|List of states|
Labor omnia vincit
( lat. , "Work overcomes everything")
|Residents:||3,751,351 (2010 Census)|
|Member since:||November 16, 1907|
|Time zone:||Central: UTC − 6 / −5|
|The highest point:||1516 m (Black Mesa)|
|Average Height:||395 m|
|Deepest point:||88 m Little River|
|Governor :||Kevin Stitt ( R )|
|Post / Office / ISO||OK / / US OK|
Oklahoma ( English pronunciation [ ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə ] ) is a state in the central southern United States of America , north of Texas . The word Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw language : okla 'man' and humma 'red', the combination means something like "the land of the red man". Oklahoma's nickname is The Sooner State . The background to this epithet was the pioneers who had settled the land bought by the Indians by the US government before ( sooner ) the initial legal settlement period. The capital of Oklahoma is Oklahoma City .
Position and extent
Oklahoma has an area of 181,035 km² (20th place of the US states).
Oklahoma is largely in the Inner Plains area. The central lowland is taken up by the Osage Plains , a gently undulating plain that is only interrupted in a few places by hill country. The lowland region merges into the highlands to the east. In the northeast there are foothills of the Ozark Plateau . Rivers have dug deep gorges into this limestone massif. To the south of this plateau are the sandstone Ouachita Mountains . In the extreme southeast, the state has a share of the Gulf Coast Plain. To the west, the Central Lowlands merge into the Great Plains . Northeast Oklahoma is crossed by the Arkansas Valley, which includes the Arkansas River and the surrounding plains. This area is very fertile and is considered one of the most important agricultural regions in the state.
Oklahoma's waters flow mainly in an easterly direction over the Red River and Arkansas River . The southern part of the state is part of the catchment area of the former river. Via it, the water reaches the Atchafalaya River , from where it flows into the Gulf of Mexico . The main tributary of the Red River is the Washita River . Northern Oklahoma is part of the Arkansas catchment area. This flows into the Mississippi , so that this part of the water is also drained via the Gulf of Mexico. The major tributaries of Arkansas are the Cimarron , Canadian , North Canadian, and Neosho .
The majority of the lakes are man-made reservoirs , of which about 200 exist. They were built for flood protection , water supply , energy generation and recreational purposes. The Lake Texoma is the only reservoir of the Red River and with a volume of more than 3 cubic kilometers in this regard, the largest lake. In contrast, the Eufaula Lake has the largest area with 400 km². Natural standing waters are limited to some oxbow lakes . In addition, in the semi-arid region of the High Plains there are lakes without runoff that dry up in periods of low rainfall.
With the climatic conditions in Oklahoma, it can be observed that the average rainfall - due to easterly winds that transport humid air from the tropics to the mainland, but is less dominant in the west - decreases from east to west and temperatures from south to north. The south has a subtropical climate with mild winters and hot and humid summers ( effective climate classification : Cfa). Average temperatures in the warmest area range from 7 ° C in January to 29 ° C in July. To the north, the transition to the continental climate of the Great Plains (Dfa) is slowly noticeable: the summers are almost as warm as in the south of the state, but the winters are considerably colder with sometimes severe night frost. The temperatures fluctuate during the year between 0 ° C in January and 27 ° C in July. The northwest ( Oklahoma Panhandle ) has a semi-arid steppe climate (BSk). Temperatures here range from 0 ° C in January to 25 ° C in July.
The record temperatures are -35 ° C (2011) and 49 ° C (1936, 1943). Summers are generally hot and long-lasting. Temperatures often rise to 35 to 40 ° C in the summer months. In contrast, years in which the mark of 100 ° F (approx. 38 ° C) is not exceeded are very rare. The winters are much shorter. Frost occurs an average of 60 days a year in the southeast and 140 days in the northwest.
Oklahoma is repeatedly hit by various natural disasters. Large parts of the state belong to Tornado Alley . The tornadoes occur when hot air from the south meets cold air from the Rocky Mountains to the north . Most often this occurs in the spring in the months of March to June. A series of tornadoes in May 1999 caused particularly severe devastation. The top speed of the violent tornado in Oklahoma City was 517 kilometers per hour. Droughts and earthquakes also cause problems .
Oklahoma's three climates
|Located in the northwest, Guymon has a semi-arid climate with moderate rainfall, most of which fall in the summer months. In winter it is dry and cold, while in summer it can get hot. At night it cools down by up to 20 ° C.|
|Durant, in the extreme south, has a subtropical climate with large amounts of rain all year round. Winters are relatively mild and short-lived, while summers are very hot and last for months.|
|The centrally located capital Oklahoma City also officially has a subtropical climate. The winters are a little cooler than in Durant to the south. Precipitation falls all year round, with a focus on the spring months.|
|Newkirk, located in the far north of Oklahoma, has a fully humid continental climate. The winters are cold and the summers are hot. High amounts of rain are to be expected, especially in the summer months.|
Flora and fauna
The Flora of Oklahoma estimated includes 2,500 species. Analogous to the climatic conditions, a transition from east to west can also be observed here. In the humid east, forest areas with oaks , hickories and pines dominate . Examples of this landscape are the Ouachita Mountains and the Ozark Plateau . The center of the state represents a transition to the prairie landscape of the High Plains. In addition to the typical prairie grasses, there are also shrubs and smaller trees. To the west, both the length of the grasses and the diversity of the vegetation as a whole decrease. In the panhandle, short buffalo grass is the most common plant, while trees only grow near water due to the dry conditions.
Oklahoma's fauna has been greatly altered by humans. The bison , elk and antelope were largely exterminated and now only live in nature reserves. The black-footed elk , the red wolf , the wolf and the brown bear have completely disappeared . Instead, the house mouse , brown rat , house rat and nutria came to the New World and finally to Oklahoma through human influence.
The different vegetation in the state has an impact on wildlife. For red deer , otters , raccoons , mink and gray squirrels , the transition from forest to prairie landscape means the western border of their range. Western Oklahoma is home to the animals typical of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains , including rabbits , ground squirrels , prairie dogs and coyotes . The bird world is extremely species-rich. The most common bird species are blackbird , mockingbird , robin , blue jay , crow and sparrow . Wild ducks are common in the Great Salt Flats in the north of the state .
1900–1990 2000 2014
According to the official estimate from 2014, Oklahoma has a population of around 3.9 million. The population density is 21 inhabitants per square kilometer. Most of the population is concentrated in the eastern part of the state.
With an absolute value of 2.5 million people, around two thirds of Oklahoma's residents live in urban areas, i.e. in places with a population of at least 2500 people. The United States Census Bureau counted 2,010 five areas with a particularly high concentration of population ( Urbanized Areas ) positioned around the cities Oklahoma City , Tulsa , Norman , Lawton and Fort Smith are created, located in the neighboring state of Arkansas near the border with Oklahoma. The remaining 1.3 million people (approximately 34%) live in rural areas, which make up 98% of the state's area.
The most important religious communities in 2000:
There are many other denominations, mostly Protestant ones.
According to official estimates from 2013, the proportion of whites in the total population is 75.4 percent. Native American ethnic groups are far more represented at 9.0 percent than in most other states. The largest Indian groups are Cherokee , Chickasaw , Choctaw , Muskogee, and Seminoles . In addition, Asian ethnic groups (including Vietnamese, Chinese and Koreans) live in Oklahoma.
The proportion of the Afro-American community in Oklahoma was 7.7 percent in 2013, well below the national average. As early as the 19th century, African-Americans came via the path of tears to what is now Oklahoma, where they were held as slaves by the Indian tribes . After slavery was banned in 1865, many African-Americans moved to so-called all-black towns , which still exist in small numbers today.
Oklahoma holds a special position within the United States . The area fell to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. However, they recognized no value in this area and assigned it between 1817 and 1830 to the Indian tribes of the Muskogee, the Seminole , the Cherokee , the Choctaw and the Chickasaw (the " five civilized nations "), who were expelled from the eastern states. About 50,000 people were driven to Oklahoma, where they met other Indian tribes already resident. This relocation went down in history as the " Trail of Tears ". In 1834 the area was declared an Indian territory . Many Indian tribes still have their political headquarters in Oklahoma today.
Although the government officially banned white colonization in 1880, there were many border crossings. In 1885 negotiations were started with the Muskogee and Seminoles, which resulted in two million acres (≈ 8094 km²) of land being released for settlers on April 22, 1889 . The result was the " Oklahoma Land Run ", in which many settlers streamed into the country in a very short time and Oklahoma City was created overnight, so to speak . In advance, many of the settlers, the so-called "Sooners" (English "soon", from "early"), staked claims, which earned the state the nickname "Sooner State".
In 1890 the Indian territory became the " Oklahoma Territory ". Until 1906 there was a steady expansion of the settlement area. The attempt to set up an Indian-influenced state “ Sequoyah ” in the east of the country was in vain. The territory took center stage due to the burgeoning oil industry. After the first major oil well was tapped in Texas in 1901, Oklahoma also became the focus of the oil business. The second largest city, Tulsa, was called the world oil capital for some time .
On November 16, 1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state to join the union. After changing periods of economic growth and crisis, the discovery of rich oil and natural gas discoveries in 1928 brought the country upswing and prosperity. As early as 1927, the businessman Cyrus Avery began a campaign to establish US Route 66 , which later earned him the nickname Father of Route 66 . A section of the highway from Amarillo (Texas) to Tulsa formed the nucleus of the route. Avery formed the top of the US Highway 66 Association from his hometown of Tulsa.
Repeated periods of drought and sandstorms resulted in the rural population moving along the legendary Route 66 to western states. The events of the extract from the " Dust Bowl " were artistically processed by John Steinbeck in his novel " Frucht des Zorns " and by the songwriter Woody Guthrie .
The economy was still recovering before 1940, as not only the prices of agricultural products rose, but also the price of oil. During the Second World War which was Tinker Air Force Base built. Oklahoma was among the "top ten" states for war bond purchases. Robert S. Kerr , who came from the oil business and was governor from 1943 to 1946, supported the New Deal and uses his connections in Washington to secure further funds for his state. In that war many military facilities and thousands of jobs were created. Tinker Air Force Base remained in use during the Cold War . It wasn't until 1967 that Oklahoma was forced by the Supreme Court to become one of the last states in the United States to lift the ban on mixed marriages . This law was unique in Oklahoma in that it prohibited African Americans from marrying any alien race. On April 19, 1995 at 9:02 a.m., a small terrorist group consisting of three US citizens detonated a bomb in front of the Murrah Federal Building , which practically destroyed the building and killed 168 people, including children.
In July 2020, the Supreme Court ruled the McGirt v. Oklahoma that about half Oklahoma (which existed until 1906 Indian territory ) on which is also a big part of Tulsa, must be regarded as Indian Reserve. The local civil law is subject to the tribal justice of the Indians, the criminal law is federal jurisdiction. The Native American tribal authorities and the state of Oklahoma are now negotiating a split jurisdiction
|2016||65.32% 949,136||28.93% 420,375|
|2012||66.77% 891,325||33.23% 443,547|
|2008||65.65% 960,165||34.35% 502,496|
|2004||65.57% 959,792||34.43% 503,966|
|2000||60.31% 744,337||38.43% 474,276|
|1996||48.26% 582,315||40.45% 488,105|
|1992||42.65% 592,929||34.02% 473,066|
|1988||57.93% 678,367||41.28% 483,423|
|1984||68.61% 861,530||30.67% 385,080|
|1980||60.50% 695,570||34.97% 402,026|
|1976||49.96% 545,708||48.75% 532,442|
|1972||73.70% 759,025||24.00% 247,147|
|1968||47.68% 449,697||31.99% 301,658|
|1964||44.25% 412,665||55.75% 519,834|
|1960||59.02% 533,039||40.98% 370,111|
Oklahoma is a traditionally conservative state in which, like in Texas , the Republicans successfully inherited the legacy of democratic dominance in the southern states after the Civil War by occupying right-wing issues from the 1960s onwards.
Already after the presidential election in the United States in 1948 , the residents of Oklahoma turned increasingly to the Republicans - before the end of Solid South in other southern states. Since the 1952 presidential election in the United States , citizens have only voted for Republican candidates, with the exception of 1964 when Lyndon B. Johnson made the running in Oklahoma. However, landslide victories did not always result. Jimmy Carter, for example, lost the state's 1976 election by a mere 1.2 percentage points. Bill Clinton was about 8 percentage points behind the Republican candidate in 1992 and 1996. Since 2000, however, the Republicans have been clearly ahead in every election with at least 60 percent of the vote. Al Gore was the last presidential candidate to win several counties in Oklahoma in 2000. In both elections in 2008 and 2012, Barack Obama did not win a single one.
Republicans are generally strongest in Oklahoma City, Tulsa and the respective suburbs, and in the far northwest ( Panhandle ). The Democrats have their strongholds mainly in the eastern part of the state, and here especially in the southeast, which is also known as Little Dixie .
After the 2000 census, Oklahoma lost one of the six seats in the House of Representatives. In the current election period (2011-2013), voters gave four seats to the Republicans and one to the Democrats. After the withdrawal of MP Dan Boren in 2012 , a new election was required in his constituency ( Little Dixie ), which was considered a Democratic stronghold and where the Democrats had elected MPs for 15 years. This won the Republican Markwayne Mullin, so that there were only Republican MPs from Oklahoma in the House of Representatives of the 113th Congress . It was not until the 116th Congress was sworn in that the Democrats succeeded in recruiting a representative. The state is represented in the US Senate by Republicans Jim Inhofe and James Lankford . The governor has been Republican Kevin Stitt since January 2019 ; he is the first Native American to be elected governor nationwide.
After Texas, Oklahoma is the state in the United States that has carried out the highest number of death sentences . Oklahoma (21), along with Texas (84), Florida (20), Missouri (19), Ohio (20), Arizona (14) and Georgia (14), are responsible for most of the 233 executed death sentences in recent years (2010-2015 ) responsible (together more than 82% of the executed judgments). In relative terms, Oklahoma has a population of 3,751,351 people (as of 2010) and 112 executed death sentences (as of December 2015), with 2.99 people executed for every 100,000 people. This is the highest value ahead of Texas with 2.11 and Delaware with 1.78.
Number of executions per year:
Oklahoma is divided into 77 counties.
Oklahoma is in the middle of the United States in spending on arts and culture (17th place) and has over 300 major museums.
The state has the highest proportions of Indian population. In addition to California, Oklahoma speaks most of the Indian languages. Some jazz centers and Indian, Mexican and Asian influences are known. The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is considered to be the central festival of classical music in the American South. The Oklahoma City Festival of the Arts is one of the premier arts events in the United States.
The state also has an important ballet tradition, which goes back to five ballerinas of Indian origin that have become famous around the world. These include Yvonne Chouteau , Marjorie and Maria Tallchief , Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin , who came to be known as The Five Moons . The New York Times , according to the Tulsa Ballet one of the most famous ballet companies in the United States. The Oklahoma City Ballet and the University of Oklahoma’s dance program, which began in 1962, the first in the USA, go back to Yvonne Chouteau and her husband Miguel Terekhov .
Parks and Landmarks
There are also six sanctuaries and memorials of national importance: the Chickasaw National Recreation Area , the Oklahoma City National Memorial , Fort Smith National Historic Site, and Washita Battlefield National Historic Site, and the Santa Fe Trail and Trail of Tears historic routes .
Traditional North American ball sports like football , basketball, and baseball are also popular in Oklahoma. For a long time, university sports attracted media attention because the state did not have a franchise in any of the major leagues. That all changed in 2008 with the move of the Seattle SuperSonics basketball franchise to Oklahoma City. The team has since competed as Oklahoma City Thunder in the NBA . It plays its home games in the Chesapeake Energy Arena . Since 2010 there is also a team in the women's league with Tulsa Shock .
The football teams of the two largest universities in the state are known nationwide. The home games of the Oklahoma Sooners are watched by up to 80,000 fans, while the stadium of the Oklahoma State Cowboys holds around 60,000 spectators. But the basketball games of the two schools have always enjoyed great popularity. The games between the teams are considered derbies due to the rivalry between the schools .
Economy and Infrastructure
|identification number||Oklahoma||United States|
|Part of the population living in poverty||16.9%||15.4%|
|Median income (household)||$ 45,339||$ 53,046|
|Income per capita||$ 24,208||$ 28,155|
As of mid-2011, Oklahoma had around 1.7 million civilians employed in the labor market, including around 1.5 million outside of agriculture. The state accounted for the most with 339,300 jobs, followed by the transport and supply sector with 279,500 jobs. In third, fourth and fifth place followed education, further trade and industry with 207,800, 177,400 and 132,700 employees.
The economic activities of the Indian tribes in the 19th century were primarily self-sufficient and limited to the cultivation of cotton , cattle breeding and hunting . This was possible due to the low population density, which ensured that each individual had large areas of land available. This changed when the land was opened to white settlers. The higher population density in some regions made modernization and expansion of the infrastructure necessary. The result was a structural change that began at the beginning of the 20th century. While the importance of agriculture slowly declined, the manufacturing industry became more and more important. In 1900, 70 percent of the population was still employed in the primary sector; 30 years later the proportion was 37 percent. The first oil fields were discovered in Oklahoma in the 1910s . The consequence of the growing importance of mining was an increasing dependence on the world market due to price fluctuations. In the 1920s and as a result of the Great Depression , the situation worsened for farmers, who left the country in large numbers because they saw better prospects in other parts of the USA (see Okie ). The emigration was reflected in very low population growth, which was only 6.8 percent from 1930 to 1970. Initially, the state failed to create jobs in other areas of the economy, so unemployment was high and prosperity was low. In the 1940s, the economy recovered as the price of oil rose and military bases were built in Oklahoma during the Second World War . The following decades were also marked by ups and downs. The oil boom of the 1970s had positive effects on employment, wealth and demographics, while the fall in oil prices in the late 1980s had the opposite effect and led to a recession . Since the 1990s, Oklahoma has also become tertiary society, although the state has not quite kept up with developments in the entire United States.
The current economic development is extremely positive. In 2014, Oklahoma recorded real economic growth of 4.2 percent. Real gross domestic product per capita was US $ 42,670. The unemployment rate has been below the US average continuously since at least 2001. After rising from 2008 in the wake of the global economic crisis , it has fallen again since 2010. In January 2015, taking seasonal fluctuations into account, it was 4.2 percent.
In the field of agriculture , livestock breeding is far more important than arable farming. In 2012, agricultural products worth $ 7.1 billion were traded within state borders. The livestock trade accounted for US $ 5.3 billion (11th place among the 50 states), while the vegetable product market accounted for a comparatively low US $ 1.9 billion (31st place). In particular, the production of beef has a high priority, Oklahoma is the sixth largest producer of beef among the US states. Cattle farming is mainly practiced in western Oklahoma. The cultivation of wheat and winter wheat dominates arable farming .
The largest airport in Oklahoma is Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma City with (as of 2010) more than 3.5 million passengers (1.7 million check-ins) annually. The Tulsa Airport ( Tulsa International Airport ) is the second largest in the state with 1.3 million check-ins in 2010. Between these two run six airlines.
The interstate highways 35 , 40 and 44 connect Oklahoma with its neighbors. At the junction near Oklahoma City, the state's three main highways meet. Interstate 35 runs north-south and connects to Kansas and Texas. Interstate 40 leads to New Mexico in the west and Arkansas in the east. Interstate 44 begins in North Texas and runs through Oklahoma to Missouri.
Oklahoma is the third largest producer of natural gas and the fifth largest producer of crude oil in the United States. The state also has the second largest number of conveyor systems. In addition, Oklahoma has the fifth largest crude oil reserves in the United States. The oil industry contributes about 25% of the gross domestic product. Over 50% of the electrical energy is generated by natural gas, alternative energy sources play a minor role in the west of the state despite the high levels of solar radiation.
While there were hardly any earthquakes in Oklahoma until 2009, more and more earthquakes have been triggered by fracking and water injection. In 2014 there were 562 earthquakes with a magnitude > 3.0 in Oklahoma .
Oklahoma has two leading newspapers that appear in the state's two largest cities. The Oklahoman in Oklahoma City is the state's highest-circulation newspaper and (as of 2011) ranks 54th among the highest-circulation newspapers in the United States. It has a working day edition of 138,493 copies, on Sundays 202,690. Tulsa World, the second largest newspaper in the world, comes in 79th place with a weekday circulation of 93,558 and a Sunday of 132,969 copies.
- Density Using Land Area
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- see for example: Stevens v. United States , 146 F.2d 120 (1944)
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