Nuremberg medical trial

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Karl Brandt (standing) at the pronouncement of the verdict

The Nuremberg Doctors Trial took place from December 9, 1946 to August 20, 1947 as the first of the twelve Nuremberg follow- up trials against those responsible for the German Reich at the time of National Socialism in the Nuremberg Palace of Justice before an American military tribunal ( Military Tribunal I ) and comprised 139 days. Officially, the case was named United States vs. Karl Brandt et al. designated.

20 concentration camp doctors as well as a lawyer and two administrative specialists were charged with organizing medical crimes. 14 of the accused had already been named as responsible in the trial against the main war criminals . Some offenders had died, had suicide committed or were already in the Dachau Trials convicted. The whereabouts of some of the perpetrators were unknown and evidence was not yet available. The final selection of the accused was based on the aim of indicting leading representatives of the "state medical services" of the Nazi state in order to demonstrate the workings of the criminal system and not just criminal individuals.

Involuntary human experiments , the killing of concentration camp inmates for the establishment of a skeleton collection ( August Hirt ) and the murders of the sick in the T4 campaign were treated as examples of the medical crimes of National Socialism . However, not all of the medical experiments and practices of National Socialism classified as criminal found a place in the trial. Of the 23 defendants, seven were sentenced to death on August 20, 1947, five to life imprisonment and four to imprisonment between 10 and 20 years. Seven defendants were acquitted.

Legal basis and indictment

The basis of the indictment was the Control Council Act No. 10 , which assigned legal jurisdiction for this process to the Military Court No. 1 in Nuremberg (Order No. 7 of the Military Government) and from which the indictment of October 25, 1946 was derived with the following four counts:

At the request of the defense and after examining the legal basis, the court decided not to deal independently with the charge of the conspiracy. Copies of the complaint were served on all defendants on November 5, 1946 in German. Even before the trial began, the accused all pleaded “not guilty” during a court hearing. Each accused was provided with a lawyer of his choice.

Bench, left to right: Harold L. Sebring, Walter B. Beals, Johnson T. Crawford and Victor C. Swearingen

Execution of litigation and pronouncement of judgment

On December 9, 1946, the trial of the 23 defendants was opened. The court was presided over by Walter B. Beals , Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Washington State . Its assessors were Harold L. Sebring , Florida Supreme Court Justice , and Johnson T. Crawford , former Oklahoma State District Court Justice . Victor C. Swearingen , Assistant to the Attorney General of the United States , acted as substitute judge . The procedure was carried out in German and English.

After the trial began, the prosecution first outlined the allegations against the accused and substantiated the allegations of guilt with evidence. From January 20, 1947, the defendants' defense lawyers had their say, also with the submission of evidence. In addition to 32 prosecution witnesses, 53 defense witnesses were heard during the trial. A total of 1,471 affidavits and other documents, 901 of which were submitted by the defense, were accepted in court. The prosecution and defense pleadings took place in the week of July 14, 1947. On July 19, 1947, the defendants themselves were finally heard. The verdict was announced on August 20, 1947. A revision was not permitted.

The 23 judgments in detail
Defendant rank function Guilty on charge verdict
Viktor Brack Nuremberg 2.jpg
Viktor Brack
* 1904
† 1948
SS-Oberführer Head of service in the “ Chancellery of the Führer ”, head of the “T4” organization; Co-organizer and head of the x-ray castration II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Karl Brandt SS doctor.jpg
Karl Brandt
* 1904
† 1948
SS-Gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the Waffen-SS Reich Commissioner for Sanitary and Health Services, General Commissioner for Warfare Issues, Euthanasia Plenipotentiary, Hitler's attending physician II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Rudolf Brandt (SS member) .jpg
Rudolf Brandt
* 1909
† 1948
SS standard leader Personal assistant to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the ministerial office in the Reich Ministry of the Interior II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Karl Gebhardt, SS doctor.jpg
Karl Gebhardt
* 1897
† 1948
Major General of the Waffen SS and SS group leader Chief physician of the Hohenlychen sanatorium , chief clinician at the Reichsarzt SS and police , personal physician Heinrich Himmler , allegedly president of the German Red Cross II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Waldem Hoven.jpg
Waldemar Hoven
* 1903;
† 1948
SS-Hauptsturmführer Buchenwald concentration camp doctor , deputy head of the department for typhus and virus research at the hygiene institute of the Waffen-SS II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Joachim Mrugoswsky SS doctor.jpg
Joachim Mrugowsky
* 1905
† 1948
SS-Oberführer Head of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen-SS , Supreme Hygienist at the Reichsarzt SS II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Wolfram Sievers.jpg
Wolfram Sievers
* 1905
† 1948
SS standard leader Reich manager (general secretary) of the SS-Ahnenerbes and director of the Institute for Defense Scientific Research (a sub-organization of the Ahnenerbes) II, III, IV Death penalty - executed June 2, 1948
Fritz Fischer concentration camp doctor.jpg
Fritz Fischer
* 1912
† 2003
SS-Sturmbannführer of the Waffen-SS Assistant doctor in Hohenlychen II, III, IV Life sentence - Committed to 10 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951 by the American High Commissioner John Jay McCloy , released early on April 1, 1954
Karl August Genzken concentration camp doctor.jpg
Karl Genzken
* 1885
† 1957
SS-Gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the Waffen-SS Chief of the medical office of the Waffen-SS II, III, IV Life sentence - Commuted to 20 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951, released early on April 17, 1954
Siegfried Handloser Nazi doctor.jpg
Siegfried Handloser
* 1885
† 1954
Chief Medical Officer Head of the Wehrmacht Medical Services and Army Medical Inspector II, III Life sentence - Commuted to 20 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951, released early in December 1953 due to illness
Gerhard Rose.jpg
Gerhard Rose
* 1896
† 1992
General Physician of the Air Force Deputy President of the Robert Koch Institute for Tropical Medicine and Head of the Department for Tropical Medicine, Consultant Hygienist and Tropical Medicine with the Chief of Medical Services of the Air Force II, III Life sentence - Commuted to 15 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951, released early on June 3, 1955
Oskar Schroeder.jpg
Oskar Schröder
* 1891
† 1959
Chief Medical Officer Head and Inspector of the Air Force Medical Services II, III Life sentence - Commuted to 15 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951, released early April 1, 1954
Hermann Becker-Freyseng.jpg
Hermann Becker-Freyseng
* 1910
† 1961
Medical officer of the Air Force Consultant for aeronautical medicine at the medical inspector of the Air Force, department head of the aeronautical medical institute II, III 20 years - Committed to 10 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951 by the American High Commissioner John Jay McCloy , released early on November 20, 1952
Herta Oberheuser.jpg
Herta Oberheuser
* 1911
† 1978
Camp doctor in the Ravensbrück concentration camp , Gebhardt's assistant doctor in Hohenlychen II, III 20 years - Commuted to 10 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951, early released on April 4, 1952
Wilhelm Beiglboeck concentration camp doctor.jpg
Wilhelm Beiglböck
* 1905
† 1963
Medical officer of the Air Force Senior physician at the I. Medical University Clinic Vienna II, III 15 years - Committed to 10 years imprisonment on January 31, 1951 by American High Commissioner John Jay McCloy and released early on December 15, 1951
Helmut Poppendick.jpg
Helmut Poppendick
* 1902
† 1994
SS-Oberführer Senior physician in the SS Race and Settlement Main Office , head of the personal office in the staff of the Reichsarzt SS and police IV 10 years - Dismissed on January 31, 1951 by the American High Commissioner John Jay McCloy
Kurt Blome concentration camp doctor.jpg
Kurt Blome
* 1894
† 1969
General doctor Deputy Head of the Reich Health Leader Leonardo Conti , Deputy Head of the Reich Medical Association acquittal
Adolf Pokorny.jpg
Adolf Pokorny
* 1895
† unbek.
Medical officer (senior physician) Doctor for skin and venereal diseases acquittal
Paul Rostock (Nazi medic) .jpg
Paul Rostock
* 1892
† 1956
General Doctor of the Reserve Director of the Surgical University Clinic in Berlin, consulting physician for the army, head of the Medical Science and Research Service acquittal
Konrad Schaefer.jpg
Konrad Schäfer
* 1911
† after 1951
Air Force sub-doctor Assistant at the chemotherapeutic laboratory of Schering AG, sub-doctor in the staff of the Research Institute for Aviation Medicine, Berlin acquittal
Siegfr Ruff.jpg
Siegfried Ruff
* 1907
† 1989
Flight captain Director of the Institute for Aviation Medicine of the German Research Institute for Aviation e. V. in Berlin acquittal
Georg Weltz.jpg
Georg August Weltz
* 1889
† 1963
Senior Field Physician Head of the Institute for Aviation Medicine in Munich acquittal
Wolfgang Romberg.jpg
Hans-Wolfgang Romberg
* 1911
† 1981
Head of department at the Institute for Aviation Medicine of the German Aviation Research Institute in Berlin-Adlershof under Siegfried Ruff acquittal

Execution of judgments

After the verdict was announced, the convicts were transferred to the Landsberg war crimes prison . The seven pronounced death sentences were finally carried out there on June 2, 1948 by hanging.

Numerous judgments of the Nuremberg trials were considerably softened from 1950 onwards, this also affected the judgments of the doctors trial. The remission was not based on a reassessment of the guilt of the convicts, but on a change in the political framework.

Medical ethics

The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial led to a return from collective to individual medical ethics. Typical components of the collectivist medicine of National Socialism, such as Nazi racial hygiene , were only touched on at the edge of the process. The Nuremberg Code of Conduct established the framework for future medical (and psychological) human experiments, which is still valid today.

Documentation of the process in the book

Even reporting on the trial turned into a problem: when the working group of the West German Medical Chambers was looking for a doctor who could compile the facts that had come to light in the process for documentation, no prominent scientist was found. After some searching, the choice fell on the still unknown Alexander Mitscherlich , who had just become a private lecturer , the students Fred Mielke and Alice Ricciardi . Her documentation was published in 1949, which still provides basic information on the medical crimes of the Nazi state - but just like the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial only deals with part of the Nazi medical crimes. Despite the paper shortage and the restrictions at the time, this documentation was printed in a relatively high edition of 10,000 copies, which only went to doctors. It was not until 1960 that a generally available edition was published by Fischer Verlag.

In 1996 the IPPNW (International Doctors for the Prevention of Nuclear War / Doctors in Social Responsibility) organized an international conference on the 50th anniversary of the Nuremberg Medical Trial with the congress volume Medicine and Conscience and decided on the basis of the results of this congress the " Nuremberg Code (1997) ", Which as the" Nuremberg Code "was part of the court ruling in the 1947 trial.

The publication of the complete documentation, the verbal transcripts, the indictment and defense material did not take place until 1999 by the Saur publishing house in Munich. The analysis for this was provided by Angelika Ebbinghaus / Klaus Dörner (eds.) In 2001: Destroying and Healing. The Nuremberg Doctors Trial and its Consequences. The German Medical Association refused to support this edition financially. It was only made possible by individual donations from 8,000 doctors.

An English and a French documentation, the French one with a lot of information about the character of the accused, appeared shortly after the end of the trial.

The medical crimes in detail

Negative pressure, hypothermia and seawater experiments

Negative pressure test for the Luftwaffe, Dachau concentration camp, 1942

Allegedly, these attempts by the Air Force were about aeronautical issues, namely to simulate the extreme conditions to which military pilots are exposed when they leave the aircraft at high altitude, make an emergency landing in cold water or have to be supplied with sufficient drinking water in lifeboats . The negative pressure, hypothermia and seawater experiments were carried out in the Dachau concentration camp .

The negative pressure tests were carried out in three test series from February 1942 to May 1942. In these series of experiments, around 200 concentration camp prisoners became victims, of whom between 70 and 80 died during the experiments. These deaths were not accidents but a planned part of the experiments. Hans-Wolfgang Romberg , Siegfried Ruff and Georg August Weltz were charged in this connection . The negative pressure tests picked up where Ruff and Romberg had broken off their self-tests. A fall from a height of 21,000 meters was simulated in a vacuum chamber , and the physical reactions up to the death of the test subjects were recorded. There was no doubt during the trial that the attempts that had taken were to be viewed as inhuman and criminal. However, there were doubts as to whether Romberg, Ruff and Weltz were adequately informed about all the details of the human experiments, as they stated in their defense. Sigmund Rascher , who was responsible for the actual implementation and organization of the experiments, had already passed away. Romberg, for example, had read the EKG during a fatal attempt by Rascher and thus pursued the death of the prisoner - which could be avoided by breaking off the attempt - but was unable to intervene. The court did not have enough evidence to convict Romberg, Ruff and Weltz. All three were therefore acquitted for lack of evidence.

During the attempts at hypothermia , which took place from August 1942 to December 1942, the prisoners were immersed in ice water and their physical reactions were also recorded up to the point of death. Up to 90 prisoners were murdered in the course of these attempts. Since the executors of the experiments - Ernst Holzlöhner , Erich Finke and Sigmund Rascher - had died in 1945, the clients and organizers of these experiments had to answer in the medical process, namely Karl and Rudolf Brandt, Handloser, Schröder, Gebhardt, Mrugowsky, Poppendick, Sievers, Becker -Freyseng and Weltz.

The seawater tests dealt with the problem of supplying crashed pilots in lifeboats with sufficient drinking water. There were two solutions to choose from: real desalination using chemicals (Konrad Schäfer), or so-called Berka water, in which the salty taste is masked and the addition of vitamin C supposedly improves the salt excretion. The dispute between the technical office (Berka water) and the sanitary inspection of the air force (desalination) should be resolved by human experiments. After a meeting on May 19 and 20, 1940, Hermann Becker-Freyseng was commissioned to carry out the experiments. With reference to Rascher's experiments, Oskar Schröder suggested inmates as test subjects. The third party involved was Wilhelm Beiglböck . The 44 "voluntary" test subjects were selected from the Buchenwald concentration camp under the pretense of false facts at the suggestion of Arthur Nebes from among Sinti and Roma and transferred to Dachau. The seawater tests were carried out between July 1944 and September 1944.

The involuntary test subjects included: Jakob Bamberger , Karl Höllenreiner , Josef Laubinger and Ernst Mettbach .

Becker-Freysing was sentenced to twenty years, which was commuted to ten years in prison in 1951. Beiglböck received fifteen years, which in 1951 was reduced to ten years imprisonment. Schröder was sentenced to life imprisonment, which was also reduced to fifteen years imprisonment in 1951. For the conviction only the non-voluntary nature of the attempt was decisive. A commission set up in 1948 by the German Society for Internal Medicine, consisting of Professors Curt Oehme (Heidelberg, Chairman), Heilmeyer (Freiburg) and Schoen (Göttingen), re-examined the basis of the judgment. She confirmed that she was not willing, but denied the criminal nature of the experiments, in which no test person was harmed. The opinion was forwarded to John McCloy .

Typhus vaccine trials

The experiments were carried out in the Buchenwald and Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camps . The sources for the experiments carried out in Buchenwald from January 1942 onwards are the ward diary of Erwin Ding-Schuler , statements by European doctors who were imprisoned in the concentration camp, as well as prisoners such as the prisoner clerk Eugen Kogon and the head nurse of the typhus station Arthur Dietzsch . The SS allegedly developed their own vaccine against typhus here , in reality they only tested known vaccines. Different vaccines were tested on 392 test persons, a control group of 89 persons remained without vaccination protection. 383 people fell ill, 97 died, 40 of them from the control group. Gerhard Rose and Joachim Mrugowsky were also involved in this series of experiments. The experiments were also carried out in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp . The attending physician was Arnold Dohmen , who had long been concerned with the pathogens of spotted fever.

In the Natzweiler concentration camp, typhus as well as jaundice experiments were carried out from 1943 until the liberation in 1944. The initiator of the experiments was Eugen Haagen .

Sulfonamide, bone graft and phlegmon trials

On December 20, 1946, during the Nuremberg medical trial,
Leo Alexander explained some of the pseudomedical human experiments to Maria Broel Plater , who was a prisoner in the Ravensbrück concentration camp .

The sulfonamide experiments in the Ravensbrück concentration camp took place from July 1942 to August 1943. The death of the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, Reinhard Heydrich, after a Czech assassination attempt focused on the problem that wound infection was the main cause of the losses of German soldiers on the Eastern Front. The attending physician Karl Gebhardt , a school friend of Himmler's who also looked after Heydrich, had put too much emphasis on amputation of the infected limbs and thought little of the new sulfonamide medicine. Gebhardt has now been commissioned to demonstrate in series of tests that sulfonamides are inadequate for the treatment of wound infections. Healthy Polish women from the Ravensbrück concentration camp served as test subjects for these experiments. The aim of the series of experiments was the analysis of gas fire , testing of the therapeutic agents known up to now and the analysis of "banal" wound infections under the treatment of conventional surgery and the new sulfonamides. In addition to the doctors Fischer and Oberheuser who were accused in the medical process, the doctors Schiedlausky and Rosenthal were also involved.

The series of tests that resulted in multiple deaths were each divided into two groups:

  1. Infection operations: The test subjects' calves were cut open and the wound was infected with wood and glass splinters.
  2. Aseptic operations: They were divided into bone, muscle and nerve experiments.

Mustard and phosgene experiments

Lost ( mustard gas ) and phosgene are chemical weapons . Human experiments with these substances were carried out in 1942/43 in the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp by the anatomy professor August Hirt and the biology professor Otto Bickenbach .

Skeleton collection for the "Imperial University of Strasbourg"

Memorial plaque in Natzweiler-Struthof with 86 names of those who were murdered

In August 1943, the SS murdered in the gas chambers of the concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof 86 Jewish men and women who previously by the two anthropologists (Alsace) Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker in the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau selected were. The crime was commissioned by the anatomy professor August Hirt (“ Reich University of Strasbourg ”) and the manager of the SS science organization “ AhnenerbeWolfram Sievers . The plan was to exhibit a skull collection in an unknown location: In line with the racist Nazi ideology, the skeletons should serve as objects for research and teaching in future “ Jew-free ” times. Due to technical problems the exhibition could not be realized. 16 of the preserved corpses were found completely after the liberation of Strasbourg , the rest were dismembered. The remains were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Strasbourg-Cronenbourg . They were identified in 2004.

Euthanasia program

The euthanasia murders or the “euthanasia campaign” were the systematic mass murder of more than 100,000 disabled people by the T4 central office . In addition to racial hygienic ideas of Nazi eugenics , considerations of the war economy were used as a justification. After persistent church protests, the hidden killings were no longer centralized after many hospital wards had been “emptied”, but from 1942 decentralized, less obviously.

The so-called “euthanasia” carried out in the Nazi state goes back to the idea of ​​“ racial hygiene ” developed in the 1920s and is related to the ultimate goal of “ destroying life unworthy of life ” of so-called “hereditary and mentally ill, handicapped and social” or racially undesirable ”, which was legalized in the National Socialist law for the prevention of genetically ill offspring .

After nationwide recording by means of a one-page short questionnaire to be filled out for each patient, who particularly emphasized the ability to work, doctors were commissioned by the judiciary as " T4 experts ". After being transferred, the victims were initially killed in a few asylums using various methods. After the occupation of Poland, gas chambers containing carbon monoxide were used for mass murders .

There were four phases:

  • 1939–1945: at least 5,000 victims of so-called " child euthanasia " ("hereditary" and cognitively or physically impaired infants and children)
  • 1940–1941: More than 70,000 residents of sanatoriums and nursing homes and homes for people with disabilities were victims. State psychiatric hospitals served as a stopover on the way to the murder institutions. After the "Aktion T4" was discontinued in August 1941 by the Berlin headquarters, the "adult euthanasia" was continued in a decentralized manner.
  • 1942–1945: Around 20,000 concentration camp prisoners were killed. The killing of sick prisoners from concentration camps who were no longer able to work in three of the murder facilities of "Aktion T4" ( Bernburg , Sonnenstein and Hartheim ) was designated as Aktion 14f13 according to the file number used for this purpose .
  • 1942–1945: With the Brandt campaign , named after Hitler's attendant doctor, sanatoriums and nursing homes were seized for the increasing need for alternative hospitals. The patients were concentrated in special institutions in the middle of the empire or in the east. Targeted killings with overdosed drugs or starvation through malnutrition drastically reduced their number. This phase meant the murder of about another 30,000 people.


  • Klaus Dörner , Angelika Ebbinghaus , Karsten Linne (eds.): The Nuremberg Medical Process 1946/47 . Verbatim transcripts, prosecution and defense material, sources on the environment. Edited on behalf of the Hamburg Foundation for Social History of the 20th Century. German edition, microfiche edition. Saur, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-598-32020-5 (381 files with index volume, first publication of the complete files).
  • Alice Platen-Hallermund : The killing of the mentally ill in Germany. From the German Medical Commission at the American Military Tribunal. Verlag der Frankfurter Hefte, Frankfurt am Main 1948 (new editions, reprint of the first edition from 1948. Psychiatrie-Verlag, Bonn 1993, ISBN 3-88414-149-X ; 7th edition. Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2008 ISBN 978-3- 935964-86-9 ).
  • François Bayle: Croix gammée contre caducée. Les expériences humaines en Allemagne pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale. Foreword by René Piédelièvre. L'Imprimerie nationale, Neustadt (Palatinat) 1950 (only antiquarian and only in French, very extensive).
  • Information Services Division, Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany (Ed.): Landsberg. A documentary report. Publishing house of the American High Commissioner for Germany, Munich 1951.
  • Alexander Mitscherlich , Fred Mielke: Science without humanity. Medical and eugenic aberrations under dictatorship, bureaucracy and war. Schneider, Heidelberg 1949 (This edition was intended exclusively for the West German Medical Association). New edition: Medicine without humanity . Documents of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1960, ISBN 3-596-22003-3 , limited preview in Google book search.
  • Jürgen Peter : The Nuremberg Medical Trial. In the mirror of his processing based on the three document collections by Alexander Mitscherlich and Fred Mielke (= writings from the Sigmund Freud Institute. 2). Lit-Verlag, Münster and others 1994, ISBN 3-8258-2112-9 (2nd edition, ibid 1998. 3rd edition, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-8258-2112-8 ).
  • Wolfgang U. Eckart: Case 1: The Nuremberg Doctors Trial. In: Gerd R. Ueberschär (Ed.): National Socialism in front of a court. The allied trials against war criminals and soldiers 1943–1952 (= Fischer pocket books. The time of National Socialism. 13589). Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-596-13589-3 , pp. 73-85.
  • Angelika Ebbinghaus, Klaus Dörner (ed.): Destroying and healing . The Nuremberg Doctors Trial and its Consequences. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-351-02514-9 .
  • Matthias Meusch: Nuremberg medical process. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte . De Gruyter, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 14 f.
  • Ulf Schmidt: Justice at Nuremberg. Leo Alexander and the Nazi doctors' trial (= St. Antony's Series ). Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke et al. 2004, ISBN 0-333-92147-X .
  • Paul Julian Weindling : Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials. From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke et al. 2004, ISBN 1-4039-3911-X .
  • Hans-Joachim Lang : The names of the numbers. How it was possible to identify the 86 victims of a Nazi crime. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-455-09464-3 (Revised edition. (= Fischer. The time of National Socialism 16895). Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-596-16895- 8 ).
  • Udo Benzenhöfer (ed.): Mengele, Hirt, Holfelder, Berner, von Verschuer, Kranz: Frankfurt university doctors of the Nazi era. Münster 2010, ISBN 978-3-932577-97-0 .

Web links

Commons : Nürnberger Ärzteprozess  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c Wolfgang U. Eckart: Case 1: The Nuremberg Doctor Trial. 1999.
  2. a b c d e Alexander Mitscherlich, Fred Mielke (ed.): Medicine without humanity. Documents of the Nuremberg Medical Trials 16th edition, revised new edition. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-596-22003-3 .
  3. Michail Krausnick: The gypsies are here. Roma and Sinti between yesterday and today. Würzburg 1981, p. 156.
  4. ^ The Nuremberg Doctors Trial 1946/47. Index tape for the microfiche edition. Walter de Gruyter, 2000. p. 105.
  5. ^ The Nuremberg Doctors Trial 1946/47. Index tape for the microfiche edition. Walter de Gruyter, 2000. P. 116. Restricted preview in the Google book search.
  6. Walter de Gruyter: indexing volume for the microfiche edition. Walter de Gruyter, 2000, ISBN 978-3-11-096299-4 , p. 62. Restricted preview in the Google book search.
  7. ^ An initiative to commemorate 86 Jewish victims of a crime by Nazi scientists