Landsberg correctional facility
|Information about the institution|
|Surname||Landsberg correctional facility|
|Institution management||Monika Gross|
The institution extends over six hectares and is designed for 565 inmates as well as for a further 109 inmates in the open prison in the Rothenfeld branch in the community of Andechs and 58 in two outdoor houses in Landsberg am Lech. The JVA Garmisch-Partenkirchen is managed and supplied together with the JVA Landsberg.
The Institute in 1908 by spinning off of parts of the prison Ebrach as National Institute prisoners Landsberg a. Lech was built according to plans by Hugo Höfl in cautiously classifying Art Nouveau. The building complex, which was built by the Royal State Building Administration in accordance with the “modern guidelines for the penal system” , includes a number of other prison buildings and official apartments.
After the First World War , a fortress and protective custody department was set up. The first prisoner in prison was Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley , who shot the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner in February 1919 ; In 1923/1924 Adolf Hitler served 264 days of imprisonment here.
Known fortress prisoners in Landsberg
- Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley , imprisoned for the murder of Kurt Eisner from January 1920 to May 1924, then released early on parole and finally pardoned in 1927 .
because of participation in the Hitler-Ludendorff Putsch :
time of the nationalsocialism
During the Nazi era, the following people, among others, were imprisoned in Landsberg:
Numerous foreign political prisoners were also deported to Germany and imprisoned in Landsberg. Between the beginning of 1944 and the end of the war, at least 210 people were killed here as a result of mistreatment or executions.
Was Criminals Prison No. 1
The Landsberg am Lech prison was liberated by US Army forces on April 30, 1945. After the end of World War II in Europe, taught from January 1, 1947 United States Army in the building of the prisoners Institute Landsberg the War Criminal Prison No. 1 (German War Criminal Prison No. 1 ).
- Dachau Trials (489 US Army military trials ), including:
- Nuremberg follow-up trials (twelve trials of war criminals before the American War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg), including:
In Landsberg, 259 death sentences were carried out by hanging and 29 by shooting . Even after the death penalty was abolished when the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in May 1949, further executions took place in Landsberg. The last executions took place on June 7, 1951 (see below).
There were numerous requests for clemency from the German side for those sentenced to death. In November 1950, all parties from the city and district of Landsberg asked for mercy in a resolution, as did a delegation from the German Bundestag in January 1951.
It says on the website of the city of Landsberg:
“On January 7, 1951, the members of the Bundestag Dr. Richard Jäger [sic] (CSU) and Dr. Seelos (BP) and members of the state parliament from both parties at a rally on Landsberger Hauptplatz. Several thousand people attended this demonstration. The rally ended in scandal when Jewish DPs from the Lechfeld camp held a counter-demonstration to commemorate the victims. Despite all the sympathy of the population for the perpetrators, there were no efforts to protect the victims of National Socialism. "
At the "scandal" the excited crowd roared, according to research by the historian Jens-Christian Wagner: "Jews out!"
On January 31, 1951, the US High Commissioner responsible for those convicted of the Nuremberg Trials , John McCloy , and the Commander in Chief of the US Armed Forces in Europe , General Handy , who was responsible for those convicted in the Dachau Trials , announced their decisions: seven of a total of 28 death sentences that have not yet been carried out have been confirmed - 21 death sentences and numerous other sentences were reduced in terms of sentences in the course of these reviews. A number of prominent prisoners - for example Alfried Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach and Wilhelm Speidel - were released on mercy as early as 1951.
The seven confirmed death sentences - carried out on June 7, 1951 - concerned
- Oswald Pohl , who was sentenced to death as the main defendant in the Economic and Administrative Main Office of the SS ,
- four of those convicted in the Einsatzgruppen trial ( Otto Ohlendorf , Erich Naumann , Paul Blobel , Werner Braune )
- two convicted in the Dachau trials - namely the adjutant of the camp commandant of the Buchenwald concentration camp, Hans-Theodor Schmidt, and the report leader of the Mühldorf concentration camp, Georg Schallermair .
Some of the executed were buried in the "Spöttinger Friedhof" (prison cemetery), others were transferred to their hometowns. Through the publication of the Landsberg Citizens' Association in the 20th century and the critical local historian Anton Posset on war criminals in special issue 1 "From Hitler's fortress detention to war criminal prison N ° 1: The Landsberg detention center as reflected in history", the prison's cemetery also moved up the ua the war criminals hanged in prison and Jewish victims of the Nazi regime were buried. For many years it was used as a pilgrimage site by right-wing extremists. In countless newspaper articles and letters to the editor, the citizens' association sparked a discussion about how to deal with this “pilgrimage site”, which could have been closed 50 years later. Instead, the graves were maintained by the state. In 2002 Lutz Hachmeister made a documentary film about this emotionally much discussed topic and the historical significance of the prison. In 2003 the cemetery was deedicated by the Free State of Bavaria and the nameplates were removed from the graves amid strong protests.
Other sentences served here under US administration include:
- Heinrich Bütefisch
- Josef Dietrich
- Hellmuth Felmy
- Otto Hofmann
- Karl-Adolf Hollidt
- Hermann Hoth
- Waldemar Klingelhöfer
- Alfried Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach
- Hans Heinrich Lammers
- Wilhelm List
- Erhard Milch
- Martin Sandberger
- Ferdinand Schörner (because of the death sentences he pronounced at the end of the war)
- Anton Slupetzky
- Gustav Adolf Steengracht of Moyland
- Otto Steinbrinck
- Walter Warlimont
- Bernhard White
- Ernst von Weizsäcker
Furthermore, in 1947 the 21 people convicted of war crimes trials in Shanghai were housed here.
The WCP No. 1 was dissolved on May 9, 1958. The institution was returned to the Bavarian judiciary.
The facility has been operated as a correctional facility since 1959 . Prominent or well-known prisoners since then have been:
- Hannsheinz Porst , treason
- Günter Maschke , refusal of alternative military service
- Helg Sgarbi , fraud and attempted blackmail of the entrepreneur Susanne Klatten
- Michael Graeter , Bankruptcy Offenses and Infidelity
- Bela Ewald Althans , sedition
- Karl-Heinz Wildmoser junior , corruptibility and infidelity
- Josef Müller , investment advisor
- Uli Hoeneß , football official, tax evasion
In January 2011, volunteers and helpers, including the former prison chaplain, were excluded from the Landsberg JVA Christmas party, contrary to longstanding custom. The incident was criticized by those affected such as the local Caritas .
In February 2011 there were two suicides by prisoners in Landsberg JVA within just three days . The relatives thereupon raised serious allegations against the prison management and criticized the detention conditions in Landsberg. In particular, the accusation was loud that the incident was not nearly as surprising as the prison director Monika Groß had claimed in the press.
- Thomas Raithel: The Landsberg am Lech prison and the Spöttinger cemetery (1944–1958) . A documentation commissioned by the Institute for Contemporary History Munich, Oldenbourg, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-486-58741-8 ( Review by Heiner Möllers in Sehepunkte , Issue 9 (2009), No. 6, from June 15, 2009).
- Landsberg in contemporary history - contemporary history in Landsberg . Research project of the University of Augsburg with the City Archives Landsberg am Lech. Vögel, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-89650-310-7 .
- Landsberg Citizens' Association in the 20th Century : From Hitler's fortress imprisonment to War Crimes Prison No. 1: The Landsberg Prison in the Mirror of History . In: Landsberg in the 20th century . Issue 1, Citizens' Association Landsberg in the 20th Century, Landsberg / Lech 1993, , ISBN 3-9803775-0-4
- Landsberg Citizens' Association in the 20th Century: The National Socialist Place of Pilgrimage Landsberg: 1933–1937: The "Hitler City" becomes the "City of Youth" ISBN 3-9803775-2-0
- Marion Countess Dönhoff : Death sentences and threatening letters . In: Die Zeit , No. 10/1951. (to echo Landsberg's pardons at home and abroad)
- Heinrich Pflanz: The Spöttinger Friedhof in Landsberg am Lech: A documentation . 1st edition. Self-published, Landsberg 2004, p. 424 .
- Heinrich Plant, The executed von Landsberg and the Spöttinger Friedhof: a documentation , publisher: (right-wing extremist) Verlag Bublies , Schnellbach 2010, ISBN 978-3-937820-14-9 , http://d-nb.info/1008315516
- Ernst Würzburger: The last Landsberger. Verlag Jörg Mitzkat, Holzminden 2015, ISBN 978-3-940751-97-3 .
- Brief information about the Landsberg am Lech correctional facility as of December 31, 2014
- Brief information about the Landsberg am Lech correctional facility as of December 31, 2014
- Landsberg Prison / Frank Falla Archive
- The Landsberg prison and the Spöttinger cemetery. In: Website of the city of Landsberg. City of Landsberg am Lech, archived from the original on July 19, 2011 ; Retrieved January 8, 2013 .
- Ralf Beste, Georg Bönisch, Thomas Darnstädt, Jan Friedmann, Michael Fröhlingsdorf, Klaus Wiegrefe : ZEITGESCHICHTE: Wave of Truths . In: Der Spiegel . No. 1 , 2012, p. 32 f . ( online ).
- Article by Wolfgang Habel; http://www.buergervereinigung-landsberg.de/kriegsverbrecher/Ehrengrab.pdf
- The prison. Landsberg and the emergence of the republic http://www.hmr-produktion.de/filme/das-gefaengnis.html
- Schmitt-Englert, Barbara; Germans in China 1920–1950 Everyday life and changes; Gossenberg 2012; ISBN 978-3-940527-50-9 .
- Quandt heiress: Klatten forces blackmailers into custody. In: Spiegel Online . January 19, 2014, accessed January 6, 2017 .
- Stefan Schultz: Ex-convict Josef Müller: "Then it will be night, the door closes, you are alone". In: Spiegel Online . March 14, 2014, accessed January 6, 2017 .
- http://www.br.de/nachrichten/uli-hoeness-gefaengnis-100.html ( Memento from May 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Pastors also have to stay outside ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on circular messenger
- Last way out on the circular messenger
- Two suicides within a few days ( memento of the original from February 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on Augsburger Allgemeine
- You should have noticed ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on circular messenger
- Table of contents ( Memento of the original from October 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Thomas Raithel: Landsberg am Lech prison . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria
- JVA Landsberg in the Bavarian Justice Portal
- Manfred Deiler: Hitler's imprisonment in Landsberg
- Manfred Deiler: Landsberg becomes a place of pilgrimage for National Socialism - Lechstadt markets "its" Hitler cell (European Holocaust Memorial Foundation) or Anton Posset Landsberg, "City of Youth" (Landsberg citizens' association in the 20th century)
- Film excerpt from The March to the Führer : Closing rally in Landsberg (European Holocaust Memorial Foundation e.V.)
- Landsberg War Criminal Prison (European Holocaust Memorial Foundation)
- Prison cemetery of the JVA Landsberg / Lech Spöttinger Friedhof