to capture parts of the liberal and social democratic electorate.
Three basic values can be found in all of the basic programs: the conservative attitude , the Christian orientation and the emphasis on federalism . In domestic politics, the CSU relies on a strong state that has to protect the rights and freedom of its citizens. The CSU is fundamentally skeptical of social liberalization such as the reform of citizenship law . Social and economic policy positions are characterized by socially acceptable regulations. Programmatic differences to the CDU lie mainly in the fact that the CSU is more conservative in domestic, legal and social policy and more welfare state -oriented in economic and social policy .
The basic program adopted in 2007 with the title “Opportunities for All! Shaping the future together in freedom and responsibility ”was replaced at the 2016 party conference by the new basic program“ The Order ”, developed under the leadership of Markus Blume . In it, the CSU emphasizes its claim as a people's party and the peculiarity of appearing exclusively in Bavaria. The social model is subsidiarity - “personal responsibility over common tasks” and “priority of the smaller unit over the larger one”. The new program emphasizes the Christian-social, conservative and liberal orientation of the party and focuses on “order in a world of disorder”. Both a socio-political and an economic-political component are addressed under the keywords Christian conception of man and the social market economy .
On July 19, 2013, a CSU party congress decided on the “Bayernplan” election program for the upcoming elections (state, federal, Europe). The party chairman Horst Seehofer highlighted some major goals: full employment in Bavaria, equal life opportunities in all parts of Bavaria, no new debts, no tax increases, "paragraph brake" and a primary school guarantee and expansion of the all-day offer. Overall, Seehofer and the CSU want a "policy of dialogue based on the principle: listen - understand - act".
Society and social policy
The CSU is no longer opposed to the upgrading of other family models and ways of life ( single parents , stepfamilies and registered civil partnerships ) in its family policy part of the 2007 basic program. As a concept of reconciling family and employment, the CSU relies on the freedom of choice, according to which women and men are free to decide whether they want to devote themselves exclusively to work in the family or at work, or whether they want to combine both.
In this context, the introduction of a childcare allowance is advocated, but at the same time the party supports the establishment of crèche places. The childcare allowance is primarily intended to be paid to parents who do not send their children to a day-care center, but instead either look after their children at home or take care of their private care. Since, in the opinion of the CSU, “every human being is a creature of God”, the state is obliged to protect the right to life - both for people born and for disabled people and unborn children; Terminations of pregnancy are rejected in principle, but allowed with impunity in “serious emergencies or conflict situations” .
Furthermore, it is a concern of the CSU to upgrade child rearing for births before 1992, since three years of child rearing have been credited for the pension for children born after 1992, but only one for children born before. In the opinion of the CSU, three years of child-rearing per child are generally to be taken into account for future pensioners, regardless of whether the children were born before or after 1992.
Social policy should basically be based on the principles of justice and humanity. In view of the current problems of the social systems , the CSU wants to focus more on the individual responsibility in structural reforms of the social security systems, reduce "irrelevant tasks" of the social systems and severely punish abuse of social security systems . This is intended to secure the social market economy as an economic model in the age of globalization .
When it comes to immigration, the CSU relies on integration policy. The order of values from the Basic Law, the Bavarian Constitution and the Christian-Occidental tradition are decisive for this. Parallel societies within Germany should be prevented. At the same time, the Bavarian identity should be preserved. In October 2012, Federal Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich called for asylum seekers who come from a safe country of origin to lower the cash benefits granted by the German state.
At the CSU party congress in November 2015, the delegates passed the call for a statutory full veil ban .
Education and Research
The CSU relies on the tripartite school system and justifies it in the dispute about the comprehensive schools with the good results of Bavaria in the PISA study . The multi-tier school system in Bavaria is viewed as flexible, since all secondary Bavarian schools enable their students to graduate from school and the Bavarian school system is viewed as permeable despite its multi-tier structure. The introduction of comprehensive schools in the Free State is rejected because, in the opinion of Bavaria's Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs Ludwig Spaenle (CSU), they do not sufficiently challenge high-performing students and do not sufficiently empower low-performing students. The high school was largely at the beginning of the school year 2011/2012 in Bavaria for middle school expanded. The middle schools must offer all-day courses, offer a 10th grade and give students from the 8th grade the opportunity to choose one of the three branches “Technology”, “Business” or “Social”. The opportunities for participation for children with social disadvantages and those with a migration background are to be improved. In general, the CSU strives to expand all-day offers and mobile reserves for all types of schools.
The shortening of grammar school education by one year, which was newly introduced in the 2004/2005 school year, enabled savings to be made in the education system. However, the eight-year high school is facing popular resistance, as is the reform of higher education. At Bavarian universities, tuition fees have already been due for a first degree since the summer semester 2007 . These were abolished after a referendum in 2013. The universities are to become more flexible and more efficient through the contributions, paired with a new higher education law and the introduction of the bachelor and master degrees . At the same time, the financial resources for engineering training at universities of applied sciences were noticeably reduced after the state elections in 2003. The CSU pays special attention to promoting Bavaria as a technology location ( high-tech offensive Bavaria ).
For a long time, the CSU advocated charging tuition fees , but parts of the CSU, in particular CSU chairman Horst Seehofer, were already considering their abolition in October 2012. In April 2013, the Bavarian State Parliament decided to abolish tuition fees.
The European policy of the CSU is in a tradition comparable to that of the European-friendly sister party CDU. As early as in the basic program of 1946, the CSU spoke of a “European confederation for the preservation and continuation of Christian-Western culture”. In 1957 the CSU spoke out in favor of the United States of Europe . In 1976 the CSU demanded a European federal state . The positioning of European policy in the last basic program is more general: “Commitment to the EU while maintaining transparency of decisions, efficiency in cooperation between institutions and democratization of decision-making processes”. Constants of the European policy of the CSU are, besides the emphasis on the Christian heritage, the demand for a Europe of the regions and the strengthening of the subsidiarity principle . Edmund Stoiber's departure from the federal principle brought about an open conflict , which contradicted the then Federal Minister of Finance Theo Waigel . The “realistic European course” propagated by Stoiber continues today in a continuous criticism of Europe, which is also directed against its own sister party. In the literature it is discussed whether these positions primarily serve to delimit oneself domestically or to depict an actual programmatic change in values.
With regard to Greece remaining in the euro zone , the Bavarian Finance Minister Markus Söder (CSU) demanded that Greece leave the euro zone by the end of 2012. The then CSU General Secretary Alexander Dobrindt expressed himself with the words: “I am convinced that there is no way around Greece's exit from the Eurozone.” On this issue there is also a conflict with the sister party CDU, which favors Greece remaining in the Eurozone . At the CSU party congress on 7./8. In October 2011 in Nuremberg, the CSU position decided that euro states that do not adhere to the common rules of budget discipline and thereby cause difficulties for themselves and the monetary union must expect to leave the monetary union. However, as EU states, they should receive help with financial restructuring. The mutualisation of the debts of the euro states through so-called euro bonds and the creation of a community of liability is rejected. The party also advocates consistent implementation of the debt brake and full implementation of the Lisbon Treaty . The CSU also advocates a reform of voting rights in the European Central Bank . In this context, an increase in Germany's voting weight is called for.
Administration and public service
With a comprehensive administrative reform called "Verwaltung 21", the CSU wants to streamline the state administration and make it more efficient. This should relieve the budget by around 300 million euros annually in the long term and use the resulting financial leeway for future investments. Practically all parts of the state administration are affected by the administrative reform and are partially reorganized. By dismantling regulations, the state is supposed to be less bureaucratic and thus also to save personnel in the long term. The CSU has a positive view of the planned reform of civil service law (simplification of pay, opportunities for lateral entry, performance-related salary components).
Environmental and consumer protection
As a ruling party, the CSU set up Europe's first environment ministry in the Bavarian state government in 1970. In terms of environmental policy, the CSU follows the so-called "Bavarian way" of cooperative environmental protection. a. is reflected in the “Bavarian Environment Pact”.
Up until the beginning of 2011, the CSU refused to phase out nuclear power and advocated the use of nuclear power ; In 2010, in the Black-Yellow coalition, it helped to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants . After the Fukushima nuclear disaster , this longstanding position was given up. The CSU is now striving to end the use of nuclear power “as quickly as reasonably possible”. The phase out from the use of nuclear energy is to be achieved by 2022 at the latest. The party is also aiming for 50% of electricity in Bavaria to come from renewable energy sources by 2020 . The accelerated phase-out of nuclear energy is seen as a great challenge, but the party also emphasizes that the CSU believes the future belongs to ecological technologies. The ecological tax is rejected in principle, but the demand for abolition has been dispensed with since the 2005 election program. Bavaria has been investing increasingly in flood and climate policy for several years.
In drug policy , the CSU speaks out against the release of illegal drugs and advocates a repressive-prohibitionist approach.
In the 2006 budget year, the CSU was the first federal state in Bavaria to submit a budget without new debt. This has been achieved primarily through rigorous spending cuts by all ministries. 2003/2004 was u. a. a comprehensive structural reform of the Bavarian state administration and an extension of working hours in the public service decided. There is a demand for a reform of the state financial equalization system , which the CSU has often been able to correct in favor of Bavaria through constitutional complaints from the state of Bavaria.
The CSU rejects the introduction of a general speed limit on German motorways.
In May 2013, the party demanded the introduction of a car toll in Germany for travelers from abroad, which led to a conflict with the CDU, which rejected the proposal. It was finally introduced under the name of the infrastructure charge on January 1, 2016, but will only be levied when the technical prerequisites are in place (probably 2020/2021).
Relationship to the CDU
After the Second World War , Christian social and Christian democratic groups formed throughout Germany. Many of them joined together to form state associations, which in all countries except Bavaria were eventually given the name Christian Democratic Union. Even when the CDU federal party was founded in 1950, the CSU did not join in, but remained organizationally independent and active in federal politics.
The relationship between the CDU and CSU was not always unproblematic. As part of the idea of a fourth party , so-called CSU circles of friends were founded outside Bavaria in the mid-1970s , which could have quickly set up local associations if a decision had been made to expand the CSU as the fourth party to the entire Federal Republic. In 1975 the Action Group Fourth Party was founded without the participation of the CSU . After the federal election in 1976 , the confrontation culminated in the Kreuther decision to break up , which was ultimately not carried out . After Strauss's election defeat and the change of government in 1982, the idea of the Fourth Party was finally abandoned, as the change in power had become possible through cooperation with the FDP and the circles of friends largely dissolved.
A new conflict arose in the context of the refugee crisis in Germany in 2015/2016 and the dispute over an upper limit for refugees, which the CSU demanded but was rejected by the CDU federal chairman Angela Merkel. Therefore, the debate about a nationwide expansion of the CSU flared up again. In 2016, Merkel stayed away from the CSU party congress for the first time in years.
Relationship to the DSU
After the fall of the Berlin Wall on January 20, 1990, around a dozen liberal-conservative and Christian parties in Leipzig formed the German Social Union (DSU). The CSU supported this establishment and worked with it, as it was interested in another regionally anchored sister party in East Germany. One reason for this was the positioning of the East German CDU in the ecclesiastical and confessional area, which the CSU viewed as being further left politically. For the Volkskammer election on March 18, 1990 , she entered the Alliance for Germany together with the CDU and the Democratic Awakening and won the elections. However, under pressure from the CDU, the CSU ended its cooperation with the DSU when it was planning to expand to all of Germany.
Together with ten other European Christian-Democratic and conservative-bourgeois parties, the CSU founded the European People's Party (EPP) on July 8, 1976 . The CSU is also a member of the European Movement Network .
Together with 18 other parties from the bourgeois spectrum, the CSU founded the International Democratic Union on June 24, 1983 . Franz Josef Strauss was one of its founding signatories and founding vice-presidents.
The CSU is only organized in the Free State of Bavaria and only stands for election there. At the federal level, it forms a parliamentary group in the German Bundestag with its sister party, the CDU .
Party congress and party committee
The highest organ at the state level is the party congress (state assembly until 1968). The party congress meets at least once a year and consists of the delegates from the district and district associations. There is one delegate for every 170 members, which is comparatively low in a German comparison of parties.
The tasks of the party congress are in particular to pass resolutions on the basic lines of party politics, the party program and the statutes, as well as the election and control of functionaries at state level.
Between 1955 and 1999, the CSU held its party congresses mainly in Munich. Since then, they have mostly alternated between Munich ( Old Bavaria ) and Nuremberg ( Franconia ), and occasionally also in Augsburg ( Swabia ).
The party committee as a “small party congress” usually meets once a year in spring.
The 50-member executive committee, headed by the chairman, is responsible for representing the party externally and dealing with urgent political problems and organizational issues. The board continues to have five deputy chairmen, two treasurers and two secretaries. In addition, 32 other elected members and seven members by virtue of office are on the party executive committee. Then there are the three honorary chairmen.
The handling of current business and questions of economic activity of the party is the task of the presidium of the party, which includes the party chairman and his deputies, the general secretary, the treasurers and secretaries as well as the general manager and the chairman of the finance commission, seven members elected by the board. The presidium is considered to be the closest leadership circle of the CSU.
The party-internal administration and organization is incumbent on the so-called state management, which has its seat in the Franz-Josef-Strauss-Haus in Munich. It is led by the General Secretary (since March 14, 2018 Markus Blume ), his deputy (since January 2019 Florian Hahn ) and the General Manager (since January 2019 Carolin Schumacher ).
Regionally, the CSU is subdivided into ten district associations, 105 district associations and almost 3,000 local associations.
|District Association||Chairman||Taking office|
|Middle Franconia||Joachim Herrmann||2001|
|Lower Bavaria||Andreas Scheuer||2016|
|Nuremberg - Fürth - Schwabach||Michael Frieser||2018|
|Upper Bavaria||Ilse Aigner||2011|
|Upper Franconia||Hans-Peter Friedrich||2011|
|Upper Palatinate||Albert Füracker||2015|
|Lower Franconia||Gerhard Eck||2011|
Eight working groups, twelve working groups, four commissions and three forums develop content-related and strategic positions on CSU policy. In addition, there are structures in place with the CSU academy and the PR academy that serve to promote young political talents and disseminate knowledge for marketing the party on site.
|Working group||State Presidency|
|Young Union (JU)||Christian Doleschal|
|Women's Union (FU)||Ulrike Scharf|
|Workers Union (CSA)||Volker Ullrich|
|Food, Agriculture and Forestry (ELF)||Marlene Mortler|
|Local Political Association (KPV)||Stefan Roessle|
|Mittelstands-Union (MU)||Franz Josef Pschierer|
|Union of Displaced Persons (UdV)||Bernd Posselt|
|Seniors Union (SEN)||Thomas Goppel|
|Working group||State Presidency|
|Foreign and Security Policy (ASP)||Florian Hahn|
|Environmental protection and regional development (AKU)||Martin Huber|
|School, Education and Sport (AKS)||Otto Lederer|
|University and Culture (AKH)||Oliver Jörg|
|Evangelical Working Group (EAK)||Christian Schmidt|
|Police and Internal Security (POL)||Gerhard Eck|
|Public Service (OeD)||Gerhard Waschler|
|Lawyers (AKJ)||Thomas Kreuzer|
|Health Policy Working Group (GPA)||Christian Alex|
|Energy transition (AKE)||Martin Ehrenhuber|
|Migration and Integration (AK MIG)||Ozan Iyibas|
|Media commission||Florian Herrmann|
|Family Commission||Thomas Huber|
|Film commission||Judith Gerlach|
|Transport Commission||Daniela Ludwig|
|Discussion group Christ Social Catholics (CSK)||Thomas Goppel|
|Jewish Forum in the Union||André Freud and Ludwig Spaenle|
|People with disabilities||Benedict Lika|
With around 140,000 members, the CSU is the third largest party in Germany and has more than twice as many members as the smaller parties Greens, FDP or Die Linke (as of the end of 2017). In 1953 the party still had fewer than 33,000 members, compared to 186,000 in 1990. Since then, it has lost almost a quarter of its members.
At the end of 2016, 1.3% of the Bavarian population over the age of 16 were members of the party. Only the Saarland state associations of the CDU and SPD achieve a higher ability to recruit. The proportion of women is 20%. Three quarters of the members are Catholic.
|Income of the CSU in 2017||Amount
|Mandate holder contributions and similar regular contributions||3,672,742.36||8.47|
|Donations from natural persons||5,440,941.90||12.55|
|Events, distribution of pamphlets and publications and other income-related activities||6,266,935.69||14.45|
|Donations from legal entities||4,406,871.48||10.16|
|Income from other property||1,221,150.10||2.82|
|Income from business activities and investments||0.00||0.00|
In 2017, the CSU had revenues of 43.4 million euros, 23 percent of which came from donations, 24 percent from membership fees and 27 percent from state funds. (see also: party financing )
Donations from Substantia AG
The CSU has received large donations from Substantia AG on several occasions, including in 2008, the Finck family of which is also the majority owner of the hotel-operating Mövenpick Group. Critics made a connection to the VAT reduction for the accommodation industry as part of the Growth Acceleration Act 2009.
Foundation and years of development
In the summer of 1945, Christian conservative groups formed at the municipal level that wanted to create a counterweight to the SPD and KPD . The new Christian, interdenominational party was supposed to remedy the shortcomings of the Catholic-dominated Center Party and, in Bavaria from 1920, of the independent Bavarian People's Party, as with the entire Union .
The centers of the unification of the regional groupings to form an all-Bavarian party were the Munich group around Karl Scharnagl , "Ochsensepp" Josef Müller and Joseph Baumgartner, and the Würzburg group around District President Adam Stegerwald .
It is difficult to give a founding date of the party. August 21, 1945, the day Adam Stegerwald gave his speech in Würzburg, Where are we? Had kept. On September 12, 1945, a decision was made to found a "Bavarian Christian Social Union" in Munich, which was formally carried out on October 11. The CSU was founded on October 12, 1945 in Coburg, and on October 13 (licensed on November 3), 1945 in Würzburg . On December 17, 1945, the provisional state committee elected Josef Müller as acting chairman. The Bavarian founding assembly took place on January 8, 1946; On December 14th and 15th, 1946, the second state assembly passed the first basic program and confirmed the hitherto provisional party chairman Josef Müller in his office. Unlike the Christian conservative parties in the other federal states, which merged to form the CDU in 1950, the CSU remained independent and organizationally limited to Bavaria, analogous to the Bavarian People's Party in the Weimar Republic. It rejected the all-German claim to leadership first of the Berlin CDU, then the CDU in the British zone of occupation under Konrad Adenauer .
The founding years were marked by the struggle for the party's programmatic direction. A Christian-liberal group around Müller and Scharnagl faced Catholic-conservative members from the former BVP ( Fritz Schäffer , Alois Hundhammer ). Initially, the separatist Bavarian party competed for the same electorate as the CSU, as both parties saw and presented themselves as successors to the BVP. The CSU was ultimately able to win this power struggle. On the one hand, the CSU succeeded in bringing the reconciliatory wing of the BP back to the CSU through a pragmatic course between tradition and modernization. On the other hand, at the end of the 1950s, BP was involved in the " casino affair " under dubious circumstances and, among other things, lost a lot of its reputation and votes. In the state elections in 1966 she left the state parliament for good.
History of the CSU in Bavaria
In the election for the Bavarian State Constituent Assembly on June 30, 1946, the first state-wide post-war election , the CSU received 58.3 percent of the vote and thus won 109 of the 180 seats in the assembly. Since the first state election in Bavaria in December 1946, the party has appointed the state's prime minister except for the reign of Wilhelm Hoegner ( SPD , 1954–1957) . With the exception of the state elections on November 26, 1950 , the CSU was always the party with the highest number of votes.
In the 1946 state election , the CSU won an absolute majority with 52.3 percent. Nevertheless, it formed a coalition with the SPD and WAV , as it was believed that a viable majority was not secured due to the ongoing fighting within the party. Hans Ehard became prime minister (and not the party chairman Josef Müller); a candidate acceptable to both wings was thus elected to office. The coalition broke up again in September 1947, as the CSU and SPD were increasingly alienating each other ideologically and politically. The CSU continued to run the government on its own, but suffered a serious defeat in the state elections of November 26, 1950 : it only achieved 27.4 percent and only one seat more than the SPD, which won 28 percent more votes. The background to this was the dispute between the CSU and the Bavarian Party , which was running for the first time and won 17.9 percent of the votes that had previously been mainly attributable to the CSU - as well as the BHE's first candidacy . However, Hans Ehard, who formed a coalition of CSU, SPD and BHE, remained Prime Minister.
After the election of November 28, 1954 , the CSU had to join the opposition for the first time and to date only. Although she was able to increase her result by 38 percent, the negotiations with the previous SPD coalition partner failed, who then took over the leadership of a four-party coalition made up of the SPD, BP, BHE and FDP and elected Wilhelm Hoegner as prime minister. The CSU tried out of the opposition to break up the coalition and finally achieved the withdrawal of the FDP and the BHE from the coalition in 1957. As a result, the CSU chairman Hanns Seidel formed a coalition of the CSU, BHE and FDP, which was confirmed in the state elections in 1958 .
In 1959, the CSU hit a decisive blow against the rival Bavarian party . On August 8, in the so-called " casino affair ", high-ranking officials of the BP were sentenced to considerable penal sentences for making false statements on oath . Even the former CSU Prime Minister and CSU Justice Minister Hans Ehard later called this judgment “a barbaric judgment”. Because: “The two politicians in the committee of inquiry were made to swear by them on trivial matters. In comparison, it doesn't really matter whether someone wore yellow boots or red ones. ”The CSU had previously collected incriminating material against the BP and was involved in the opaque and, for the CSU, favorable exposure of the case. The witness Lorenz Rainer reported under oath about a conversation between the casino candidate Karl Freisehner and the then CSU general secretary Friedrich Zimmermann, which he overheard in a Salzburg hotel in 1958: Zimmermann had promised the freeman at that time roulette concessions, if he had one Voluntary disclosure burden the Bavarian party leaders. The then CSU general secretary Friedrich Zimmermann was also convicted of perjury in the first instance a short time later , but this judgment was overturned in the second instance because Zimmermann had a blackout due to hypoglycaemia in the decisive phase of his testimony against the Bavarian party, according to an expert who was added later . In its overall assessment of the hearing, however, the court stated: "There can be no question of the defendant's innocence being proven ...". According to SPIEGEL, Zimmermann himself commented on the expert: "He was named by my defense, I saw him for the first time in the courtroom." Zimmermann was therefore nicknamed "Old Oath Hand", which haunted him all his life.
In 1960, Hanns Seidel for health reasons and his successor Hans Ehard was re-elected, then his office after winning an absolute majority in the elections of November 25, 1962 at Alfons Goppel gave. From 1962 to 2008 the CSU held the absolute majority of the seats in the Bavarian state parliament . Numerous affairs such as B. the Spiegel affair or the Munich CSU affair could not do anything to the popularity of the CSU. In the election of October 27, 1974 , Goppel achieved 62.1 percent of the vote, the CSU's best result in state elections to date.
In 1978, Franz Josef Strauss moved from Bonn to Munich as Prime Minister and stayed that way until his death in 1988.
After Strauss's death, a double leadership followed within the party: Max Streibl was elected Bavarian Prime Minister, Theo Waigel was elected the new party chairman. German reunification took place during Streibl's reign, followed by the “Munich Declaration” in 1990: At the first conference of prime ministers of all 16 German states since 1947, the prime ministers spoke out clearly in favor of the federalist principle of the Federal Republic. On May 27, 1993, Streibl resigned because of the so-called " Amigo Affair " , pushed by leading CSU members . The new Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber , who prevailed over Theo Waigel in the struggle for successor, received 52.8 percent of the vote in the state elections in September 1994 . In the 1990s, the CSU under Stoiber pursued the goal of using the extensive privatization proceeds to develop Bavaria into a so-called “high-tech location” in the “Future Bavaria Offensive” and the “High-Tech-Offensive Bavaria” .
In the state elections in 2003 , the CSU was the only party in the Federal Republic of Germany to win a two-thirds majority of the seats with 60.7 percent of the vote . A rigorous austerity policy, the introduction of the eight-year grammar school (shortened education course - G8) and a reform of the higher education law with the associated introduction of tuition fees were key points of the CSU policy at the time and sometimes led to massive protests in Bavaria.
In the state elections in Bavaria on September 28, 2008 , the CSU lost 17.3 percent of the vote and for the first time since 1962 no longer achieved an absolute majority in a state election. The CSU chairman Erwin Huber announced on September 30, 2008 that he would resign on October 25, 2008. In the absence of support from the CSU parliamentary group, Prime Minister Beckstein resigned the following day . At the special party convention of the CSU on October 25, 2008, Horst Seehofer was elected to succeed Erwin Huber. Seehofer was also elected Prime Minister in the Bavarian state parliament on October 27th, who subsequently headed a coalition of CSU and FDP. In autumn 2012, as a result of the CSU media affair in 2012, party spokesman Hans Michael Strepp resigned after he had previously tried to influence ZDF reporting . A little later it became known that Markus Söder had also intervened several times at ZDF during his time as General Secretary. His spokeswoman for the Ministry of the Environment, Ulrike Strauss, did the same for Bayerischer Rundfunk in 2011 .
In the state elections in Bavaria in 2013 , the CSU again achieved an absolute majority of the seats with 47.7 percent of the vote.
The CSU at the federal level
The history of the CSU at federal level is shaped by its striving for independence within the framework of the Union parties. Already in the first post-war years it became clear that the Bavarian Union Party did not want to fit into a Germany-wide organizational structure and claimed a strong role beyond Bavaria.
At a meeting of Union politicians on April 3, 1946 in Stuttgart, the CSU, represented by Josef Müller , rejected the CDU's claim to leadership, and at the Union's first federal party conference on October 20, 1950 in Goslar, the CSU did not join as it did the other Christian-Democratic state parties of West Germany and West Berlin merged to form the CDU of Germany. It thus stood in the tradition of the Bavarian People's Party , which had broken away from the mother party, the Center , in 1918 , and remained limited to Bavaria until its dissolution and acted independently at the Reich level.
From the beginning, the CSU worked in the “Working Group CDU / CSU Germany” and also asserted claims beyond Bavaria: In the newly established head office of the Bizone , it filled the two director posts for postal and telecommunications ( Hans Schuberth ) and economics ( Johannes Semler ). The CSU politician Anton Pfeiffer took over the chairmanship of the Constitutional Convention of Herrenchiemsee and the Union faction in the Parliamentary Council . Although the CSU had a massive impact on the federal basis of the Basic Law through the Bavarian state government , after a 15-hour debate, the Bavarian state parliament was the only state parliament to reject the Basic Law as too federal and hindering the states with 101: 63 votes and 9 abstentions. In a separate resolution, the legally binding nature of the Basic Law was recognized with 97: 6 votes with 70 abstentions, if two thirds of the federal states accepted it.
The first federal election in 1949 ended in a fiasco for the CSU. It received only 29.2 percent of the vote in Bavaria and had to give up a large part of its supporters to the BP. Nevertheless, the CSU was represented in the first cabinet of Adenauer with the three ministers Fritz Schäffer (finance), Wilhelm Niklas (agriculture and nutrition) and Hans Schuberth (post and telecommunications) . The members of the CSU together with the members of the CDU formed a parliamentary group , the still existing CDU / CSU parliamentary group . One day before the Union parliamentary group was constituted, the 24 MPs founded the CSU regional group to represent Bavarian interests. As in the state elections, the CSU again gained votes from 1953 and was able to regularly win an absolute majority in federal elections in Bavaria. The CSU was represented by federal ministers, sometimes disproportionately, at all federal governments led by the Union.
Formative for the history of the CSU at the federal level was Franz Josef Strauss , deputy chairman of the regional group since 1949 and from 1953 in various ministerial offices ( special tasks , nuclear issues, defense). Strauss was finance minister in the grand coalition of Kurt Georg Kiesinger . After the change of government in 1969, the CSU distinguished itself under his leadership as the more conservative wing within the Union faction. Visible expression of this was the lawsuit initiated by the Free State of Bavaria against the basic treaty and the decision to separate from Wildbad Kreuth : the CSU regional group decided on November 19, 1976 not to continue the faction community with the CDU. Official reasons for this were more effective opposition work and more speaking time in parliament.
Behind the scenes, however, the CSU was annoyed that the Union could not replace the SPD in the recent Bundestag election despite a 60% result for the CSU in Bavaria. The relationship with the FDP and considerations about a strategic reorganization of the party landscape also led to tensions: In order to secure a majority for the bourgeois camp again in the medium term, the CSU in particular (again) was considering organizing the CSU nationwide . As a “ fourth party ”, a conservative CSU would address a different potential of voters in the Federal Republic than a more liberal CDU. The CDU, on the other hand, opposed these plans for fear of losing votes. After tough negotiations, the CSU withdrew the Kreuther decision on December 12, but emerged significantly stronger from the conflict and won the nomination of its chairman Strauss as candidate for chancellor for the 1980 federal election . Strauss, who was highly controversial because of his conservative views and political past, was unable to prevail against incumbent Helmut Schmidt in a highly polarizing election campaign , although the Union was again the strongest force despite losses. While the CSU was able to maintain its result of 1976, the CDU lost almost four percentage points.
From 1982 to 1998, the CSU was always represented in Helmut Kohl's cabinets by four to six federal ministers, including Friedrich Zimmermann , Theo Waigel and Horst Seehofer. After the defeat in the 1998 Bundestag election , in which the CSU in Bavaria fell below 50 percent of the vote for the first time since 1953, Theo Waigel resigned as chairman and the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber was elected as his successor as party chairman. In 1999 the CSU and CDU initiated a signature campaign against the reform of German citizenship law , in which the right of descent should be supplemented by elements of the ius soli , and with this vehemently criticized action achieved the first election victory in Hesse after the lost federal election.
Under the chairmanship of Edmund Stoiber , the influence of the CSU in the Union increased sharply again and in 2002 Stoiber was nominated as the Union's candidate for Chancellor. Unlike Strauss in 1980, Stoiber had the entire Union behind him, but failed despite a gain in votes for the Union against Gerhard Schröder because, like Strauss, he had difficulties mobilizing the voters in eastern and northern Germany.
In the early federal elections in 2005 , the CSU in Bavaria had to accept significant losses, which, however, are primarily due to a high proportion of loan votes for the FDP , which more than doubled its election result in Bavaria. It lost 9.3 percent and came to 49.3 percent. In order to maintain the weight of the CSU in the planned grand coalition under Angela Merkel and to signal the support of the CSU, Edmund Stoiber should move to Berlin as Federal Minister of a newly created Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology . Interior Minister Günther Beckstein and State Chancellor Erwin Huber applied for his successor in Bavaria.
Edmund Stoiber took the announcement of the SPD party chairman Franz Müntefering that he no longer wanted to run for the SPD chairmanship as an opportunity to withdraw his commitment as minister in the federal cabinet under Merkel and thus trigger a temporary internal party crisis. The focus of the criticism was the demand for a more intensive internal party discussion of central issues. Stoiber reacted to this, among other things, with the plan to "update" the basic program from 1993. The post of Federal Minister for Economics and Technology originally intended for Stoiber has now been filled by the long-standing CSU regional group leader Michael Glos. Horst Seehofer became Federal Minister for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection .
On January 18, 2007, Edmund Stoiber announced his resignation from the offices of CSU party chairman and Bavarian Prime Minister for the beginning of October 2007. His former deputy Günther Beckstein succeeded him as Prime Minister , while Erwin Huber , Horst Seehofer and Gabriele Pauli were candidates for party chairmanship . The favorite, Erwin Huber, won the election at the party congress on September 29, 2007 with 58.19 percent.
The loss of the absolute majority of the CSU in the state elections in Bavaria in 2008 caused both Erwin Huber and Günther Beckstein to resign from their offices. Horst Seehofer subsequently took over the chairmanship of the CSU and was elected Bavarian Prime Minister. His successor in the office of Minister of Agriculture was Ilse Aigner. After Michael Glos resigned as Federal Minister of Economics, Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg became his successor on February 10, 2009 .
One of the main campaign topics of the CSU for the 2009 Bundestag election was the lowering of the VAT rate for overnight stays in hotels. Horst Seehofer promised to only sign a coalition agreement in which the hotel tax would be reduced.
After the federal election in 2009 , the Union parties formed a coalition with the FDP, in which three ministries were taken over by the CSU. Since the Federal Ministry of Economics went to the FDP, Guttenberg took over the Federal Ministry of Defense . As defense minister, he initiated a series of measures aimed at reforming the German armed forces, including the suspension of compulsory military service, voluntary military service and a reduction in the number of troops. However, Guttenberg resigned from the office of Federal Defense Minister on March 1, 2011 because of the plagiarism affair surrounding his doctoral thesis . On March 3, 2011 Guttenberg was dismissed by Federal President Christian Wulff . While the office of Federal Defense Minister was taken over by the CDU politician Thomas de Maizière , the CSU provided the Federal Minister of the Interior with the former CSU regional group leader Hans-Peter Friedrich until the end of the legislative period .
In 2016 it was discussed again whether the CSU should compete nationwide. Christoph Schwennicke wrote for Cicero that if the CSU could no longer support Angela Merkel's course in refugee policy, it should leave the coalition or join nationwide. After the three state elections on March 13, 2016 ( Baden-Württemberg , Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt ), party leader Horst Seehofer rejected this to the Passauer Neue Presse in principle, but not forever: “It is still 'right if we do do not expand nationwide, but instead have an impact on the CDU [...]. That remains our strategy. But nobody can give eternity guarantees. '"
In the 2017 federal election, the CSU achieved the worst result since 1949 and lost more than ten percentage points. She lost the majority of the votes against the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) founded in 2013 , which positioned itself to the right of the CSU. The AfD also moved into the Bundestag with 12.6%, which is the first time since 1949 that a right-wing party is represented in the Bundestag. Horst Seehofer announced on the evening of the election that the CSU would again concentrate more on conservative values in order to be able to close the "right flank" that was caused by the AfD.
|Surname||Office||Beginning of the term of office||Parl. State Secretary or Minister of State|
|Horst Seehofer||Federal Minister of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs||March 14, 2018||
Günter Krings (CDU)
Marco Wanderwitz (CDU)
Stephan Mayer (CSU)
|Andreas Scheuer||Federal Minister for Transport and Digital Infrastructure||March 14, 2018||
Steffen Bilger (CDU)
Enak Ferlemann (CDU)
|Gerd Müller||Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development||17th December 2013||
Norbert Barthle (CDU)
Maria Flachsbarth (CDU)
Since the first direct elections to the European Parliament in 1979, the CSU has always been represented by five to ten members and, except in 1989, always achieved an absolute majority in Bavaria. From 1987 to 1995 Peter Schmidhuber was a member of three European commissions (Delors I- III ) under Jacques Delors , responsible for regional policy and market economy and, since January 1989, also for budgetary control.
In order to adequately secure the influence of the federal states, the CSU and with it the Bavarian state government campaigned massively in 1992 to create the later Committee of the Regions and appointed its general secretary. In the 2004 European elections , she and her top candidate Ingo Friedrich , Vice President of the European Parliament , won 57.4% of the vote and provided nine of eleven Bavarian MEPs. One of the main campaign topics was Turkey's rejection of full EU membership . Also in 2004, Edmund Stoiber was brought up for discussion by Jacques Chirac and Gerhard Schröder as the successor to EU Commission President Romano Prodi . However, Stoiber decided against moving to Brussels.
As one of the ten largest groups, the CSU, together with the CDU, exerts a strong influence in the EPP parliamentary group. With Manfred Weber, she provides the parliamentary group chairman and top candidate for the 2019 European elections and with Albert Deß the spokesman for agricultural policy. Angelika Niebler is the chairwoman of the CSU Europe group in the European Parliament.
CSU groups outside of Bavaria
In the mid-fifties, in Saarland, which was not yet part of the Federal Republic of Germany, an association called CSU-Saar (CSU-S) was formed without the participation of Bavaria . In the state elections in 1955, it only reached 0.6 percent.
After the integration of the Saarland into the Federal Republic of Germany, the Christian People's Party of the Saarland (CVP), which had spoken out against accession, started negotiations with the Bavarian CSU. As a result, on July 6, 1957, a kind of CSU regional association was formed from the CVP and the CSU Saar. In the Bundestag election in 1957 , the Saarland CSU achieved 21%, which led to two seats in the German Bundestag through a list connection with the Bavarian CSU . The CVP parliamentary group in the Saarland state parliament renamed itself the CSU parliamentary group.
At the end of 1959 the CSU / CVP was dissolved. After a framework agreement with the CDU-Saar on November 30, 1958, the members could change to the CDU-Saar until September 1959. A minority founded the Saarland People's Party (SVP) because they did not want to join the CDU Saar.
In the state elections in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 1990 , a CSU association that was independent of the Bavarian CSU ran. With a result of 1.1%, he did not succeed in entering the state parliament.
1945 to 1949
1949 to 1955
1955 to 1961
Franz Josef Strauss
1961 to 1988
1988 to 1999
1999 to 2007
2007 to 2008
2008 to 2019
Franz Josef Strauss
1949 to 1952
1952 to 1954
1954 to 1955
1956 to 1963
1963 to 1967
1967 to 1971
1971 to 1978 and
1983 to 1988
1978 to 1983
1988 to 1994
1995 to 1998
1999 to 2003
2003 to 2007
2007 to 2008
Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
2008 to 2009
2009 to 2013
2013 to 2018
Chairmen of parliamentary groups
Chairwoman of the parliamentary group in the Bavarian state parliament
Chair of the regional group in the German Bundestag
Chair of the group in the European Parliament
|Bundestag election results|
|year||Number of votes||Share of votes in the federal territory||Share of votes in Bavaria||Seats||Top candidate|
|1961||3,014,471||9.6%||54.9%||Franz Josef Strauss 2|
|2002||4,315,080||9.0%||58.6%||Edmund Stoiber 2|
European elections since 1979
|European election results|
|year||Number of votes||Share of votes in the federal territory||Share of votes in Bavaria||Seats||Top candidate|
|State election results|
|year||Number of votes||Share of votes||Seats||Top candidate|
|1978||3,387,995||59.1%||Franz Josef Strauss|
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- Results of the state elections in Bavaria
- Elections to the Bavarian State Parliament 1946 to 2008 - voter turnout and total votes (graphics) (PDF; 455 kB)
- Allocation of seats in the Bavarian Parliament since 1946 (graphics) (PDF; 432 kB)
- State elections in Bavaria since 1946 (table).