|Administrative headquarters :||Wurzburg|
4. Bad Kissingen
|Area :||8,530.99 km²|
|Residents :||1,317,619 (December 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||154 inhabitants per km²|
|District President:||Erwin Dotzel ( CSU )|
|District President:||Eugen Ehmann|
Location in Bavaria and Germany
Lower Franconia is located in the north-west of Bavaria in the Franconian part of the Free State and is both a district and an administrative district . It borders in the south and west on the states of Baden-Württemberg (administrative districts Karlsruhe and Stuttgart ) and Hesse (administrative districts Darmstadt and Kassel ), in the north on the Free State of Thuringia and in the east on the Bavarian administrative districts Upper Franconia and Middle Franconia .
The name Lower Franconia refers to its relative position on the Main . Lower Franconia lies on its lower reaches, Upper Franconia on the upper reaches and Middle Franconia in between. This name goes back to the formation of the "Mainkreis" in the course of Count Montgelas' 1808 constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria . The division of the territories was adapted to the French model and was primarily based on river names. Since the Main flows through Lower Franconia, the region is also known by the locals as " Main Franconia " (and " Weinfranken " because of the viticulture).
One district cities
- Aschaffenburg district
- Bad Kissingen district
- Haßberge district
- Kitzingen district
- Main-Spessart district
- Miltenberg district
- District of Rhön-Grabfeld
- Schweinfurt district
- Würzburg district
- During the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Haßberge was called Haßberg district .
- In the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Main-Spessart was called the district of Mittelmain . The seat of the district administration was in Lohr a. Main .
- In the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, the district of Rhön-Grabfeld was called the district of Bad Neustadt ad Saale .
Before the district reform
The following breakdown into independent cities and districts applied until the district reform , which came into force on July 1, 1972:
One district cities
- Alzenau district in Lower Franconia
- Aschaffenburg district
- Bad Brückenau district
- Bad Kissingen district
- Bad Neustadt an der Saale district
- District of Ebern
- District of Gemünden am Main
- Gerolzhofen district
- Hammelburg district
- District of Hassfurt
- Hofheim district in Lower Franconia
- District of Karlstadt
- Kitzingen district
- Königshofen district in Grabfeld
- Lohr am Main district
- Marktheidenfeld district
- Mellrichstadt district
- Miltenberg district
- District of Obernburg am Main
- District of Ochsenfurt
- Schweinfurt district
- Würzburg district
The district of Lower Franconia reported 3.1% unemployed in October 2016 and thus has the lowest unemployment rate of all Bavarian administrative districts. In Lower Franconia, the Main-Spessart district has the lowest unemployment rate at 2.1%.
The economic focus of Lower Franconia is today in the large industrial center Schweinfurt , the service and trade center Würzburg , in Aschaffenburg , the larger medium-sized centers along the Main, in particular Lohr am Main and in Bad Neustadt an der Saale in the north of the administrative district.
The Lower Franconia Police Headquarters , together with the Federal Police and their precinct in Aschaffenburg , as well as the inspection in Würzburg, ensure security. There is also a federal police training and further education center in Oerlenbach .
The THW has 15 local branches and a regional office in Lower Franconia.
There are also 38 hospitals and specialist hospitals.
The Bundeswehr is represented by a company of the regional security and support forces (RSU) . A career advice office is located in Würzburg. There are also other locations in Volkach, Wildflecken , Hammelburg and Veitshöchheim.
In Lower Franconia there are 137 nature protection areas , 37 landscape protection areas , 99 FFH areas , 19 EU bird protection areas and over 240 geotopes designated by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (as of August 2016).
- List of nature reserves in Lower Franconia
- List of landscape protection areas in Lower Franconia
- List of FFH areas in Lower Franconia
- List of EU bird protection areas in Lower Franconia
- List of geotopes in Lower Franconia
After the transition of Franconian , to a small extent also Kurheinische and Upper Rhine areas to the new Kingdom of Bavaria , the Lower Main District with Würzburg as the capital was established on February 2, 1817 . Since January 1, 1838, the district was named "Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg" in reference to the Duchy of Franconia , in whose former eastern part it is located (with the exception of Aschaffenburg and the surrounding area, which are located in the former western part).
Friedrich Koenig is one of the pioneers of industrial development in Lower Franconia .
The first Lower Franconian local group of the NSDAP was founded in August 1921 in Kitzingen. Würzburg only followed on December 6, 1922. The ordinance of May 20, 1938 (GVBl. 1938, 199) with effect from June 1, 1938 brought the name of the district into line with that of the spatially identical NSDAP Gau Mainfranken and the previous name " Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg ”. The old designation "district" was also adjusted to the Prussian designation "administrative district" during the Nazi era.
After the end of the Third Reich, the name was changed again on April 9, 1946 (GVBl. 1946, p. 189) and the administrative district was named "Lower Franconia" (without the addition "and Aschaffenburg "). On April 14, 1945, the Lower Franconian NSDAP was officially dissolved.
After the Second World War, the Thuringian enclave Ostheim before the Rhön came to Lower Franconia.
- Johannisburg Castle
- Butterfly tower
- German Carnival Museum
- Maria in the vineyard
- Alter Kranen (Würzburg)
- Old Main Bridge
- Wurzburg Residence
- Marienberg Fortress
- Wurzburg Cathedral
- Käppele (Würzburg)
- Mespelbrunn Castle
- Kreuzberg (Rhoen)
- Park Schönbusch
- Veitshöchheim Castle
- Georg Schäfer Museum
- Regentenbau (Bad Kissingen)
- Rothenfels Castle on the Main
- Paper mill Homburg am Main
District of Lower Franconia
The district of Lower Franconia , together with the other Bavarian districts, forms the third municipal level in the state. The core tasks of the district are in the social and cultural area. The organs of the district are the district assembly , the district committee and the district assembly president ( ).
coat of arms
Under the red head of a shield , in it three silver tips , split by blue and red; in front a slanting standard on a golden lance , quartered in silver and red and twice notched , behind a six-spoke silver wheel .
Coat of arms history
The coat of arms is based on a design by Otto Hupp from 1906. However, his suggestion was not used at the time. The district of Lower Franconia gave itself the coat of arms, which shows the most important former rule relationships in this district, only in 1961. The Franconian rake comes from the coat of arms of the cathedral chapter and bishopric of Würzburg and is today a symbol for all of Franconia . The standard made of silver and red, a racing flag , stands for the Duchy of Eastern Franconia and is also included in the coat of arms of the city of Würzburg . The silver wheel represents the electoral state and the archbishopric of Mainz , together called Kurmainz. Kurmainz had considerable influence in the Lower Maing area up to and including the city of Aschaffenburg until 1803, when the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was dissolved . The Mainz wheel is also included in the coats of arms of the districts of Aschaffenburg , Miltenberg and Main-Spessart .
¹ 1954 and 1958 GB / BHE
The District Assembly President has been Erwin Dotzel ( CSU ) since January 30, 2007 . He succeeded Albrecht Graf von Ingelheim (CSU), who died on December 2, 2006 . Deputy District Assembly President is Eva-Maria Linsenbreder ( SPD ). Another representative of the District Assembly President is Adelheid Zimmermann (FDP).
President of the District Council 1829–1918
|1832-1833 / I||Nikolaus Katzenberger|
|1833 / II – 1834||Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann|
|1836||Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann|
|1838-1842||Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann|
|1844-1845||Baron Joseph Heinrich von Habermann|
|1846-1847||Baron Philipp von Mauchenheim called Bechtolsheim|
|1848||Baron Johann Philipp von Groß-Trockau|
|1850||Baron Johann Philipp von Groß-Trockau|
|1852-1855||Baron Hermann von Rotenhan|
|1856-1858||Adalbert von Herrlein|
|1863||Adalbert von Herrlein|
|1869-1874||Baron Max von Truchseß|
|1875-1883||Georg von Zürn|
|1884||Georg Adam Savoy cabbage|
|1885||Friedrich von Medicus|
|1886||Georg Adam Savoy cabbage|
|1887-1902||Friedrich von Medicus|
|1903-1918||Karl Freiherr von Thüngen|
President of the District Council 1919–1933
Presidents of the District Assembly / District Association 1933–1945
President of the District Assembly 1954 to date
|2001-2006||Albrecht Count of Ingelheim|
|since 2007||Erwin Dotzel|
Tasks of the district of Lower Franconia
The district of Lower Franconia is one of seven districts in Bavaria . In addition to the municipalities and districts or urban districts, the districts form the third municipal level. The district council is the highest political body in the district. The District Assembly is chaired by the District Assembly President, who is elected for a period of five years from the middle of the District Assembly. The district of Lower Franconia fulfills tasks that go beyond the jurisdiction or capabilities of the districts or urban districts. It maintains and supports public institutions that are necessary for the economic, social and cultural well-being of the people in Lower Franconia. As a provider of supra-local social welfare, it helps people in need of care, disabled and mentally ill people. The district of Lower Franconia is also responsible for specialist clinics and several homes. Other key tasks in the Lower Franconia district include regional cultural work, the partnership with the Calvados department, specialist advice on cellar technology and cellar management, and specialist advice on fishing.
Institutions in the district of Lower Franconia
The district of Lower Franconia is responsible for psychiatric hospitals and homes in Lohr am Main and Werneck, psychiatric day clinics in Aschaffenburg and Schweinfurt and the intensive unit for child and adolescent psychiatry on the premises of the University Clinic in Würzburg. In Würzburg, the district maintains the Jakob-Riedinger-Haus, a residential and residential care home for disabled people, in Lohr, Römershag and Werneck care homes and in Münnerstadt a home for the chronically alcoholic. In addition, the district of Lower Franconia is responsible for two orthopedic specialist clinics (in Werneck and the König-Ludwig-Haus in Würzburg) and a specialist clinic for thoracic surgery in Münnerstadt. With the Dr. Karl Kroiß School, the Lower Franconia district in Würzburg maintains a support and advice center with a focus on hearing. In addition, there are holdings in other institutions, such as B. the nursing home for the blind Nürnberg eV
Cultural work and homeland care
In order to fulfill the tasks incumbent on it in the cultural field, the district of Lower Franconia advises and supports in the areas of monument preservation, museums, theater, music, costume, cabaret and contemporary art. He arranges contacts to city and district home administrators, historical associations and cultural providers. The district has three museums in Aschach Castle near Bad Kissingen.
The district of Lower Franconia ensures the preservation, improvement and protection of the foundations of life for fish and other aquatic animals. The advisory and expert activities include the focus on angling, river fishing, fish species protection and pond management .
Expert advice for cellar management and technology
In the area of cellar management and technology, the Lower Franconia district advises Franconian winemakers on issues relating to wine development. Its advice and training offers make an important contribution to maintaining and increasing the quality of Franconian wine.
The district of Lower Franconia supports and maintains numerous partnerships between Lower Franconian municipalities and municipalities throughout France. The promotion of the partner language and offers for young people are the main tasks. Since 1986 the district of Lower Franconia and the Département Calvados have maintained an active partnership.
The administrative district of Lower Franconia is geographically identical to the District of Lower Franconia. He is the area of responsibility of the state middle authority government of Lower Franconia .
- District President
- Maximilian Emanuel von Lerchenfeld , 1814–1817
- Franz Wilhelm von Asbeck , 1817-1825
- Maximilian Joseph Freiherr von Zu Rhein , 1826–1832
- Karl von Stengel , 1832
- August von Rechberg , 1833–1837
- Ferdinand von Andrian-Werburg , 1837
- Philipp Graf von Lerchenfeld , 1838–1840
- Leopold Graf Fugger von Glött , 1840–1849
- Friedrich von Zu Rhein , 1849–1868
- Friedrich von Luxburg , 1868–1901
- Ludwig von Kobell , 1901–1907
- Carl von Müller , 1907–1913
- Friedrich von Brettreich , 1913–1916
- Julius von Henle , 1917–1929
- Bruno Günder , 1929–1933
- Otto Hellmuth , 1933–1945
- Adam Stegerwald , 1945
- Jean Stock , 1945–1946
- Adolf Körner , 1946–1950
- Karl Kihn , 1950–1952
- Josef Hölzl , 1952–1960
- Heinz Günder , 1960–1968
- Robert Felix Meixner , 1968–1974
- Philipp Meyer , 1975–1984
- Franz Vogt , 1984-2000
- Paul Beinhofer , 2000–2018
- Eugen Ehmann , since 2019
- Björn-Uwe Abels : The prehistoric and early historical site monuments of Lower Franconia. Laßleben, Kallmünz 1979, ISBN 3-7847-5306-X .
- Ulrich Ante (Ed.): On the future of the Lower Franconia economic area., University, Würzburg 1992.
- Radu Chinta: The underground limestone extraction in the Main Franconian area - a rarity in mining history. In: Geological sheets for northeast Bavaria and adjacent areas; 32 (1982), 1-2, Geozentrum Nordbayern, Erlangen 1982, , p. 80 f.
- Helmut Haberkamm , Annalena Weber: Small collection of Franconian villages. ars vivendi Verlag, Cadolzburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-86913-990-6 .
- Peter Kolb, Ernst-Günter Krenig (Hrsg.): Lower Franconian history. Echter, I – V in 7 volumes, Würzburg 1989–2002.
- Irene Reif : The silence asks for rest. Poetic journey through Lower Franconia. In: Franconia - my love, Oberfränkische Verlagsanstalt, Hof 1989, ISBN 3-921615-91-7 , p. 134 f.
- Pleikard Joseph Stumpf : Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg . In: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical handbook of the kingdom; for the Bavarian people . Second part. Munich 1853, p. 773-924 ( digitized version ).
- Horst-Günter Wagner : Mainfranken - Economic Geographic Development Paths and Problem Areas. In: Arnulf Marquardt-Kuron (Ed.): Spatial traffic sciences - application with concept., Kuron, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-923623-17-8 , p. 17 f.
- Official website of the district of Lower Franconia
- Official website of the government of Lower Franconia
- Lower Franconia . In: Bayern-Infos.de
- Lower Franconia . In: Bayern-im-Web.de
- Lower Franconia . In: Bayern-online.de
- Website of the forum for environmental education in Lower Franconia
- Lower Franconia: Official statistics of the LfStat
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Unemployment has fallen slightly , br.de from November 2, 2016
- Eurostat. Retrieved August 22, 2018 .
- Lower Franconia Police Headquarters. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Federal Police - Search for offices. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Customs online - structure - organization plans of the local authorities. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- THW on site. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Hospitals in Bavaria. In: Bavarian State Ministry for Health and Care. Accessed June 30, 2020 (German).
- RSU Company Lower Franconia - Home. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Advice center. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Logistics Battalion 467. Accessed June 30, 2020 .
- Lower Franconia - a strong business location in the center of Germany. Retrieved June 30, 2020 .
- Hans-Bernhard Bolza-Schünemann : The Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium under the patronage of a brilliant inventor and technician. Excerpts from the speech [...] for the inauguration of the Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium. In: Kurt Fauster (Hrsg.): 5 years Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium. Würzburg 1978, pp. 4–7, here p. 7.
- Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , p. 232, and p. 1280, note 190.
- Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 196-289 and 1271-1290; here: p. 279.
- District of Lower Franconia - The district organs (accessed online on December 19, 2018).
- Ulrich Wagner: Würzburg rulers, Bavarian minister-presidents, chairmen of the district council / district council presidents, regional presidents, bishops, lord mayors 1814–2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1221-1224; here: p. 1222 ( District President of Lower Franconia ).