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Natascha Kohnen
Natascha Kohnen
Logo SPD LV Bayern.svg
Chairperson Natascha Kohnen
Deputy Matthias Dornhuber
Marietta Eder
Johanna Uekermann
Secretary General Uli Grötsch
Treasurer Thomas Goger
executive Director Olaf Schreglmann
Establishment date June 26, 1892
Place of foundation Reinhausen
Landtag mandates
Number of members 62,122 (as of February 7, 2018)

The BayernSPD (full name Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Regional Association of Bavaria ) is the Bavarian regional association of the Social Democratic Party of Germany . At the end of 2016, it was the second largest state association of a party in Bavaria with over 60,000 members.

The chairman is Natascha Kohnen , the general secretary is Uli Grötsch .

With over 1,800 local clubs, the BayernSPD is represented in almost all of Bavaria.


The SPD in the Kingdom of Bavaria

Social democratic organizations also emerged early on in Bavaria. For example, there was a workers' education association in Nuremberg since 1866 . In 1881 Karl Grillenberger won the first Reichstag mandate for the SPD in Bavaria in Nuremberg . In 1887, the SPD (not yet under this name) stood in the Kingdom of Bavaria for the first time in the election to the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom, but with 2.1 percent of the votes it cannot win a seat.

The history of the SPD Bavaria as a separate organization began with the first party congress of the SPD in Bavaria, which, on the initiative of Georg von Vollmar, did not meet in the city of Regensburg as planned in 1892, but in the village suburb of Reinhausen because the then conservative-liberal mayor of the City of Oskar von Stobäus had understood how to let the city's innkeepers refrain from renting a hall. The party congress decided that the SPD would run for the state elections in 1893 and passed an election program. This election program read, among other things: “Care of science and art, unlimited freedom of their teaching and practice. Creation of a school law based on the following principles: Free of charge for school lessons and teaching materials, payment of the costs by the state, improvement of the elementary school, in particular by extending school hours and replacing the useless holiday school with effective continuing education. Food for school children in need at public expense. Relief of teachers from church service and improvement of their salaries; secular school inspection. "

In the state election in 1893, the first five SPD members moved into the Chamber of Deputies in the Bavarian state parliament ; overall, the SPD had 3.7 percent of the vote. The chairmanship of the small SPD parliamentary group was taken over by Georg von Vollmar, who was also elected first chairman of the Bavarian SPD the following year and held both offices until 1918. During this time, the SPD was able to increase its share of the vote and the number of its mandates. In the last election of a state parliament in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1912, the party achieved 30 seats with 19.5 percent of the vote, making it the second largest parliamentary group after the center .

The policy of the Bavarian SPD under Georg von Vollmar was strongly reformist . This repeatedly led to conflicts with the SPD in the Reich, which under August Bebel was revolutionary and centrist . The Bavarian SPD repeatedly approved the budget in the state parliament, entered into electoral alliances with the center and tried to achieve majorities in the state parliament for its own political goals. This has been achieved time and again, for example with the reform of the Law on Associations and Assemblies, which made the work of the SPD and trade unions easier and allowed women to work in political associations and trade unions. Improvements were also made in social policy and freedom from cartels. The reformist orientation probably reached its climax when the SPD parliamentary group in the state parliament explicitly warned against the outbreak of a revolution in the discussion about the parliamentarization of Bavaria in 1918.

The split in the SPD on the occasion of the First World War also took place in Bavaria. Although the Bavarian SPD did not agree to the financing of the war in the state parliament - unlike the SPD in the Reichstag - a USPD was created in Bavaria .

In 1918 Georg von Vollmar retired from his offices for health reasons. He had already largely delegated the work beforehand. Vollmar's successor as party chairman in Bavaria was Erhard Auer , who held the office until the SPD was banned in 1933.

The Bavarian SPD in the revolution 1918/19

The SPD in the state parliament tried to avoid a revolution in Bavaria through initiatives for a parliamentarization of the government system. This parliamentarization also came about with the constitutional reform on November 2, 1918; the SPD was promised that it would be represented in the government that will in future be dependent on parliament.

Nevertheless, the revolution broke out just a few days later, on November 7th. A workers 'and soldiers' council was constituted in Munich. The state parliament was stormed, King Ludwig III. was declared deposed. A few days later, the king released the civil servants in the Anifer Declaration of allegiance and thus ensured that the administration was able to work. He refused to abdicate. The House of Wittelsbach has not renounced the throne to this day. The USPD politician Kurt Eisner proclaimed the Free State and anchored it in the constitution. It read: 'Bavaria is a Free State and a member of the German Empire. […] The national colors are white and blue. '

The government of this new Free State was taken over by a joint government made up of the USPD and the SPD; the SPD, which had not wanted the revolution, decided to join the government in order not to lose control of the events. Kurt Eisner acted as Prime Minister of this government, making him the first Social Democrat in this role in Bavaria. Parliamentary tasks were taken over by the Provisional National Council. In the struggle over whether Bavaria should in future be a soviet republic , as Eisner was striving for, or a parliamentary democracy, the majority SPD prevailed: state elections were scheduled for January 12, 1919.

In these elections, the USPD suffered a devastating defeat: It received only 2.5 percent of the vote and thus three seats. The SPD achieved 33 percent and was represented by 61 members in the 180-seat parliament. For the first time women were allowed to vote and be elected. The first female members of the SPD were Aurelie Deffner and Emilie Mauerer .

On the way to the constituent session of the new state parliament, Kurt Eisner, who wanted to resign as Prime Minister there, was shot on February 21, 1919. Thereupon riots in the state parliament, as a result of which two people died and Erhard Auer, who was Minister of the Interior in the Eisner government, was shot; his assassin believed he was responsible for Eisner's murder.

Johannes Hoffmann , Bavarian Prime Minister 1919 to 1920

As a result, unrest broke out in Munich, culminating in the proclamation of the Munich Soviet Republic . The state parliament elected the SPD politician Johannes Hoffmann as prime minister on March 17 , although the SPD did not have the strongest parliamentary group. Hoffmann initially led a government made up of the SPD, USPD and the Bavarian Farmers' Union . The government worked out the Bavarian constitution , which had been passed on August 12, 1919, and had since fled to Bamberg as the state parliament . At this point in time, the USPD and the Bauernbund left the government; Hoffmann had ruled since May 31, 1919 in a coalition of the SPD, BVP and DDP . The cause of the government reshuffle was the brutal suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic by the Reichswehr and Freikorps , which the Hoffmann government had commissioned.

On March 14, 1920, Johannes Hoffmann resigned as Bavarian Prime Minister. Shortly before that, against Hoffmann's will, the government had transferred executive power to the chief of the Reichswehr troops stationed in Bavaria, General Arnold von Möhl . The SPD went into the opposition, in which it remained until the end of the Weimar Republic.

The Bavarian SPD in the Weimar Republic and under National Socialism

The SPD emerged from the first state election after the new Bavarian constitution on June 6, 1920 with a devastating defeat: Compared to the election of January 12, 1919, it halved its share of the vote to only 16.5 percent, which translates into 26 seats (previously 61) corresponded. The USPD was able to win significantly, more than quintupling its share of the vote from 2.5 percent to 12.8 percent (20 seats). On November 8, 1922, most of the USPD members of the state parliament rejoined the SPD, whose number of seats rose to 40.

In the elections of April 6, 1924, however, the merger of the SPD and USPD did not make itself felt: The SPD achieved just 17.2 percent, so it lost 12.1 percentage points on the added vote result of 1920. In the state parliament, the SPD only had 23 seats, a loss of 17. The emergent National Socialism - the NSDAP entered the Bavarian state parliament for the first time in the 1924 election and with the same number of seats as the SPD - was analyzed by state parliament member Wilhelm Hoegner on the occasion of the Hitler coup 1923 in a more than thousand-page investigation.

In the election on May 20, 1928, the SPD was able to increase its share of the vote again for the first time: It received 24.2 percent and 34 seats in the state parliament. From August 20, 1930, the SPD tolerated the minority government of Heinrich Held , who had previously lost his majority in the state parliament due to the departure of the farmers' union and subsequently a vote of confidence .

In the state elections on April 24, 1932, the SPD lost again significantly and only got 15.4 percent and 20 seats.

The Landtag of March 31, 1933, which was reorganized as a result of the co-ordination of the federal states, includes 17 members of the SPD. On April 29, 1933, they were the only ones to refuse to approve the Bavarian Enabling Act ; the MP Michael Poeschke could not attend the meeting because he had to be taken to a hospital because of the abuse he suffered in the Dachau concentration camp. Therefore, there were only 16 votes against the Enabling Act. The chairman of the parliamentary group, Albert Roßhaupter , justified the rejection of the Bavarian variant of the Enabling Act on the part of his group.

In the Third Reich , many Bavarian Social Democrats paid for their actions of resistance with high prison and penitentiary sentences, admission to concentration camps or even with death through judgments by the National Socialist courts.

The Bavarian SPD in the post-war period

The Karl-Bröger-Haus , Nuremberg party headquarters of the BayernSPD

The Bavarian SPD was reconstituted almost immediately after the war. However, this was done unofficially at first, as the formation of parties in the American zone of occupation was initially prohibited. It was not until January 8, 1946 that the SPD was re-admitted, at the same time as the CSU as the first party in Bavaria.

In the first government of Fritz Schäffer set up by the American occupation authorities , the SPD was represented by Albert Roßhaupter as Minister of Labor. This government was ousted after a few months in office; On September 28, 1945 the occupation administration appointed the SPD politician Wilhelm Hoegner as the new Prime Minister .

The first state party conference of the Bavarian SPD took place after a few preparatory meetings on April 13 and 14, 1946 in Erlangen. Wilhelm Hoegner was elected the first state chairman, and Lisa Albrecht was also elected at the same time . The role of Lisa Albrecht, however, cannot be clearly clarified. In the history of the SPD parliamentary group, Hoegner is exclusively named as party chairman from 1946 to 1947. Several biographies of Lisa Albrecht, however, indicate that she was chairwoman for the same period.

Wilhelm Hoegner , Bavarian Prime Minister 1945 to 1946 and 1954 to 1957

The Hoegner government held office until the newly constituted state parliament elects Hans Ehard (CSU) as prime minister on December 21, 1946 after the Bavarian constitution came into force . During the term of office of the first Hoegner government, the constitution of the Free State of Bavaria from 1946 was drawn up. This was significantly influenced by Hoegner, who had drafted a constitution while in exile in Switzerland. Despite an absolute majority of the CSU in the constituent state assembly, this draft became the basis of the deliberations.

After the election of the first Bavarian state parliament after the war in 1946, the SPD initially remained represented in the government, although the CSU had won an absolute majority. However, the SPD left the coalition on September 20, 1947, against Hoegner's resistance. In the course of this dispute, Hoegner resigned from his post as state chairman of the SPD on May 11, 1947, and Waldemar von Knoeringen was elected as his successor .

In the state elections in 1950, the SPD became the strongest party in Bavaria for the first (and so far only) time in its history. However, it was not the strongest parliamentary group, the CSU won one more mandate. The SPD now rejoined the government under Ehard. Wilhelm Hoegner became Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior.

Group chairman 2009 to 2018, Markus Rinderspacher

After the state elections in 1954, the SPD surprisingly formed the government in a four-party coalition with the All-German Bloc / Federation of Expellees and Disenfranchised , the Bavarian Party and the FDP . All parties ruled in the state parliament except for the CSU, which had previously failed to form a government. Wilhelm Hoegner took over the office of Prime Minister. The coalition of four broke up in 1957, among other things, because of the casino affair and, finally, because of the success of the CDU / CSU in the 1957 federal elections . Wilhelm Hoegner resigned as Prime Minister on October 8, 1957. The Bavarian SPD has not been involved in any state government since Hoegner's resignation, but until 2018 it was always the strongest opposition faction in the state parliament. The party in Bavaria achieved its highest election result to date with 35.8% in 1966 with its top candidate Volkmar Gabert .

In the opposition, the SPD parliamentary group under Volkmar Gabert and Helmut Rothemund , both also SPD state chairmen, pushed through popular initiatives , for example for the introduction of Christian community schools (against denominational schools) and against restrictions on freedom of broadcasting (1978).

Under the leadership of Markus Rinderspacher , the SPD in the Landtag successfully sued the state government several times before the Bavarian Constitutional Court (2011 “resonance study affair”, 2014 “family affair” and 2016 “referendum”). During his term of office, the decision to phase out nuclear energy (2011), the abolition of tuition fees (2013) and the return to the slowed-down G9 grammar school (2018) also fall.

In the state elections on October 14, 2018, the BayernSPD achieved a historically poor result of 9.7 percent. It is therefore only the fifth strongest force in the state parliament.

State election results of the BayernSPD

State election results
year be right Seats Top candidate
1887 2.1% 0
1893 3.7% 5
1899 15.3% 11
1905 18.0% 12
1907 17.7% 20th
1912 19.5% 30th
1919 33.0% 61
1920 16.5% 26th
1924 17.2% 23
1928 24.2% 34
1932 15.5% 20th
1946 28.6% 54 Wilhelm Hoegner
1950 28.0% 63 Waldemar von Knoeringen
1954 28.1% 61 Wilhelm Hoegner
1958 30.8% 64 Wilhelm Hoegner
1962 35.3% 79 Volkmar Gabert
1966 35.8% 79 Volkmar Gabert
1970 33.3% 70 Volkmar Gabert
1974 30.2% 64 Hans-Jochen Vogel
1978 31.4% 65 Helmut Rothemund
1982 31.9% 71 Helmut Rothemund
1986 27.5% 61 Karl-Heinz Hiersemann
1990 26.0% 58 Karl-Heinz Hiersemann
1994 30.0% 70 Renate Schmidt
1998 28.7% 67 Renate Schmidt
2003 19.6% 41 Franz Maget
2008 18.6% 39 Franz Maget
2013 20.6% 42 Christian Ude
2018 9.7% 22nd Natascha Kohnen


Georg von Vollmar, first chairman of the Bavarian SPD
Years Chairman
1892-1918 Georg von Vollmar
1918-1933 Erhard Auer
1946-1947 Lisa Albrecht
1946-1947 Wilhelm Hoegner
1947-1963 Waldemar von Knoeringen
1963-1972 Volkmar Gabert
1972-1977 Hans-Jochen Vogel
1977-1985 Helmut Rothemund
1985-1991 Rudolf Schöfberger
1991-2000 Renate Schmidt
2000-2003 Wolfgang Hoderlein
2003-2009 Ludwig Stiegler
2009-2017 Florian Pronold
2017– Natascha Kohnen

After the announcement by Florian Pronolds, at the state party conference on 20./21. In order to no longer run for chairmanship on May 1st, 2017, a member survey took place from April 3rd to May 11th, in which six candidates applied for the state chairmanship. Natascha Kohnen was elected through this member survey and the subsequent confirmation at the state party conference.

SPD parliamentary group in the Bavarian state parliament

Group leaders of the SPD in the Bavarian state parliament were:

Jean Stock , first parliamentary group leader of the SPD after the Second World War
Franz Maget (2005), former parliamentary group leader and top candidate in the state elections in 2003 and 2008
Years Chairman
1893-1918 Georg von Vollmar
1918 / 19-1933 Johannes Timm
1933 Albert Rosshaupter
1946-1950 Jean Stock
1950-1958 Waldemar von Knoeringen
1958–1962 Wilhelm Hoegner
1962-1976 Volkmar Gabert
1976-1986 Helmut Rothemund
1986-1992 Karl-Heinz Hiersemann
1992-1994 Albert Schmid
1994-2000 Renate Schmidt
2000-2009 Franz Maget
2009-2018 Markus Rinderspacher
2018– Horst Arnold

The group currently consists of 22 MPs. The deputy chairmen are Klaus Adelt , Simone Strohmayr and Margit Wild . The parliamentary director is Volkmar halibib . The parliamentary group leader Natascha Kohnen in her capacity as state chairwoman of the BayernSPD and Markus Rinderspacher as vice-president of the Bavarian state parliament are members of the parliamentary group.

The various political fields and responsibilities of the state parliament are divided into working groups and working groups in the Bavarian SPD parliamentary group, each of which has several members. The members of the respective working groups are also members of the relevant specialist committee of the Bavarian State Parliament. Working groups are specialist bodies of the parliamentary group whose political issues are not directly reflected in a committee.

Three committees of the Bavarian Parliament are headed by members of the Bavarian SPD parliamentary group:

In addition, individual members of the Bavarian SPD parliamentary group also have functions as political spokespersons for various topics.



The BayernSPD is divided into the seven districts OberbayernSPD, NiederbayernSPD, OberpfalzSPD, OberfrankenSPD, UnterfrankenSPD, MittelfrankenSPD and SchwabenSPD, which are identical to the Bavarian government districts ( Upper Bavaria , Lower Bavaria , Upper Palatinate , Upper Franconia , Lower Franconia , Middle Franconia , Swabia ). The districts are divided into sub-districts. A sub-district corresponds to either a federal constituency or a district or an independent city.

The sub-districts, in turn, are subdivided into local associations (OV) and then correspond to individual municipalities or municipal associations or cities, districts or settlements. If the sub-district does not correspond to the district or the independent city, there are also district and city associations between local associations and sub-districts.

Working groups

In Bavaria (as in the other federal states) there are a number of SPD working groups for certain population groups:

Working group Chairman in Bavaria
Jusos in the BayernSPD Stefanie Krammer
Working group 60+ Jella Teuchner
Working Group for Employee Issues (AfA) Klaus Barthel
Working Group of Social Democratic Women (ARSP) Micky Wenngatz
Working group self-employed in the SPD (AGS) Dirk Goldenstein
Working Group for Education (AfB) Marion Winter
Working Group of Social Democratic Lawyers (ASJ) Katja Weitzel
Working Group of Social Democrats in Health Care (ASG) Armin Rüger
Working group of lesbians and gays (Schwusos) Daniel Jazdzewski
Working group on migration and diversity Arif Taşdelen
Working group self-active Sibylle Brandt

The Schwusos - working group of lesbians and gays in the SPD Bavaria was founded on July 28, 2012 as a state working group in Nuremberg .

Main topics of political work

The main topics of the Bavarian SPD include education , energy, family , women, social justice , consumer protection , the economy and the fight against right-wing extremism .

Political education

The SPD Bavaria works together with several Bavarian political education institutions:

  • the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Regensburg, in Würzburg at the Frankenwarte and in Munich in the Bayernforum,
  • the Georg von Vollmar Academy in Kochel,
  • of the Frankenakademie Schloß Schney eV in Lichtenfels-Schney, Upper Franconia,
  • the Bavarian Seminar for Politics eV in Munich.


  • Franz Maget (Ed.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group. Munich 2003.
  • Robert Hofmann: History of the BayernSPD (Multimedia CD-ROM), Munich 2002
  • Herbert Kral: The state policy of the SPD in Bavaria from 1924 to 1933. Munich 1985.
  • Wolfgang Krug: The organizational reform process of the Bavarian SPD from 1970 to 1991. Stuttgart 1994.
  • SPD Regional Association of Bavaria (ed.): The Bavarian SPD 1892–1982. 90 years of liberal tradition. Munich 1982.
  • From subject to citizen. The Bavarian labor movement since 1848. An exhibition by the Georg von Vollmar Academy. Munich / Kochel am See 2009.
  • On the history of the labor movement in Bavaria. A series of lectures organized by the Germananisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg. Nov./Dec. 1984 on the occasion of the exhibition “Leben u. Working in the Industrial Age ”from August 10th to 25th, 1985. Nuremberg 1985.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Growth: 3390 new members in Bavaria. In: BayernSPD. Retrieved February 20, 2018 .
  2. ^ Statutes of the BayernSPD as amended by July 14, 2014
  3. Brochure The SPD Nuremberg introduces itself  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.9 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  5. ^ A b c d Robert Hofmann (2003): The struggle for social reforms and elementary civil rights. In: Franz Maget / Karin Radermacher (eds.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group in Bavaria. Munich 2003
  6. ^ The social democracy and the elections to the Bavarian state parliament. Report on the importance and activities of the Bavarian Parliament, presented by Georg v. Vollmar and G. Löwentstein at the party congress of the Social Democrats of Bavaria in Regensburg on June 26, 1892. With an appendix: resolution and state parliament election program for the elections in 1893 , Nuremberg 1892
  7. ^ House of Bavarian History: History of the Bavarian Parliament 1819–2008: 36th Landtag: 1912–1918
  8. ^ Robert Hofmann: The struggle for social reforms and elementary civil rights. In: Franz Maget / Karin Radermacher (eds.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group in Bavaria. Munich 2003
  9. a b House of Bavarian History: History of the Bavarian Parliament 1819–2008: The Landtag 1919–1920 (1st electoral period)
  10. On the election results in the following cf. House of Bavarian History: History of the Bavarian Parliament 1819–2008
  11. SPD parliamentary group: 75 years of the Bavarian Enabling Act - commemorative event of the SPD parliamentary group
  12. For the development cf. Michael Stephan: The reconstruction of the economy and administration. In: Franz Maget / Karin Radermacher (eds.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group in Bavaria. Munich 2003, especially p. 99ff
  13. among others the Lisa Albrecht . Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung: Archive of Social Democracy, accessed on April 29, 2016.
  14. Michael Stephan: The reconstruction of economy and administration. In: Franz Maget / Karin Radermacher (eds.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group in Bavaria. Munich 2003, especially p. 99ff
  15. ^ Michael Stephan (2003): The reconstruction of economy and administration. In: Franz Maget / Karin Radermacher (eds.): With passion for democracy. 110 years of the SPD parliamentary group in Bavaria. Munich 2003, especially p. 99ff
  16. ^ Results of the state elections in Bavaria . Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  17. Turnout and total votes (PDF; 455 kB) Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  18. Allocation of seats in the Bavarian State Parliament since 1946 (PDF; 432 kB) Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  19. State elections in Bavaria since 1946 . Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  20. 31st Landtag: 1887-1892 (16th electoral period 1887-1893) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  21. 32nd Landtag: 1893-1899 (17th electoral period 1893-1899) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  22. 33rd Landtag: 1899-1904 (18th electoral period 1899-1904) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  23. 34th Landtag: 1905-1907 (19th electoral period 1905-1907) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  24. 35th Landtag: 1907-1911 (20th electoral period 1907-1912) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  25. 36th Landtag: 1912-1918 (21st electoral period 1912-1918) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  26. ^ The Landtag 1919–1920 (1st electoral period) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  27. The State Parliament 1920–1924 (2nd electoral period) . House of Bavarian History. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  28. State election 2018: This is how Bavaria voted . In: WEB.DE News . ( [accessed October 15, 2018]).
  29. State election 2018: This is how Bavaria voted . In: WEB.DE News . ( [accessed October 15, 2018]).
  30. Kohnen, Natascha, 1967-: For a policy that keeps its word Natascha Kohnen: State election on 15.09. 2013, OCLC 915471291 .
  31. May 13, 1946 to May 11, 1947
  32. Press release: "State Presidency: We Are the Participating Party". BayernSPD, accessed on March 4, 2017 .
  33. Press release: “New top team of the BayernSPD: more female and younger”. BayernSPD, accessed on May 21, 2017 .
  34. Pronold: Equal taxation for lesbians and gays too! ( Memento of the original from December 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , July 28, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /