Lower Franconia

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lower Franconia
coat of arms
coat of arms
State : Germany
State : Bavaria
Administrative headquarters : Wurzburg
Biggest cities: 1. Würzburg
2. Aschaffenburg
3. Schweinfurt
4. Bad Kissingen
Area : 8,530.99  km²
Residents : 1,317,619 (December 31, 2019)
Population density : 154 inhabitants per km²
District President: Erwin Dotzel ( CSU )
District President: Eugen Ehmann
Website :
Locator map RB Lower Franconia in Bavaria.svg Locator map Lower Franconia in Germany.svg
Location in Bavaria and Germany

Lower Franconia is located in the north-west of Bavaria in the Franconian part of the Free State and is both a district and an administrative district . It borders in the south and west on the states of Baden-Württemberg (administrative districts Karlsruhe and Stuttgart ) and Hesse (administrative districts Darmstadt and Kassel ), in the north on the Free State of Thuringia and in the east on the Bavarian administrative districts Upper Franconia and Middle Franconia .

The name Lower Franconia refers to its relative position on the Main . Lower Franconia lies on its lower reaches, Upper Franconia on the upper reaches and Middle Franconia in between. This name goes back to the formation of the "Mainkreis" in the course of Count Montgelas' 1808 constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria . The division of the territories was adapted to the French model and was primarily based on river names. Since the Main flows through Lower Franconia, the region is also known by the locals as " Main Franconia " (and " Weinfranken " because of the viticulture).

The administrative seat of the district and also the seat of the district government is Würzburg . The geographical center is in the Büchold district .



The administrative district of Lower Franconia comprises three independent cities and nine rural districts :

One district cities



  • During the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Haßberge was called Haßberg district .
  • In the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Main-Spessart was called the district of Mittelmain . The seat of the district administration was in Lohr a. Main .
  • In the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Rhön-Grabfeld was called the district of Bad Neustadt ad Saale .

Before the district reform

Old county boundaries

The following breakdown into independent cities and districts applied until the district reform , which came into force on July 1, 1972:

One district cities



The district of Lower Franconia reported 3.1% unemployed in October 2016 and thus has the lowest unemployment rate of all Bavarian administrative districts. In Lower Franconia, the Main-Spessart district has the lowest unemployment rate at 2.1%.

The economic focus of Lower Franconia is today in the large industrial center Schweinfurt , the service and trade center Würzburg , in Aschaffenburg , the larger medium-sized centers along the Main, in particular Lohr am Main and in Bad Neustadt an der Saale in the north of the administrative district.

In comparison with the GDP of the EU expressed in purchasing power standards, Lower Franconia achieved an index of 124 (EU-28 = 100) (2015).

Public facilities

The Lower Franconia Police Headquarters , together with the Federal Police and their precinct in Aschaffenburg , as well as the inspection in Würzburg, ensure security. There is also a federal police training and further education center in Oerlenbach .

The Customs maintains the customs offices Schweinfurt -Londonstraße, Dettelbach -Mainfrankenpark and Aschaffenburg, which the Main Customs Office are subordinate Schweinfurt.

The THW has 15 local branches and a regional office in Lower Franconia.

There are also 38 hospitals and specialist hospitals.

The Bundeswehr is represented by a company of the regional security and support forces (RSU) . A career advice office is located in Würzburg. There are also other locations in Volkach, Wildflecken , Hammelburg and Veitshöchheim.

There is also a university ( Würzburg ), two other universities ( Aschaffenburg , Würzburg-Schweinfurt ) and a music college .

Protected areas

In Lower Franconia there are 137 nature protection areas , 37 landscape protection areas , 99 FFH areas , 19 EU bird protection areas and over 240 geotopes designated by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (as of August 2016).

See also:


After the transition of Franconian , to a small extent also Kurheinische and Upper Rhine areas to the new Kingdom of Bavaria , the Lower Main District with Würzburg as the capital was established on February 2, 1817 . Since January 1, 1838, the district was named "Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg" in reference to the Duchy of Franconia , in whose former eastern part it is located (with the exception of Aschaffenburg and the surrounding area, which are located in the former western part).

Friedrich Koenig is one of the pioneers of industrial development in Lower Franconia .

The first Lower Franconian local group of the NSDAP was founded in August 1921 in Kitzingen. Würzburg only followed on December 6, 1922. The ordinance of May 20, 1938 (GVBl. 1938, 199) with effect from June 1, 1938 brought the name of the district into line with that of the spatially identical NSDAP Gau Mainfranken and the previous name " Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg ”. The old designation "district" was also adjusted to the Prussian designation "administrative district" during the Nazi era.

After the end of the Third Reich, the name was changed again on April 9, 1946 (GVBl. 1946, p. 189) and the administrative district was named "Lower Franconia" (without the addition "and Aschaffenburg "). On April 14, 1945, the Lower Franconian NSDAP was officially dissolved.

After the Second World War, the Thuringian enclave Ostheim before the Rhön came to Lower Franconia.


District of Lower Franconia

The district of Lower Franconia , together with the other Bavarian districts, forms the third municipal level in the state. The core tasks of the district are in the social and cultural area. The organs of the district are the district assembly , the district committee and the district assembly president ( Art. 21 District Code - BezO ).

coat of arms


Under the red head of a shield , in it three silver tips , split by blue and red; in front a slanting standard on a golden lance , quartered in silver and red and twice notched , behind a six-spoke silver wheel .

Coat of arms history

The coat of arms is based on a design by Otto Hupp from 1906. However, his suggestion was not used at the time. The district of Lower Franconia gave itself the coat of arms, which shows the most important former rule relationships in this district, only in 1961. The Franconian rake comes from the coat of arms of the cathedral chapter and bishopric of Würzburg and is today a symbol for all of Franconia . The standard made of silver and red, a racing flag , stands for the Duchy of Eastern Franconia and is also included in the coat of arms of the city of Würzburg . The silver wheel represents the electoral state and the archbishopric of Mainz , together called Kurmainz. Kurmainz had considerable influence in the Lower Maing area up to and including the city of Aschaffenburg until 1803, when the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was dissolved . The Mainz wheel is also included in the coats of arms of the districts of Aschaffenburg , Miltenberg and Main-Spessart .


The flag of Lower Franconia is a red and white Franconian flag with the district coat of arms in the middle.

District day

A total of 24 seats


choice CSU SPD FW Green FDP The left REP NPD GDP¹ BP AfD total
2018 10 3 3 4th 1 1 2 24
2013 9 4th 3 2 1 1 20th
2008 10 4th 3 2 1 1 21st
2003 13 4th 2 1 20th
1998 13 7th 1 1 1 23
1994 13 7th 2 1 23
1990 14th 6th 1 1 1 23
1986 15th 7th 1 23
1982 15th 7th 1 23
1978 15th 7th 1 23
1974 15th 7th 1 23
1970 15th 8th 1 24
1966 14th 8th 1 1 24
1962 13 8th 1 1 23
1958 14th 6th 1 2 23
1954 12 6th 2 2 1 23

¹ 1954 and 1958 GB / BHE

District President

The District Assembly President has been Erwin Dotzel ( CSU ) since January 30, 2007 . He succeeded Albrecht Graf von Ingelheim (CSU), who died on December 2, 2006 . Deputy District Assembly President is Eva-Maria Linsenbreder ( SPD ). Another representative of the District Assembly President is Adelheid Zimmermann (FDP).

District President

President of the District Council 1829–1918

1829-1830 Wilhelm Behr
1831 no negotiations
1832-1833 / I Nikolaus Katzenberger
1833 / II – 1834 Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann
1835 Nikolaus Katzenberger
1836 Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann
1837 No negotiations
1838-1842 Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann
1843 No negotiations
1844-1845 Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann
1846-1847 Baron Philipp von Mauchenheim called Bechtolsheim
1848 Baron Johann Philipp von Groß-Trockau
1849 No negotiations
1850 Baron Johann Philipp von Groß-Trockau
1851 no negotiations
1852-1855 Baron Hermann von Rotenhan
1856-1858 Adalbert von Herrlein
1859-1862 A. Debes
1863 Adalbert von Herrlein
1864-1865 Jakob Hopfenstätter
1866-1868 Ludwig Gerstner
1869-1874 Baron Max von Truchseß
1875-1883 Georg von Zürn
1884 Georg Adam Savoy cabbage
1885 Friedrich von Medicus
1886 Georg Adam Savoy cabbage
1887-1902 Friedrich von Medicus
1903-1918 Karl Freiherr von Thüngen

President of the District Council 1919–1933

1919-1920 Andreas Grieser
1921-1933 Wilhelm Matt

Presidents of the District Assembly / District Association 1933–1945

1933-1945 Theo Memmel

President of the District Assembly 1954 to date

1954-1966 Hans White
1966-1970 Oskar Schad
1970-1994 Franz Gerstner
1994-2001 Raymund Schmitt
2001-2006 Albrecht Count of Ingelheim
since 2007 Erwin Dotzel

Tasks of the district of Lower Franconia

The district of Lower Franconia is one of seven districts in Bavaria . In addition to the municipalities and districts or urban districts, the districts form the third municipal level. The district council is the highest political body in the district. The District Assembly is chaired by the District Assembly President, who is elected for a period of five years from the middle of the District Assembly. The district of Lower Franconia fulfills tasks that go beyond the jurisdiction or capabilities of the districts or urban districts. It maintains and supports public institutions that are necessary for the economic, social and cultural well-being of the people in Lower Franconia. As a provider of supra-local social welfare, it helps people in need of care, disabled and mentally ill people. The district of Lower Franconia is also responsible for specialist clinics and several homes. Other key tasks in the Lower Franconia district include regional cultural work, the partnership with the Calvados department, specialist advice on cellar technology and cellar management, and specialist advice on fishing.

Institutions in the district of Lower Franconia

The district of Lower Franconia is responsible for psychiatric hospitals and homes in Lohr am Main and Werneck, psychiatric day clinics in Aschaffenburg and Schweinfurt and the intensive unit for child and adolescent psychiatry on the premises of the University Clinic in Würzburg. In Würzburg, the district maintains the Jakob-Riedinger-Haus, a residential and residential care home for disabled people, in Lohr, Römershag and Werneck care homes and in Münnerstadt a home for the chronically alcoholic. In addition, the district of Lower Franconia is responsible for two orthopedic specialist clinics (in Werneck and the König-Ludwig-Haus in Würzburg) and a specialist clinic for thoracic surgery in Münnerstadt. With the Dr. Karl Kroiß School, the Lower Franconia district in Würzburg maintains a support and advice center with a focus on hearing. In addition, there are holdings in other institutions, such as B. the nursing home for the blind Nürnberg eV

Expert advice

Cultural work and homeland care

In order to fulfill the tasks incumbent on it in the cultural field, the district of Lower Franconia advises and supports in the areas of monument preservation, museums, theater, music, costume, cabaret and contemporary art. He arranges contacts to city and district home administrators, historical associations and cultural providers. The district has three museums in Aschach Castle near Bad Kissingen.

Fishing advice

The district of Lower Franconia ensures the preservation, improvement and protection of the foundations of life for fish and other aquatic animals. The advisory and expert activities include the focus on angling, river fishing, fish species protection and pond management .

Expert advice for cellar management and technology

In the area of cellar management and technology, the Lower Franconia district advises Franconian winemakers on issues relating to wine development. Its advice and training offers make an important contribution to maintaining and increasing the quality of Franconian wine.

Partnership presentation

The district of Lower Franconia supports and maintains numerous partnerships between Lower Franconian municipalities and municipalities throughout France. The promotion of the partner language and offers for young people are the main tasks. Since 1986 the district of Lower Franconia and the Département Calvados have maintained an active partnership.

Administrative district

The administrative district of Lower Franconia is geographically identical to the District of Lower Franconia. He is the area of ​​responsibility of the state middle authority government of Lower Franconia .

District President



Web links

Commons : Unterfranken  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Lower Franconia  - Sources and full texts
Wiktionary: Unterfranken  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Lower Franconia  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. Unemployment has fallen slightly , br.de from November 2, 2016
  3. Eurostat. Retrieved August 22, 2018 .
  4. Lower Franconia Police Headquarters. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  5. Federal Police - Search for offices. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  6. ^ Customs online - structure - organization plans of the local authorities. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  7. THW on site. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  8. ^ Hospitals in Bavaria. In: Bavarian State Ministry for Health and Care. Accessed June 30, 2020 (German).
  9. RSU Company Lower Franconia - Home. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  10. Advice center finder . Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  11. Logistics Battalion 467. Accessed June 30, 2020 .
  12. Lower Franconia - a strong business location in the center of Germany. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
  13. Hans-Bernhard Bolza-Schünemann : The Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium under the patronage of a brilliant inventor and technician. Excerpts from the speech [...] for the inauguration of the Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium. In: Kurt Fauster (Hrsg.): 5 years Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium. Würzburg 1978, pp. 4–7, here p. 7.
  14. Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , p. 232, and p. 1280, note 190.
  15. Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 196-289 and 1271-1290; here: p. 279.
  16. ^ District of Lower Franconia - The district organs (accessed online on December 19, 2018).
  17. Ulrich Wagner: Würzburg rulers, Bavarian minister-presidents, chairmen of the district council / district council presidents, regional presidents, bishops, lord mayors 1814–2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1221-1224; here: p. 1222 ( District President of Lower Franconia ).

Coordinates: 50 ° 1 '  N , 9 ° 56'  E