Otto Hellmuth

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Otto Hellmuth (around 1938)

Otto Hellmuth (born July 22, 1896 in Markt Einersheim , † April 20, 1968 in Reutlingen ) was a German dentist , politician ( NSDAP ), Gauleiter and district president of Mainfranken in the National Socialist German Reich .

Youth and war

Otto Hellmuth was born on July 22nd, 1896 in Markt Einersheim ( Kitzingen district , Lower Franconia ) as the son of a chief railway foreman. He was raised strictly Catholic. After graduation, he joined the Bavarian army as a war volunteer in 1914 and took part in the First World War. He received the Iron Cross II. Class and in 1918 the Silver Wound Badge .

Study and job

After the end of the war he began studying dentistry in Freiburg im Breisgau and Würzburg , which he completed in 1922 with a doctorate in dentistry. He then ran a dental practice in Marktbreit , where he was elected to the city council for the NSDAP from 1924.

Political beginnings

As early as 1919 Hellmuth was also politically active, fought in the Würzburg district army regiment against the Soviet republic and founded the Völkischer Kampfbund “Frankenland”, which was later integrated into the SA . In 1920 he became a member of the German Völkischer Schutz- und Trutzbund and made a small career here in 1922 as district leader of Lower Franconia and from 1923 as Gauleiter of Northern Bavaria. On December 17, 1922, Hellmuth won the well-known German-Mexican right-wing extremist speaker Andrea Ellendt for a meeting in the Würzburg Hutten Garden.

At a very early point in time, in 1922, Hellmuth joined the NSDAP with membership no. 22,815 and were also actively involved. This party-political commitment increased after the dissolution of the German National Guard and Defense Association. His actual career did not begin until September 3, 1928, when he was appointed Gauleiter of the NSDAP in Lower Franconia. In the following years he became a member of the Bavarian State Parliament . On November 19, 1930 Hellmuth initiated a protest rally against the planned performance of the play Dybuk by Salomon An-ski in the Würzburg City Theater by the Hebrew -speaking theater troupe of the Moscow theater "Habima". Only through massive police operations could the anti-Semitically motivated disturbances by chants from several hundred protesters and the violent entry into the theater be prevented and the evening performance secured. The predominantly Jewish theater-goers, including the non-Jewish Lord Mayor Hans Löffler, were not spared running the gauntlet through a fanatical crowd before the performance.

After the performance, the visitors were again harassed by the mob and several people were injured. In February 1931, NSDAP supporters convicted by the Würzburg lay judge were given mitigating circumstances because the motive of the accused was "not dishonorable".

"Ritual murder" in Manau

"Murder stone" of the National Socialists in the forest near Manau - inscription: "Here was d. Child Karl Kessler a. Murdered March 17th, 1929 Ev. Math. 6/18 "(a quote from the Bible, according to which child murderers should be drowned with a millstone)

One of Hellmuth's characteristics, which he developed early on, was, in addition to radical anti-clericalism, his hostility to Jews . As early as 1919, as a member of the Deutschvölkischer Schutz- und Trutzbund, he was distributing anti-Semitic leaflets in Marktbreit. But only the so-called ritual murder of Manau gave him the opportunity to distinguish himself as a staunch anti-Semite. The background was the murder of the four and a half year old boy Karl Keßler on March 17, 1929 in Manau near Hofheim in Lower Franconia . The rumor that arose in the small town that the child had fallen victim to a Jewish ritual murder - a ritual murder legend - was willingly taken up by the zealous Gauleiter and, as a special reporter for the anti-Semitic weekly newspaper Der Stürmer, wrote an article in which allegations about Jewish customs regarding the use of human blood while matzo baking were depicted with bloodthirsty details of the crime. Although the public prosecutor's office assumed a lust murder and rejected the ritual murder accusations, Hellmuth's anti-Semitic propaganda succeeded in attracting a large part of the population - among other things with the free distribution of the striker and a mass meeting in the Hutten garden in Würzburg on April 30, 1929 under the motto " The historical truth about the Jewish blood murders ”- so incited that, in addition to the church, the judiciary intervened and sentenced the Stürmer publisher Julius Streicher to a prison sentence of several months for the campaign. Hellmuth as the author in the background could not, however, be prosecuted. Even years later, Hellmuth tried to convict a Jewish religious teacher and a slaughterer as the perpetrator - then as Gauleiter and district president of Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg . Despite the use of the well-known Gestapo methods, no evidence of their perpetrators could be produced, nor could the case be solved. The killer is still unknown today. In Manau in 1930 a so-called murder stone was set up at the place where the child's corpse was found, and from 1937 a propaganda memorial service was held on the anniversary of Karl Keßler's death.

Gauleiter and District President

Shortly after the seizure of power by the National Socialists Hellmuth moved as a deputy in the parliament now meaningless Nazi Reichstag one. In addition to his previous ranks and titles as Gauleiter (since 1928), SA -Standartenführer and NSKK -Obergruppenführer came on July 1, 1934 (as the successor to Bruno Günder, who was prematurely retired on November 1, 1933), the office of District President of Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg or (after the government district was renamed on July 1, 1937) Mainfranken . On March 11, 1933, three weeks before the first major boycott campaign against Jews across the country, Hellmuth forced the temporary closure of Jewish shops, offices and practices in Würzburg.

Marriage and family life

He was able to demonstrate his pronounced preference for pomp and grand gestures when he married Erna Maria Stamm, a dentist from Kassel, in a so-called German wedding. The Gauleiter's wedding took place on June 13, 1936 in the Wenzelsaal of the Würzburg town hall , as the actual city wedding hall was too small for this. According to the report of the Franconian Volksblatt of June 12, 1936 , the festival program, which was presented at a press conference a week beforehand, should run as follows:

“[…] After the civil wedding in the Wenzel Hall in the town hall, the Gauleiter and his bride go through the streets of the city to the Residenzplatz. There, the arrival of the wedding couple is announced by 40 HJ fanfare players who are positioned around the Frankonia fountain. This is the beginning of the German wedding celebration, which is organized by the city of Würzburg and the Gau Mainfranken of the NSDAP. The celebration has five sections:

The Gauleiter and his bride, followed by his wedding guests, go from the car to the main courtyard and are greeted there by the political leaders and delegations of the Nazi organizations. Access to the main courtyard is also possible for the people.

The wedding procession walks through the vestibule of the Residenz to the sounds of the Imperial Army Chapel, where the representatives of all estates are set up in four groups. The poet Nikolaus Fey greets the wedding couple in dialect called farmers, winemakers, woodworkers, fishermen and people wearing traditional costumes. The poet Adalbert Jakob [...] BDM girls with oak garlands [...] show the bride and groom the way to the White Hall, upon entering the hymn 'Aufjauchze mein Herz' (Aufjauchze mein Herz), specially written by the conductor of the Liedertafel, is sung by the Liedertafel [ ...] After the celebratory speech, the wedding procession goes through the garden hall into the courtyard garden [...] The people have the opportunity to attend the performances in the courtyard garden from its higher parts [...]. "

In the imperial hall of the residence, the so-called German wedding ceremony was carried out in front of a large swastika between oak trees by the deputy Gauleiter and Lord Mayor of Schweinfurt , Ludwig Pösl , instead of a priest.

His right to an appropriate private residence is also evidence of a pronounced sense of self-worth. Hellmuth showed no qualms about this when he dubiously acquired the villa of the Jewish pharmacist Max Mandelbaum for this purpose. The Mandelbaum family decided to emigrate and wanted to sell the villa on Ludendorffstrasse (today Rottendorfer Strasse) 26 in Würzburg through a broker for 100,000 RM in 1938 before the “ Reichspogromnacht ” . Hellmuth, in his capacity as district president, became aware of the already existing sales contract, which was available for certification by a notary, and urged the city of Würzburg to exercise its right of first refusal. The city finally bought the villa property for 100,000 RM and immediately sold the property to Hellmuth for 80,000 RM. However, the Gauleiter was only able to raise 20,000 RM, which is why the remaining amount was deferred at four percent interest as a non-cancellable mortgage. It is not known whether the city of Würzburg ever got its money.

From then on, the villa was the meeting place for party leaders who visited Würzburg. Here Hellmuth was able to demonstrate how a German family of the ruling class lived. His wife, whom he addressed with the title “High Woman”, obviously quickly adopted her husband's style. According to documents from the Würzburg employment office, at least 28 domestic helpers were employed in her household between 1936 and 1945. The time required and the condescending treatment as well as some wage restraint led to a quick change of personnel in the Gauleiter villa.

The first of a total of three children was named "Gailana" after the Franconian duke's daughter Gailana , who initiated the murder of the Franconian apostle Kilian , and was not baptized by the church. A son born in November 1938 received the surname of the farmer's leader Florian Geyer as his first name . It is significant that the rumor circulated in Würzburg that the Gauleiter's dog was called "Kilian". According to witnesses, however, Hellmuth's dog was called "Senta". His public and private behavior and, above all, his anti-church failures made Hellmuth the most unpopular party leader in Würzburg.

Self-expression and offices

As the head of one of the smallest districts in the German Reich and directly in the shadow of the "Franconian leader" Julius Streicher , Hellmuth used every opportunity to emphasize the importance of his office and his person. The expropriated Würzburg trade union building on Augustinerstraße was given the name “Dr. Otto Hellmuth House”. On the "Adolf Hitler Field" in front of the Florian Geyer ruins in Giebelstadt , he made a vow in April 1938, which is exemplary of his grandiose manner:

“I vow to you, my Führer, to build up and use this my Gau so strongly and purely by virtue of its rich cultural and free-fighting tradition that it will become a land-without-care for our Führer. The traditional farming district of Mainfranken will and must be: Adolf Hitler's Sanssouci ! Sieg Heil!"

At the beginning of the Second World War, the Gauleiter was disappointed when, in contrast to the majority of the Gauleiter, he was not given the new office of Reich Defense Commissioner due to the "Ordinance on the Appointment of Reich Defense Commissioners" of September 1, 1939 , because the Main Franconia Gau was not assigned to any of the 18 Military districts corresponded. It was only with the “Ordinance on the Reich Defense Commissioners and the Unification of Economic Administration” of November 16, 1942, that the party districts became Reich Defense Districts and thus each Gauleiter was made Reich Defense Commissioner.

In the course of his political activity Hellmuth received the service award of the NSDAP in silver, the SA sports badge , the badge of honor of the German Red Cross 1st Class, the Cross of Merit of the German Red Cross and the Golden Party Badge .

As Gauleiter, he tried to get a company car of the Mercedes 540K (compressor) type, costing around 20,000 Reichsmarks, but was referred to the smaller Mercedes 300 type within the party, which was available with a “party discount” for 10,000 Reichsmarks and the typical vehicle for the “Reichsleitung “Was.

According to the National Socialist admiration of mothers as the “vital birth of the German people” (compare women under National Socialism ), Hellmuth himself led the Gau on April 8, 1936, before the foundation of the Mother Cross by order of December 16, 1938 by Hitler Mainfranken an “honor card for the German mother”. The prerequisite for this was that the mother had to be of “ German blood ” who had given birth to at least four “hereditary children”.

"Dr. Hellmuth Plan"

Dissertation Die Entmannungen in Mainfranken in the years 1934-1936 at the racial office of the NSDAP-Mainfranken

Trans-regional importance especially by the former trade press gained the " Dr. Hellmuth plan for the reorganization of the district Mainfranken" as Rhon plan or Rhon construction plan known contacted the Hellmuth in 1933 to the public. This since 1935 by the regional planning association Bavaria - district office Würzburg - elaborated and since about 1938 carried out in the Hesse and Thuringia Rhon plan should lead to a structural improvement of the economic and social conditions in the rural areas Main franc and the entire Rhön lead, mainly through the Franconian real division were economically very weak. Hellmuth's motto for this was: "Create prosperous areas in Germany from emergency areas [...]". This applied primarily to the Rhön, which was defined as such an emergency area, since the predominantly sideline farms were over-indebted, especially after the global economic crisis . In 1936, the first volume of the series of writings published by Ludwig Schmidt-Kehl from the Racial Political Office of the NSDAP appeared at the Gauleitung Mainfranken on the Dr. Hellmuth Plan with the medical dissertation submitted in 1935 by Josef Dausacker Racial Surveys in the Rhöndörfern Platz and Geroda . The Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für Raumforschung ( Reich Working Group for Spatial Research) , which in February 1938 had presented the plan in its monthly Spatial Research and Spatial Planning , sponsored investigations as part of the plan. With the planned improvement of the infrastructure and the agricultural conditions of use through the creation of a comprehensive network of paths (including the Hochrhönstrasse ), drainage and pitting , afforestation and a reallocation of land, racial policy measures such as those under the direction of the "clan investigator" of the racial policy office of the district administration Mainfrankens Rolf were accompanied Kilian carried out “hereditary inventory” and the “selection” of those “not deserving of reproduction” in application of the law on the prevention of hereditary offspring of July 14, 1933 , which also provided for compulsory sterilization of carriers of alleged hereditary diseases. Only the “racially valuable” part of the population should be considered for cultivation and reproduction on the planned 17 hereditary farms (see Reichserbhofgesetz ). To this end, the head of the Racial Political Office of the Gau Mainfranken Ludwig Schmidt-Kehl ("Rassen-Schmidt") stated:

“National Socialism is not sentimental, it does not divert its strength into tasks that are nationally not worthwhile. No matter how interesting economic problems lure people to take action, National Socialism will not take them up if they do not benefit a section of the population that thanks them through increased life; the welfare thoughts democratic coinage has given our state. [...]

Knowing that genetic material determines the essence of humans, the politician approaches genetic biologists today with the question: what wood is the Rhöner made of. [...]

The focus must therefore be on researching the human fitness of the residents, and here, according to National Socialist principles, it was necessary to go beyond the investigation of the individual and to research no more and no less than the hereditary value of the population currently living and expected in the future. In the Main Franconia Gau this requirement was first approached in order to create solid foundations for the human problem in the Rhön. "

Until the war-related suspension in 1944, the work was primarily carried out by the Reich Labor Service (RAD). Accordingly, the Rhön had one of the greatest densities of RAD camps in the entire empire. A camp on Hochrhönstrasse in the area of ​​the Black Moors was also named after the Gauleiter. Of the planned courtyards, only the Rhönhof near Hausen was completed and inaugurated in April 1938 with political celebrities.

"Action T4" and evacuation of the sanatorium and nursing home in Werneck

On September 23, 1940, Hellmuth requested the immediate evacuation of the sanatorium and nursing home Werneck during a visit and confiscated it for the accommodation of " ethnic German " resettlers from Bessarabia . From October 3 to 6, 1940, a total of 777 patients were transferred from Werneck. Half of this came to the Lohr am Main sanatorium and nursing home and the other half via various intermediate institutions to the killing centers for the "euthanasia" murder of the mentally ill and disabled in Sonnenstein Castle near Pirna and Hartheim Castle near Linz , where they were gassed . The transfer of the sick was carried out by the “ Gemeinnützige Krankentransport GmbH Berlin”, a cover organization of the “ Aktion T4 ” carried out by the Führer’s office . When they were transported away, Hellmuth assured that the patients would be moved back to Werneck after the resettlement campaign of the “Volksdeutsche” was completed. After a short time, however, the relatives of the sick, who had not been notified of the transfer, received the first news of their death from the aforementioned "euthanasia" institutions. About two months after their evacuation, all the patients who had been transferred outside of Main Franconia were dead. On October 24, 1940, the Werneck sanatorium was occupied with Bessarabian “ethnic Germans” who were to be settled in the Reich from here.


The Allied air war against Germany increasingly led to attacks on civilian residential areas. On the orders of Heinrich Himmler , from the autumn of 1943 police hunting squads were formed to arrest enemy aircraft that had jumped off or had landed in an emergency and handed them over to the Wehrmacht . At the same time, they should be protected from the anger of the sometimes extremely angry population. However, on June 20, 1944, in response to the Allied bombing raids, guidelines were completely reversed. Now all enemy aviators who were caught were to be shot immediately (see air murders ). Although this order was addressed to the police and passed on through official channels by the Reich Security Main Office , so Hellmuth was only responsible for passing it on to the NS district leaders, this administrative act after the war was his undoing. On September 12, 1944, a Würzburg hunting squad shot and killed four American airmen who had not landed near Ruppertshütten . On September 29, 1944, another US aviator who had jumped off was shot by the Bad Neustadt district leader Ingenbrand. Hellmuth in Dachau was held responsible for these five murders by the US military court.

End of the war and escape

In 1942 Hellmuth, like all Gauleiter, also became Reich Defense Commissioner . In this capacity, he had a concrete bunker built in the immediate vicinity of his villa “Am last Hieb” in Rottendorfer Strasse as an air raid command post and command center, which was available to him with his family and other loyal friends. On the day of the British bombing , March 16, 1945, which killed 5,000 people in Würzburg, made 90,000 people homeless and largely destroyed Würzburg's old town, Hellmuth was outside the city.

On March 19, 1945 Hellmuth wrote on the front page of the Mainfränkische Zeitung :

“Unswervingly and hateful we stand by our duty. We only know one thing: do everything for the day of vengeance that is coming. "

The former Reich Minister for Armaments and War Production , Albert Speer , wrote in 1969 in his memoirs about an encounter with Hellmuth in March 1945:

"[...] In Würzburg I went to see Gauleiter Hellmuth, who let me take part in his well-ordered breakfast table. While we were talking about country sausages and eggs, the Gauleiter explained with the greatest of course that he had ordered the destruction of the Schweinfurt ball bearing industry in order to implement Hitler's decree; the representatives of the factories and the party offices were already waiting for his orders in another room. The plan was well thought out: the oil baths of the special machines were to be set on fire; After the experience of the air raids, this would make the machines unusable. At first he could not be convinced that such destruction was nonsense and asked me when the Fiihrer would use the decisive miracle weapon . He had information about Bormann and Goebbels from headquarters, according to which this mission was imminent. As so often before, I had to explain to him that a silver bullet did not exist. I knew that the Gauleiter belonged to the group of sensible people and therefore asked him not to carry out Hitler's extermination order. I went on to say that in view of this situation it was pointless to take away the people's absolutely essential livelihood by blowing up industrial plants and bridges.
I mentioned massing German troops that would be drawn together east of Schweinfurt in order to recapture the center of our armaments production in a counter-attack; which I didn't even lie about, since the top leadership was indeed planning a counterattack soon. The old, well-tried argument that Hitler could not continue his war without ball bearings finally had its effect. The Gauleiter, whether convinced or not, was not prepared to assume the historical guilt of ruining all chances of victory by destroying the Schweinfurt factories. "

Goebbels noted in his diary on March 28, 1945:

“In the morning we receive a report from Würzburg that sounds a bit more hopeful. The Gauleitung announced that the situation was completely under control there and that Aschaffenburg had been cleared by the enemy again. Our Reich Propaganda Office Head Dr. Fischer took special care of those who raised white flags when the enemy approached. They are subjected to brutal treatment in the Gau Mainfranken, which they deserve. "

Shortly before the American troops marched in, Hellmuth declared in a final appeal on March 28, 1945:

“The situation is serious, but by no means hopeless! The leadership takes all measures that the situation requires. The hour of our probation has come! Whoever forgets his duty for just a second is a traitor to the cause of the people. Cowards are ruthlessly eliminated! Only hatred and the will to resist resolutely should have room in our hearts. The opponent should also report from Main Franconia that he encountered a determined and brave people! "

Then he did exactly what he had forbidden the common “national comrade” on threat of the death penalty ; he fled with his family and the Gauleitung on April 2, 1945, first to Untermerzbach near Ebern and then via Haßfurt on April 9, 1945 to Eggolsheim near Forchheim in Franconian Switzerland. On April 14, 1945, the NSDAP officially dissolved in Mainfranken. His wife and children finally found protection in Upper Bavaria, while Hellmuth's trail was lost in Tyrol . When he was taken prisoner by the Americans in Bavaria, he remained undetected. Together with his former adjutant, he fled to northern Germany.

post war period

After two years in secret, during which he lived as a farm worker in the Kassel area and later worked in a dental practice in Bassum under the name of Hans Oster , he was arrested by the British military police in the small town between Bremen and Osnabrück. In Dachau, in one of the aviation trials in a US military tribunal, he was charged with being responsible for the shooting of allied airmen who had landed in an emergency in September 1944.

At the request of Hellmuth's sister Hedwig, whom the Würzburg bishop Matthias Ehrenfried knew as a “true good Catholic lady”, he used himself to death on October 10, 1947 by the General Military Court in Dachau with a pardon on October 23, 1947 Hellmuth condemned the strand. The Würzburg bishop in particular had to suffer from the anti-church failures of the former Gauleiter, which culminated in several storms in 1934 and 1938 on the episcopal palace. In a revision procedure in 1951, the death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment ; the term was eventually reduced to 20 years. Hellmuth only stayed in the Landsberg War Crimes Prison until June 1955 , as he too was caught in the wave of pardons at the time. After his release he went to Kassel, where he applied for a returnee allowance of DM 5,160 in 1956  . Hellmuth was awarded this amount after five years of legal action by all instances. Despite the storm of outrage in his former Gau and the protests of the "Association of War Disabled, War Survivors and Social Pensioners of Germany", he also claimed the "welcome gift" under the Homecoming Act . However, this was denied him.

Against the protest of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians in Lower Franconia and the German Trade Union Confederation , Hellmuth was given preference over 21 competitors for approval for all health insurances by the AOK Reutlingen , where he established himself as a dentist in 1958 , as he had "the oldest license to practice medicine" .

Hellmuth attempted suicide in 1947 while he was in prison in Landsberg am Lech. Before that he had written " Heil Hitler " on the wall of his cell in his own blood . He repeated the same thing on April 20, 1968, the anniversary of Hitler's birthday. Hellmuth died of his own hand on that day at the age of 71 in Reutlingen. His urn was buried in the family grave in Marktbreit.

Denazification proceedings were initiated against Hellmuth during his Landsberg imprisonment , but were not brought to an end. “Stubborn to the last” was the retrospective assessment of his eldest daughter Gailana, who took over his inheritance and finally had her first name changed at the age of 21. Hellmuth had even planned to murder his family at the end of the war.


  • Bruno Fries, Paul Pagel, Christian Roedig, Kurt Scheidenberger (eds.): Würzburg in the Third Reich. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1983, ISBN 3-88479-114-1 (exhibition catalog).
  • Roland Flade: It may be that we need a dictatorship. Right-wing radicalism and anti-democracy in the Weimar Republic using the example of Würzburg. Pupille-Verlag, Würzburg 1983, ISBN 3-924303-00-2 .
  • Dieter W. Rockenmaier: The Third Reich and Würzburg. Attempt to take stock. Mainpresse Richter, Würzburg 1983, DNB 830738959 .
  • District of Würzburg (Ed.): District of Würzburg. Our home under Hitler's tyranny in documents, experiences and fates. Würzburg district, Würzburg 1988.
  • Joachim S. Hohmann : Country folk under the swastika. Agricultural and race policy in the Rhön. A contribution to the regional history of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia. 2 volumes. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1992, ISBN 3-631-45093-1 .
  • Ute Felbor: Racial Biology and Hereditary Science in the Medical Faculty of the University of Würzburg 1937–1945 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Supplement. 3). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1995, ISBN 3-88479-932-0 (also: Würzburg, University, Dissertation, 1995), pp. 29–35 and 43–45 (in particular on the “Dr. Hellmuth Plan”).
  • Peter Fasel: Contributions to Nazi history in Lower Franconia. Self-published, Würzburg 1996, DNB 948867337 .
  • Roland Flade (Ed.): Our Würzburg Century. Mainpresse Zeitungsverlags-Gesellschaft, Würzburg 1998.
  • Astrid Freyeisen: stubborn to the last - Gauleiter Dr. Otto Hellmuth and the end of National Socialism in Lower Franconia. In: Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst. Volume 57, 2005, ISSN  0076-2725 , pp. 280-328.
  • Robert Gellately : The Gestapo and German Society. The Enforcement of Racial Policy 1933–1945 . Schöningh, Paderborn 1994, ISBN 3-506-77487-5 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Otto Hellmuth: The Keloid. Würzburg 1922 (Würzburg, University, dissertation, 1922).
  2. ^ Roland Flade: The Würzburg Jews from 1919 to the present. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes. Theiss, Stuttgart 2001–2007, Volume III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 529-545 and 1308, here: p. 534.
  3. Christiane Kolbet: … what each tribe is a disgrace to the Lord Christ: Seventy years of ritual murder legend from Manau. In: haGalil .
  4. Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, volumes I – III / 2. Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 196–289 and 1271–1290, here: p. 232.
  5. Franconian Volksblatt of June 12, 1936.
  6. ^ National Socialist Institutions in Würzburg. Private villa of Gauleiter Dr. Otto Hellmuth. In: Website of the Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium Würzburg.
  7. Fries, Pagel, Roedig, Scheidenberger (ed.): Würzburg in the Third Reich. 1983, p. 42.
  8. ^ Hohmann: Country people under the swastika. Volume 1. 1992, p. 112.
  9. Otto Hellmuth: Call of February 15, 1938. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung. Volume 2, 1938, p. 45.
  10. Joseph Dausacker: Racial surveys in the villages Rhon Geroda and space. Medical dissertation Würzburg 1935 (= writings from the racial politics office of the NSDAP at the Gauleitung Mainfranken on the Dr. Hellmuth plan. Volume 1. [Würzburg 1936]).
  11. Ute Felbor: Racial Biology and Hereditary Science in the Medical Faculty of the University of Würzburg 1937–1945. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1995, ISBN 3-88479-932-0 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Supplement 3); also dissertation Würzburg 1995, pp. 29–31 ( The Dr. Hellmuth Plan - a “model example of National Socialist development work” ) and 66–71.
  12. Konrad Bildstein: The Dr. Hellmuth plan. Its basics and its development. In: spatial research and spatial planning. Monthly publication of the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für Raumforschung. Volume 2, 1938, pp. 46-53.
  13. Ute Felbor: Racial Biology and Hereditary Science in the Medical Faculty of the University of Würzburg 1937–1945. Würzburg 1995, pp. 30, 58-60 and 67.
  14. Cf. Rolf Kilian: The recording of the hereditary structure of the Rhön population. Report of the International Congress for Population Science, Berlin, August 26th - September 1st, 1935. In: Hereditary and racial biology as an essential component of population policy (= writings from the Racial Political Office of the NSDAP at the Gauleitung Mainfranken on the Dr. Hellmuth Plan. Volume 3). Konrad Triltsch publishing house, Würzburg-Aumühle 1936, pp. 848-851.
  15. Ludwig Schmidt-Kehl : Man in the Rhön. In: spatial research and spatial planning. Volume 2, No. 1, 1938, ISSN  0034-0111 , pp. 73-74.
  16. Presentation of the "Dr. Hellmuth Plan" on .
  17. Hellmuth's concrete bunker .
  18. Peter Weidisch (2007), p. 272.
  19. Mainfränkische Zeitung of March 19, 1945.
  20. Albert Speer : Memories. Propylaen Verlag, Berlin 1969, pp. 454–455.
  21. Elke Fröhlich (ed.): The diaries of Joseph Goebbels. Part 2: Dictations 1941–1945. Volume 15: January – April 1945. Saur, Munich a. a. 1995, ISBN 3-598-22311-0 , p. 625.
  22. Rockenmaier: The Third Reich and Würzburg. 1983, pp. 239-240.
  23. From the end of time - end of the war 60 years ago: Three Franconian village scenes. In: Sunday paper. Evangelical weekly newspaper for Bavaria. Issue 16, 2005, dated April 17, 2005.
  24. Summary of the verdict on justice and Nazi crimes ( memento of the original from July 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. : Review and Recommandations (PDF; 3.1 MB). In: Jewish Virtual Library (on the proceedings against Helmuth). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. Rolf-Ulrich Kunze : Würzburg 1945-2004. Reconstruction, modern city. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2 (I: From the beginnings to the outbreak of the Peasant War. 2001, ISBN 3-8062-1465-4 ; II: From the Peasant War 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria 1814. 2004, ISBN 3 -8062-1477-8 ; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 ), Theiss, Stuttgart 2001–2007, Volume III (2007), Pp. 318–346 and 1292–1295, here: p. 329.
  26. Otto Hellmuth . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 1958, p. 64 ( online ).
  27. Evidence for this paragraph: A yearbook with a view of the Third Reich. In: Mainpost (Würzburg). January 9, 2006; and: Astrid Freyeisen: stubborn to the last. In: Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst. Volume 57, 2005, pp. 280-328.