|Party leader||Ronna Romney McDaniel (Chair)|
|Chairman of the Senate parliamentary group||Mitch McConnell , Majority Leader ( KY )|
|Chairman of the House of Representatives||Kevin McCarthy , Minority Leader ( CA )|
|founding||March 20, 1854|
|Place of foundation||Ripon|
|Headquarters||310 First Street SE
Teen Age Republicans
Social conservatism Currents:
|House of Representatives|
EKR (regional partner )
The Republican Party ( English Republican Party ), also known as Republicans ( English Republicans) or as Grand Old Party ("big old party") or GOP , is next to the Democratic Party one of the two major parties in the United States . It was originally the liberal of the two major parties, but is now more conservative than the Democratic Party. Your heraldic animal is the elephant . Its origin, like the donkey of the Democrats, goes back to the cartoonist Thomas Nast . The unofficial party color has been red since 2000 . In TV broadcasts or media reports, senators and party members of the Republican Party are usually shown with an "(R)" after their name.
The party was founded in 1854 with the aim of abolishing slavery , with which it prevailed against the Democrats, who advocated the continuation of slavery, during the Civil War under its first US President Abraham Lincoln . Since the 1960s, it has increasingly turned to right-wing conservative and evangelical voters.
Since 2017, she has been the incumbent (45th) US President, Donald Trump . Before that, she was President from 2001 to 2009 with George W. Bush . The party's national organizing body, the Republican National Committee , has been chaired by Ronna Romney McDaniel since January 2017 .
The Republican Party was founded on February 28, 1854 based on an idea by Alvan E. Bovay in Ripon ( Wisconsin ) as a party against the spread of slavery (→ abolitionism ). It had nothing to do with the name-like Democratic Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson , with which it is often confused and from which the Democratic Party emerged . The National Republican Party of Henry Clay can be considered only indirectly than its predecessor, especially since many in this party later with the Whigs have worked. A large number of the northern part of the Whig Party found themselves in the new party after the founding of the Republican party and also brought elements of their earlier party program. At the latest after the outbreak of the civil war , many democrats in the northern states (especially from rural areas in areas with fertile soil and little land lease) switched to the republicans because of the increasing dominance of the south in their party. The first convention of the party took place on July 6, 1854 in Jackson ( Michigan instead). In addition to members of the Whig Party, parts of the Free Soil Party and the American Party were also added.
Civil War and Republican Dominance (1860-1896)
In the disputes over slavery, their opponents rallied among the Republicans, who in 1860 also won the election of Abraham Lincoln (who had already been elected to Congress in 1846 for the Whigs ) as the first Republican president. The presidential elections in 1864 took place during the civil war, the end of which was already in sight. Only states loyal to the Union were allowed to vote. The Republicans, the Northern Democrats and parts of the Union-loyal Southern Democrats ran under the name National Union Party (National Union Party) to vote. The candidate was Republican President Abraham Lincoln, Vice-presidential candidate from Southern Democrat Andrew Johnson . On January 31, 1865, the Republicans succeeded against the votes of the Democrats, who in the Senate and House of Representatives almost unanimously voted against the Liberation Act , to abolish slavery in the entire United States. With the assassination of Lincoln, the presidency fell to his originally Democratic Vice-President Andrew Johnson. This advocated a lenient treatment of the defeated southern states, but the radical wing of the Republicans continued to insist on giving African-Americans in the former slave states the same civil rights as whites and enforcing their observance through continued military presence. In doing so, you assert yourself against Johnson in 1867. This ensured that the Republicans were so hated by the white southerners as slave liberators and "negro friends" that after the withdrawal of the last occupation troops in 1877 they were unable to prevail against the Democrats for over eighty years. After the 1868 election , the White House went back to the Republicans, who dominated United States politics for about half a century. There was only one Democratic president at that time: Grover Cleveland , who was elected president for four years in 1884 and 1892.
Originally, the main Republican bastions were the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast, while Democrats dominated the South (where Republicans were considered the hated Yankees ) and the sparsely populated part of the West (if the area had joined the Confederation as a state) . Since the 1964 presidential election , the political orientation, especially in the southern states, has changed massively. (→ Solid South ).
The progressive era (1896-1921)
From 1896 - with the election of William McKinley , who followed Theodore Roosevelt after his assassination in 1901 - progressivism gained power in the Republican Party . However, it came in 1912 under Roosevelt's successor William Howard Taft - in 1909 moved into the White House - to split the party, the Conservatives, the Taft supported in his re-election in 1912, and the progressives, the Roosevelt's presidential candidacy for he founded Progressive Party made strong . Accordingly, the Republican electorate was also divided; Roosevelt got 27.4% and Taft got 23.2%. This enabled with the Democrats, Woodrow Wilson , the election of 1912 to win. For the 1916 election, Roosevelt declined to run for the Progressive Party and supported the Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes . So the Progressive Party disbanded and many returned to the Republican Party. There the Conservatives, who had gained significantly in influence by leaving the progressive Republicans in the meantime, set the tone.
The Conservative Era (1921–1933)
When the Republicans appointed three presidents - Warren G. Harding , Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover - in the 1920s, they pursued extremely conservative politics. Economically, they represented a strict economic liberalism . This concept resulted in considerable economic growth by Black Thursday . However, when the Great Depression began in 1929 , Republicans lacked alternative approaches to economic policy .
Opposition in the 1930s and 1940s (1933–1953)
For this reason, the Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to prevail clearly against incumbent Herbert Hoover in the 1932 presidential election . The reforms introduced by Roosevelt are called the New Deal and were very popular with the people. With that, the Republicans lost a large part of the Northern working class, which had been their main electorate for decades, to the Democrats. Initially the Republicans rejected the New Deal fundamentally, but from the 1940s onwards the Republicans began to accept large parts of the New Deal and to move away from the conservative economic policies of the 1920s. For example, the progressive Republican Alf Landon , who, like his vice-presidential candidate Frank Knox , had supported Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party in 1912, was run as a candidate in the 1936 presidential election . In contrast to Hardings, Coolidges and Hoover's laissez faire economic policy, Landon advocated state intervention in the economy and some aspects of the New Deal. Also, Thomas E. Dewey , the presidential candidate in 1944 and 1948 , declined to only certain parts of the New Deal. However, both lost the elections against Presidents Roosevelt (1933–1945) and Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) and thus the Democrats were president for 20 years.
Especially since 1948, when the advocates of racial segregation at the Democratic Party Congress were inferior to the liberal politicians from the north and then temporarily left the party, the Democrats slowly moved to the left. As a result, right-wing voters across the country, but especially those in favor of racial segregation in the southern states, felt less and less represented by the Democrats (see Dixiecrats ). But at first the Republicans were reluctant to offer themselves to these voters.
Eisenhower, Nixon and Ford (1953–1976)
The popular, politically moderate World War II General Dwight D. Eisenhower was offered the presidential candidacy of their party by both the Republicans and the Democrats. He was nominated by the Republicans in 1952 and won the elections in 1952 and 1956 . Under Eisenhower, economic regulations were scaled back, but to the annoyance of the conservative Republicans, Eisenhower let the New Deal stand and increased the minimum wage. Eisenhower's moderate domestic and foreign policy found little support from the very conservative and anti-communist wing of the Republicans around Joseph McCarthy and Barry Goldwater .
Eisenhower's vice president, Richard Nixon , who was also moderate at the time, narrowly lost to John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election . After his assassination, Lyndon B. Johnson took over the government and quickly began a major reform program . As a result, the Republicans, who had committed themselves to their civil rights policy in 1960, moved to the right and began to attract more Christian conservative voters in rural areas. In the southern states in particular, they reacted negatively to the civil rights policy that many Democrats had been pursuing since 1948. The civil rights laws of 1964 were passed by more Republican than Democratic MPs, but immediately afterwards the party's shift to the right began: the conservative New Deal and Civil Rights Act opponent Barry Goldwater , who surprisingly led the moderate Nelson Rockefeller in the primary elections defeated Lyndon B. Johnson for the Republicans in 1964 , arguing that the recently passed racial segregation laws violated state rights. Although it failed very clearly nationwide, it won the majority of white voters in the southern states.
As a result, the conservative wing briefly lost its weight again, but the Republicans turned to the right. Richard Nixon in particular now developed the Southern Strategy , which successfully attempted to tie democratic voters in the southern states, who opposed the desegregation by Johnson and the equality of blacks, to the Republicans instead. At the same time, many Dixiecrats left the Democrats and partly joined the Republicans. During these years, the electorate and programmatic orientation of both Democrats and Republicans changed significantly. Since then, the Republicans have been the more conservative of the two parties.
Nixon ran again in 1968 , this time with a clearly right-wing conservative agenda, and won the presidency, which he defended with a large majority in 1972 . As president, however, Nixon pursued a moderate domestic agenda. So he implemented a number of measures to protect the environment. Under him the creation of the National Environment Agency took place . Nixon either left or even added to the Great Society programs passed under his democratic predecessor Johnson to expand the welfare state. Despite a further military escalation in the Vietnam War in the early stages of his reign, he ran towards the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China under the leadership of Henry Kissinger's a detente . This led, among other things, to several important armaments agreements with both powers. The Watergate Affair eventually led to Nixon's resignation in 1974. His vice-president, the liberal abortion advocate Gerald Ford , who belongs to the moderate wing of the party , succeeded him as president and continued the previous course in domestic and foreign policy. Against the opposition of the conservative party wing, he appointed the liberal Nelson Rockefeller as vice president, which snubbed the right wing of the party. Ford lost the following election in 1976 to Jimmy Carter , whereby the right-wing conservative wing around Goldwater supporter and Ford opponent Ronald Reagan , who had already massively attacked Ford in the election campaign, gained a lot of weight and finally prevailed. The Southern Strategy campaign was now more successful than ever for white voters in the southern states, who had been alienated from the Democrats by civil rights politics. Since then, in the former southern states, which had been democratically dominated for decades since the civil war, the Republicans have usually won the majority of the votes of white voters. The party has now also discovered the rejection of abortions and contraception as a further core issue in order to bind evangelical voters in this way . Since then, critics have regularly accused the party of implementing an economic policy that is unilaterally geared to the benefit of the wealthy by appealing to the resentment and prejudice of its electorate, who are thus seduced into acting against their own economic interests.
From Reagan to Bush (1980-2009)
Ronald Reagan cemented this political reorientation of the Republicans with the landslide victories in the 1980 and 1984 elections, and under him the New Right gained power. A major influence on the New Right was William F. Buckley, Jr. , who hosted the TV show Firing Line from 1966 to 1999 . In 1984, Ronald Reagan won nearly 60% of the popular vote and won all states except Minnesota and the District of Columbia . This gave him 525 of 538 electoral votes.
In addition to the Southern Strategy , the main reason for Reagan's landslide victories is primarily the combination of Christian-conservative social policy and neoliberal economic policy ( Reaganomics ): He lowered the top income tax rate from 70% to 33%, cut social benefits, and the Republicans moved up significantly right, successfully campaigned for the evangelicals and their organization Moral Majority (something Goldwater and Nixon had rejected) and took the economic policy of the 1920s, before the New Deal, as a model. For example, he said his role model as president was Calvin Coolidge and advocated the trickle-down theory that massive tax breaks for the wealthy should lead to more jobs and more prosperity for all in the long term. This economic policy is now seen by most experts as a wrong track, as it has led to growing national debt and a widening gap between rich and poor, but initially convinced many citizens and is still the core of the republican economic doctrine. With this, Reagan established an alliance of right-wing conservative, Christian fundamentalist and neoliberal voters on which the Republicans were to rely for the next 35 years ( New Right Coalition ).
The “Reagan Democrats” are those voters who at the time generally leaned toward the Democrats, but voted for Reagan in these elections. These were mostly white workers. Democratic pollster Stan Greenberg suggested that these “Reagan Democrats” no longer saw their own party as a representative of the middle and working class, but as a party that instead cares for the well-being of people belonging to ethnic minorities, especially African-Americans which is why they chose Reagan instead. Republican voters since then have been increasingly religiously white, with men predominating.
In 1988 Reagan's Vice President George Bush was also elected to the presidency with a clear victory. Since he belonged to the moderate wing of the party, unlike Reagan, the Conservative Senator Dan Quayle became Bush's successor as Vice President to please the right. Bush tried, among other things, to make the Republicans attractive to Hispanics , but when he reached a compromise with the Democrats in 1990 to consolidate the budget, a right-wing revolt broke out under Newt Gingrich's leadership , which increasingly included the Today's dominant position began to assert that political compromises should be viewed as weakness or even betrayal, against Bush. This contributed to its defeat, despite its foreign policy successes, in 1992 to the Democratic governor of Arkansas , Bill Clinton , who, even southerners, tied an unusually large number of voters to himself in the southern states as well. In addition, Ross Perot Bush , who was running as an independent third-party candidate, cost many votes. After the defeat, the conservative wing around Gingrich took over the leadership of the party in early 1994 as part of the so-called Republican Revolution and was able to take the majority in the House of Representatives from the Democrats. In the end, however, Gingrich did not succeed in implementing the measures promised for this case.
In the 1996 election , moderate Senator Bob Dole , who was critical of tax cuts and a proponent of abortion, ran against incumbent Bill Clinton. With the election of his vice-presidential candidate, ex-building minister Jack Kemp , who was one of the main contributors to the Reagan era tax cuts and was an opponent of abortion, he sought to please the economic liberals and anti-abortionists in the party. Clinton won the popular vote by almost 10 percentage points over Dole. It was the biggest Republican defeat since 1964. In the period that followed, the tone of the domestic political dispute intensified considerably when the Republicans tried to impeach Clinton, who had initially denied a private affair with a trainee popular with many conservative Americans, the Republicans tried to weaken it with moral attacks, but failed. During these years the party came closer to the US arms lobby; since then, most Republicans have advocated an extremely broad interpretation of the Second Amendment . Many observers also associate the increasing radicalization with the influence of the Fox News Channel, founded in 1996 , whose right-wing conservative programs - such as that of Sean Hannity - reach many Republicans. Another factor that has fueled the Republicans' shift to the right is conservative radio shows such as Rush Limbaugh's . In the 1998 congressional elections, the Republicans suffered a significant defeat, as a result of which Gingrich had to resign.
In the 2000 Republican primaries, Texas Governor George W. Bush , son of the 41st President, sat down against ex-Vice-President Dan Quayle , Senator John McCain , ex-Labor Secretary Elizabeth Dole (her husband Bob lost to Clinton in 1996 ), Forbes Magazine Editor-in-Chief Steve Forbes , House Budget Committee Chairman John Kasich , and Alan Keyes . Bush elected former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney , who, under Bush's father, had been one of the contributors to the victory of the United States in the Second Gulf War , as a vice-presidential candidate . Since Bush had no foreign policy experience, Cheney should make up for this. In the election , Bush won a good 500,000 fewer votes than his rival, Democratic Vice President Al Gore , but was able to narrowly prevail in the electoral college with 271 to 266 votes. Due to irregularities in several crucial states such as Florida in particular, which was ruled by Bush's brother Jeb , the legitimacy of the election was widely questioned; the decision of the then Republican-dominated Supreme Court to cancel the recounting of votes in Florida and thus declare Bush the winner is still controversial today, especially since it was established that Gore would in fact have achieved the majority if the recount would have ended. In that year, the Republican Party also adopted the color red, as the irregularities in the election meant that the voting cards, where important media had decided to display Republicans in red and Democrats in blue, were present long after the actual election were.
In the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , President Bush and the neoconservatives who supported him won great political support as the insecure population gathered behind the government. The 2001 Afghan War followed directly after the attacks . Even during the 2003 Iraq war , Bush still had the almost unanimous support of the Republicans and most of the Democrats in Congress. Bush justified the war by claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction , which in retrospect turned out to be false. Inside, the Patriot Act severely restricted civil rights. Many Republicans still advocate the use of interrogation methods that critics call torture as part of the War on Terror . On the other hand, Bush significantly expanded state health care, especially for the elderly, which earned him harsh criticism from neoliberals in the party.
In the 2002 mid-term elections , which were still under the influence of the terrorist attacks the year before, the Republicans were able to expand their majority in the House of Representatives and win that in the Senate. This was the first time in a long time that a party controlled the Senate, the House of Representatives and the White House; but the Republicans did not seize this opportunity to carry out necessary reforms. Bush won the party's primary election for the 2004 presidential election without opposing a candidate, and then won it against John Kerry with his political program A safer world and a more hopeful America ( a safer world and a more hopeful America ) . This was the only presidential election since 1988 in which Republicans won a majority of the vote. They were also able to easily expand their majority in Congress again. However, they lost them in the 2006 mid-term elections as a growing number of voters now believed the Iraq war was a mistake and felt misled by the Republicans.
The Rise of the Tea Party and Donald Trump (since 2009)
Senator John McCain from Arizona won the primaries for the 2008 election . Before the primaries, former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani was the Republican favorite. In early 2008 there was a three-way battle between the neoconservative McCain, the former governor of Arkansas, Mike Huckabee , an evangelical , and the economically liberal ex-governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney , which McCain won early. He nominated Alaska's Governor Sarah Palin as a vice presidential candidate . This quickly attracted ridicule, as it was particularly accused of ignorance of foreign policy.
In the 2008 election , McCain lost to Democrat Barack Obama , who replaced George W. Bush in the White House in early 2009. This choice marked a turning point. In fundamental opposition to Obama and as a reaction to the financial crisis from 2007, the party moved ever further to the right by opening up to the Tea Party movement since 2009. Radio and Fox News presenter Glenn Beck played a key role in the rise of the Tea Party . Just two years later, in the congressional elections , the party managed to win back the majority in the House of Representatives with the help of the Tea Party and, with its spokesman, John Boehner, to stall the reforms of the president. But when the republican party opened up to the Tea Party , which combines radically liberal market concepts with Christian-evangelical morals and demands an absolutely uncompromising course towards the Democrats, it was able to record short-term electoral successes, but at the same time lost its ability to compromise and act in the long term. Between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of women Republican MPs in the House of Representatives also fell from 11 to 9 percent, while it rose from 21 to 33 percent in the Democrats over the same period.
Business liberal Mitt Romney was nominated as the next Republican presidential candidate after beating former House Speaker Newt Gingrich and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum in the primaries . Before the primaries, Texas Governor Rick Perry was the favorite. As a vice-presidential candidate, Romney nominated Wisconsin Congressman Paul Ryan , who was chairman of the budget committee in the House at the time. Romney, who had moved considerably to the right during the primaries under pressure from the Tea Party , but unexpectedly lost significantly to incumbent President Barack Obama in the 2012 elections and received only 47.2% of the votes cast. At the same time, however , with the support of the Tea Party, radicals like Ted Cruz entered Congress, who in many cases fundamentally rejected cooperation with Obama and compromises with the Democrats and also opposed their own party leadership. The appeal of several Republican politicians to adopt more liberal positions in future, especially in immigration and social policy, and to be more willing to compromise in order to be more eligible for Latinos and blacks, went unheeded under these conditions. In 2013, under the leadership of Cruz, attempts were made in vain to force the president to withdraw the healthcare reform through a temporary government shutdown . In the Senate, too, the Republicans have had a majority since the 2014 mid-term elections , as the Democrats have traditionally been less able to motivate their voters to vote, except in presidential elections. The influence of the extreme right in the party continued to grow; In 2014, the Republican majority leader in the House of Representatives, Eric Cantor , surprisingly lost to a largely unknown candidate from the ranks of the Tea Party in the primaries and switched to the private sector. In 2015, Boehner, who was considered too willing to compromise, was forced to resign. He was succeeded by Paul Ryan.
In the Republican primaries for the 2016 election , the businessman Donald Trump , who had never held a political office and who had never held a political office , finally prevailed in an unusually large field of applicants (including Jeb Bush , Marco Rubio , John Kasich and Ted Cruz) and surprisingly for many observers had only recently joined the party. Trump had dominated the pre-election campaign in particular with very controversial statements about Latinos and Muslims, harsh attacks on the political establishment and numerous taboos. In July 2016, the Republican Congress in Cleveland named him a presidential candidate. This is considered to be the deepest turning point in the party history for several decades: Many observers assumed that this would mean the end of the New Right , as Trump did not commit himself to cutbacks in the welfare state or to Christian-conservative moral concepts, but predominantly in favor of whites and supported predominantly male voters from the middle and working class who saw their social and economic status threatened. Trump announced that he would massively cut taxes for high earners as president and increase social spending at the same time; In order to be able to finance this, free trade should be restricted and the US economy strengthened. There were also sensational demands for a general entry ban for Muslims and the construction of a wall on the Mexican border; Trump also announced that he would put the Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton in jail in the event of an election victory. A number of prominent Republicans, including John Kasich, Mitt Romney and George W. Bush, refused to support Trump. Others, like John McCain, withdrew them in October 2016 when Trump came under pressure from a series of scandals and his polls fell. In the November 8, 2016 election, however, Trump prevailed against Clinton, and the Republicans were also able to maintain control of Congress, even though Trump only won 46.1% of the vote (less than Romney in 2012): Clinton received about 2,900,000 more votes than Trump, but the Republican narrowly won the decisive swing states and therefore still achieved a majority in the Electoral College .
Under Trump, the division in American society intensified. The attempt to abolish Obamacare as announced failed; On the other hand, a tax reform was passed that was committed to the trickle-down theory and above all relieved companies and the wealthy. Trump also pursued a controversial protectionist economic policy that worked with punitive tariffs and marked a radical departure from the free trade policy that the Republicans had previously advocated. Under the catchphrase America First , the government also pursued a foreign policy that gave less importance to alliances such as NATO and previous close allies such as the EU and in many cases no longer relied on international cooperation but on competition. In the 2018 mid-term elections , the Republicans then lost their majority in the House of Representatives after eight years, with the largest loss of votes since Watergate. The Senate, on the other hand, remained in Republican hands. At the end of 2019, the House of Representatives voted in favor of the impeachment of Trump, who was accused of having blackmailed the Ukrainian government by withholding aid money to investigate the Democratic politician Joe Biden . The Republican-dominated Senate subsequently refused to hear witnesses, but instead acquitted the president of the allegations in an urgent procedure. Mitt Romney was the only Republican Senator to vote for impeachment.
Program and electorate of the Republican Party
The greatest contrast between Republicans and Democrats is the desired relationship between autonomy and centralism . While the Democrats nowadays tend to unite as many powers as possible in Washington DC, the Republican Party has favored state self-government since the 1960s. The many grassroots democratic elements of local government are also traditionally republican concerns.
The Republicans, like the Democrats, are a coalition of different interest groups, since the coalition formation in a majority electoral system - unlike the proportional representation system - has to take place within the parties (and not between the parties). The Republicans get their votes from different sections of the population. In the southern states and other parts of the country like Alaska , the party usually receives strong support in small and medium-sized cities. One of the next largest republican voter groups is the rural population in the many smaller states between Oklahoma in the south and the border with Canada in the north, as well as in the many other sparsely populated areas of the United States, while the democrats tend to be elected in the coastal regions . In the larger cities, Republicans also often receive high votes from the suburban middle class. In addition to support from the religious right , the party also finds support from economic liberals and proponents of a lean state , a policy of rearmament and the self-confident pursuit of national interests, even if these do not receive a majority support within the United Nations .
The Republican Party is a party of the suburbs and rural areas. In early 2014, Republicans only had a share of around 20% in city councils; also in early 2014, only three of the 25 largest cities in the United States were ruled by a Republican mayor. The election of Kevin Faulconer in San Diego in February 2014 was considered a big surprise and was only due to the low turnout of the Democrats.
The government shutdown in the fall of 2013, for which the Republicans were responsible , led to a temporary estrangement between the party and business.
Traditionally, Republicans receive many party donations from armaments , tobacco and oil companies . Unlike most IT -companies has Microsoft increases the donation activities for Republicans significantly since the Clinton -Regierung cartel processes has led to the Group.
In the election campaign, the Republican Party made a name for itself against abortion , against equating homosexual partnerships with traditional marriage and against further restrictions on gun ownership . Republicans also promoted these political positions in their 2008 party program. Republicans also advertise with calls for tax cuts and deregulation, preferably in rich suburbs . Many Republicans tend to be skeptical about environmental protection, as they see it as a contradiction to the interests of the national economy. In the controversies over health care policy , doctors, pharmaceutical companies and insurance companies tend to be closer to the Republicans, while lawyers tend to be more on the side of the Democrats. Republicans also want parents to be able to choose which school their child goes to.
The party rejects the 2010 health care reform because it does not protect doctor-patient relationships and does not promote competition. Instead, it supports the common sense reform , which lowers costs and ensures quality.
As with the Democrats, there are various mainstreams within the Republican Party, some of whose political concepts can differ greatly. However, the boundaries between the individual camps are often fluid. As in the Democratic Party, the affiliation of a politician often depends on the environment: While Republicans in conservative regions such as the southern states and rural areas usually have very conservative positions, party members clearly represent in the liberal urban areas, the coastal regions and parts of the Midwest more moderate positions.
The Republican Party primarily identifies with conservative values and economic liberalism . The conservative camp, which has dominated the party especially since the 1980s, can be divided into different camps, which, however, hold similar positions in many areas: For example, they are skeptical of trade unions , reject tax increases and speak out in favor of deregulating the economy out. They have a reputation for representing the interests of business and employers more than those of white-collar and blue-collar workers. Socio-politically they stand for a traditional family image (hence the rejection of same-sex marriage ), emphasize the importance of religion and speak out against the restriction of the right to private gun possession.
The conservative traditionalists, who allow themselves to be demarcated from the religious right and the tea party movement, are often described as "establishment republicans"; a term that is often negatively connoted by internal party competitors. Representatives of the so-called establishment often find themselves exposed to pressure from the tea party movement on the one hand and from moderate Republicans on the other, with the former being far more energetic in their opposition to many traditional Republicans. Established Republicans include early Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney , Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell , Senator John Cornyn , former House Speaker John Boehner , House Group Chairman Kevin McCarthy, and former House Group Chairman Eric Cantor .
Sociopolitical conservatives ("Social conservatives")
Republicans who profess conservatism advocate a traditional family image in socio-political terms. They either completely reject same-sex partnerships or at least speak out against legal equality with traditional marriage of men and women. The right to an abortion is also rejected. However, some voices want to allow this at least after a rape. Many social conservatives refer to religious and Christian values; In contrast to religious rights, however, they stand for the strict separation of church and state enshrined in the constitution. They are also considered to be advocates of the 2nd amendment to the Constitution and therefore mostly reject more far-reaching gun controls. Also immigration are many skeptical; they want to subject these numerically strong regulations and advocate a tough stance on the part of illegal immigrants (especially from Central and South America and the Middle East ). In addition, they often see themselves as advocates of the death penalty and call for strict law-and-order policies .
As social conservatives president US are now next to the former Ronald Reagan , George W. Bush , his brother and former Florida governor Jeb Bush , the former governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee , the Speaker of the House Paul Ryan , the former governor of Wisconsin Scott Walker , Senator Marco Rubio , former House Speaker Newt Gingrich , Secretary of Energy Rick Perry , former New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez, and Texas Governor Greg Abbott .
The paleoconseratives are a movement that dates back to opposition to the New Deal in the 1930s. They emphasize values such as tradition , minimal statehood , anti-communism , they are in favor of protectionist foreign trade policy and are resolute opponents of the welfare state and immigration . Socio-politically, they share many convictions with the social conservatives.
In contrast to the neoconservatives , they are also opponents of imperialism and US interference in other countries (with the aim of building democracies or defending human rights). When it comes to economic issues, they tend to be protectionism .
Fundamental characteristics of the socio-political conservatives such as the priority of family, home , state and nation as well as the emphasis on religion and anti-communism are also common among the neoconservatives (also called neocons ). However, they differ from other forms of traditional conservatism (or conservatism) in central points because neoconservative theorists weight the relationship between freedom and order or tradition and progress differently. Neoconservatism seeks active change rather than just clinging to the past, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the "New Conservative Revolution". Because of their advocacy of military conflict regulation, representatives of this trend are often considered hardliners (“hawks”) and are seen as architects of an interventionist unilateralism in the USA. The neoconservatives see it as the task of US foreign policy to spread democracy in the world and to stand up for human rights worldwide, also by military means. In this way they stand in contrast to real politicians in foreign policy. Irving Kristol and Norman Podhoretz are considered the spiritual father of the Neocons .
Originally, the Neocons are a movement within the Democratic Party that primarily supported the anti-communist foreign policy of Harry S. Truman ( Truman Doctrine ), John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as well as the Vietnam War . A leading head of this trend was the Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson . As a result of Jimmy Carter's weak foreign policy towards the USSR, many neocons politicians turned their backs on the Democrats and found a new political home with the Republicans, with a few such as Joe Lieberman and James Woolsey staying with the Democrats. Above all, Ronald Reagan's tough stance towards the Soviet Union, which he described as the Empire of Evil , met with a great deal of approval from the neocons ( Reagan doctrine ). Because of this political change, this trend also gets its name neoconservatives or new conservatives.
During the Cold War, the neocons moved the fight against communism (especially the USSR) into the center of their politics. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 , their focus changed to the fight against " Islamic fascism " (especially terror Organizations like Al-Qaeda, ISIS and the Taliban). Especially in the years that followed and the foreign policy focus on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan , neoconservatism therefore experienced a "heyday" ( Bush doctrine ). In this context, the terms rogue state , axis of evil and outpost of tyranny were coined by them.
In contrast to the hardliners on foreign policy, many neoconservatives view American relations with dictatorial regimes such as that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and that in Saudi Arabia as critical. Natan Sharanski in his book The Case for Democracy and Richard Perle in his book An End to Evil campaign for regime change in Saudi Arabia. Many neoconservatives expressed support for the Arab Spring protests in hopes that it would bring democracy to the Middle East.
In the run-up to the 2016 US election, many neoconservatives were part of the Never Trump movement. Some of them supported Hillary Clinton. Even after Trump was elected, many prominent neoconservatives are in opposition to Trump and some of him have even left the Republican Party, such as William Kristol.
Prominent politicians in this group are Paul Wolfowitz and the Senators John McCain , Lindsey Graham and Marco Rubio . The intellectuals Richard Perle , Eliot A. Cohen and Natan Scharanski as well as the columnists William Kristol , Daniel Pipes and John Podhoretz belong to this movement.
Foreign policy hardliners
The foreign policy hardliners, like the neoconservatives, are striving for a strong role for America in the world, but they focus more on threats to US national security and less on the spread of democracy and human rights. Charles Krauthammer coined for this political tendency in the demarcation of the Neocons Democratic Realism, which from his point of view is too idealistic . In this assessment of the neocons there is an overlap with the realpoliticians in foreign policy. What distinguishes them from them, however, is the conviction of foreign policy hardliners that in conflict situations with dictatorial regimes such as Iran and North Korea, a tough, uncompromising stance (threatening or carrying out military operations) is better resolved, while foreign policy realpoliticians often use diplomacy as the best solution Means see American interests asserted. During the Cold War, they rejected disarmament treaties and a policy of détente of foreign policy realpoliticians like Henry Kissinger towards the Soviet Union. The hardliners are in favor of Ronald Reagan's foreign policy towards the Soviet Union. After September 11th, they advocated a strong military response and support Iraq and Afghanistan . Representatives of this current reject diplomacy and accommodating as a policy of weakness or as a policy of appeasement . Instead, the hardline policies of its call peace through strength . Even if many hardliners in foreign policy supported regime change and the Iraq war, they still reject a nation-building policy such as that of President Bill Clinton in Somalia.
In contrast to the neoconservatives, the hardliners in foreign policy support a close alliance with authoritarian, pro-America regimes such as the one in Egypt and Saudi Arabia . So wrote Jeane Kirkpatrick , from 1981 to 1985. Ambassador to the UN, 1979, a column entitled Dictatorships and Double Standards . In this, she explained her view that the USA should ally itself against the Soviet Union with right-wing military dictatorships, which in their view are less bad than communist regimes.
While many neoconservatives saw the Arab Spring as an opportunity to bring democracy to the Middle East, hardliners on foreign policy fear a weakening of moderate Arab dictators and an increase in the influence of radical and anti-American forces. Today the foreign policy hardliners for strong support enter Israel through the US military action against its nuclear program Iran , a hard-line stance of the United States to North Korea and Syria and arming the Ukrainian army in the war against the pro-Russian separatist one.
In contrast to the neoconservatives, who began with the Democrats and switched to the Republicans, most of the representatives of this tendency belonged to the Republicans for the entirety of their political careers. Many of them supported Donald Trump's candidacy in 2016. Some of them, such as Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and former Security Advisor John Bolton, became members of his administration.
In addition to Ronald Reagan, this trend includes numerous representatives of his government such as Foreign Minister George P. Shultz and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick . From the George W. Bush administration, they included former Vice President Dick Cheney and former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld , as well as Secretary of State Mike Pompeo from the Trump administration , security advisers John R. Bolton and Robert O'Brien and former UN Ambassador Nikki Haley . Senator Tom Cotton and columnist Charles Krauthammer also belonged to this trend.
Politicians who advocate restrictive fiscal policy describe themselves as conservative in terms of fiscal policy . That means they reject deficit spending and aim to reduce public debt. This is to be achieved primarily through a lean state and spending cuts. Many fiscal conservatives want to generate economic growth through deregulation and tax cuts for corporations and upper incomes at the same time , which in turn is supposed to increase state revenues.
However, in terms of fiscal policy conservatives, it is not necessarily a question of politically conservative politicians. Many Republicans who are considered moderate also refer to this approach in fiscal policy. In addition, many democrats see themselves as fiscal conservatives. In contrast to the majority of Republicans, however, they also rely on tax increases for budget consolidation; especially for those with higher incomes, which Republicans tend to reject.
The business liberals stand for business and business-friendly politics. They stand for supply-oriented economic policy , the trickle-down effect , the Laffer curve and Reaganomics . They are calling for tax cuts for the wealthy and corporations, and fewer restrictions, regulations and bureaucracy for corporations. In their opinion, these policies will lead to more economic growth and more jobs. Many of the business liberals also advocate a flat tax . Social spending and social programs are viewed very skeptically by business liberals. The economic liberals often finance tax cuts by reducing social spending. The economic liberals usually accept higher debts for tax cuts, which leads them into conflict with the fiscal conservatives, who are against taking on new debt.
Economic liberals include former US President Ronald Reagan, ex-Secretary of Construction Jack Kemp , Forbes Magazine editor-in-chief Steve Forbes , House spokesman Paul Ryan , economists Arthur B. Laffer and Larry Kudlow , Kansas Governor Sam Brownback and former Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker .
Religious rights emphasize the importance of religion and usually represent even more restrictive positions in socio-political areas than the traditionally conservative Republicans. For example, they reject the theory of evolution , abortion , homosexuality and stem cell research . Many representatives of the religious right also deny the existence of man-made climate change ; however, individual voices within this current contradict this. Many of the religious right are Christian Zionists . You reject a Palestinian state and support the Israeli settlement building. Her policy is in contrast to Bush’s Middle East policy, whose roadmap aimed to create a state of Palestine .
Religious rights include Vice President Mike Pence , former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee , Senator Ted Cruz , Energy Secretary Rick Perry , former Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal , Kansas Governor Sam Brownback , former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay , Former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin , Former Senator Rick Santorum , Secretary of Construction Ben Carson, and Former Congresswoman Michele Bachmann . Religious rights also include former Alabama Supreme Court Justice Roy Moore , Jerry Falwell , his son Jerry Falwell Jr. , John Hagee, and Pat Robertson . A very prominent supporter of the religious right is Chuck Norris .
Tea party movement
The Tea Party movement was founded in 2009 as a protest movement and later became an influential figure within the party. The ideology of the tea party movement is heavily influenced by libertarianism ( paleolibertarianism ). American libertarianism is essentially based on the radical individualistic objectivism of Ayn Rand and the heterodox economic theory of the Austrian School of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich August von Hayek . This includes pure laissez-faire capitalism and the rejection of any kind of social policy and social justice . Politically, it stands for limited government conservatism , i.e. a reduction in the power of the federal government, and defines its model in the Contract from America . The tea party movement is supported by the religious right and the neoconservatives without adopting their socio-political statements. The climate change is not considered by most supporters of the movement as a man-made; the health care reform by President Obama some see as "socialist devil". Many supporters of this faction are not only hostile to the Democrats (especially US President Barack Obama is seen by many as an “enemy image”), many moderately conservative Republicans are also viewed negatively. Tea Party supporters believe that the Republicans of the "establishment" are partly responsible for the high debt of the US government. They are often referred to as aloof; they are accused of having no relation to the realities of life for many Americans. After its triumphant advance in the 2010 elections, the movement again suffered setbacks against the traditionally conservatives in 2012 and 2014.
Well-known figures include former Congressmen Michele Bachmann , Allen West , Dick Armey and Ron Paul , former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin , former New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez , former Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker , House Speaker Paul Ryan as well Senators Marco Rubio , Ted Cruz , Rand Paul, and Mike Lee . However, Ryan and Rubio are also close to the neocons, while Palin, Cruz and Bachmann receive support from the religious right and Ron Paul and his son Rand Paul are also supported by the libertarians. Also close to the tea party are the conservative radio hosts Rush Limbaugh , Sean Hannity , Mark Levin and Glenn Beck .
The economic nationalists, unlike most Republicans, reject free trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Trans-Pacific Partnership . The economic nationalists are particularly skeptical and negative about free trade with China and Mexico because they believe that China and Mexico benefit more from free trade than the USA. In addition, they strictly reject illegal immigration and also want to severely limit legal immigration. She advocates building a wall to Mexico. In terms of foreign policy, they advocate an America First course that renounces wars with the goal of early regime change, such as the one in Iraq under Bush. A regime change policy carried out with US soldiers in Libya or Syria is rejected by them. At the same time, however, the economic nationalists want to represent significantly more and more exclusively American interests than was the case under Obama, such as a tough stance on North Korea's nuclear weapons program and a rejection of the Iran nuclear deal concluded under Obama. The interests of the European allies are to be given less consideration than was the case under Obama. In doing so, they set themselves apart from both Bush and Obama's foreign policy.
Economic nationalists include US President Donald Trump , former chief strategist Steve Bannon , his advisor Stephen Miller , Attorney General Jeff Sessions , trade representative Robert Lighthizer , conservative radio host Laura Ingraham and Fox News host Tucker Carlson .
The libertarians share the economic policy ideas of the tea party movement ( i.e. a complete laissez-faire capitalism), but in contrast are in favor of the naturalization of illegal immigrants and against surveillance by the NSA, the Patriot Act and a more liberal drug policy such as legalizing soft drugs . Especially in foreign policy, where they are oriented towards isolationism, they come into great contradiction with the rest of the party, especially with the neoconservatives. They reject the Iraq war as well as a possible war against Iran, and they also support the United States leaving NATO, the UN and the WTO. You see the causes for the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the Middle East policy of the USA.
This current includes the Senator for Kentucky, Rand Paul , his father, Ron Paul , former Congressman from Texas, former New Mexico Governor Gary E. Johnson , former Congressman Bob Barr and Justin Amash , with Johnson, Barr and Amash being made up resigned from the Republican Party.
On many points, with the exception of abortion, the ideas of the libertarians in the Republican Party overlap with those of the smaller Libertarian Party , which is why Ron Paul, Barr and Johnson were libertarian presidential candidates. The ideas of the libertarian party, however, are often much more radical than the libertarian republicans, including anarcho-capitalism .
In Congress, the Liberty Caucus exists as a representative organization of libertarian republicans.
Moderate Republicans are more centered around the political community . They represent either moderately conservative or liberal positions in socio-political areas and try to appeal to swing voters. A number of moderate Republicans, whose influence within the party has declined sharply since the 1960s, are open to equal opportunities for same-sex marriage, demand action against climate change, advocate gender equality and have a positive view of immigration. Some moderates are opposed to the death penalty, while others are in favor of it, at least for very serious crimes. However, many supporters see themselves as conservative in terms of fiscal policy and also call for a lean state. They are committed to the social security systems as long as transfer payments are not misused. In contrast to the libertarians, they reject the privatization of social security . As a rule, they also demand deregulation of the economy, but they also see some regulations as sensible. In foreign policy there is usually no uniform position; Military operations are well supported, but many representatives of this group prioritize diplomacy.
Well-known moderate to liberal Republicans include former Presidents Richard Nixon , Gerald Ford , George HW Bush , his son Jeb Bush , former Senator Bob Dole , Massachusetts Governors Charlie Baker and Illinois Bruce Rauner , Senator Mark Kirk and ex-Secretary of State Colin Powell . Even the former mayor of New York Rudolph Giuliani , the former New York Governor George Pataki and Utah Jon Huntsman , the Governor of Ohio John Kasich , Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie and former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett are considered moderate to moderately conservative (the latter two, for example, have expanded Obama's health care reform at the state level). The actor and political career changer Arnold Schwarzenegger , who during his time as Governor of California between 2003 and 2011 was particularly committed to environmental protection , is counted among the moderate Republicans. Charlie Crist , Florida governor from 2007 to 2011, was also considered a moderate Republican until he left the party in the summer of 2010 and joined the Democratic Party in 2012.
In the inner-party dispute, moderate Republicans are referred to as “RINO” (“Republican in name only”; “Republicans in name only”), especially by the Tea Party movement and the religious right; a term that is viewed as derogatory. They are accused of pursuing the politics of the Democrats, especially since moderate Republicans are relatively willing to compromise towards Democrats compared to the other currents. The term “DINO” (“Democrat in name only”), which refers to more conservative democrats, came up analogously.
Foreign policy realpoliticians
The realpoliticians in foreign affairs are moderate Republicans. In contrast to the neoconservatives, who see it as the task of US foreign policy to spread democracy in the world and to stand up for human rights worldwide, the realpoliticians see the focus almost exclusively on the national interests of the USA. If realpoliticians are of the opinion that the use of the military is in the national interest of the USA, they support it. However, they reject military operations on humanitarian grounds. So were the realpoliticians for the Vietnam War and the Second Gulf War . However, they were against US intervention in the Kosovo war and against the Iraq war . If realpoliticians are of the opinion that diplomacy towards hostile states is in the interests of the USA, they also support it. This could be seen, among other things, in Richard Nixon's and Gerald Ford's policy of détente towards the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China , which was rejected by conservative Republicans such as Ronald Reagan. In contrast to the neoconservatives and the religious right, the realpoliticians are critical of close relations with Israel, as they fear that this will annoy the United States' Arab allies such as Saudi Arabia . Well-known Republican foreign policy real politicians are Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Nixon and Ford's Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , George HW Bush, his Secretary of State James Baker , his National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft , former Secretary of State Colin Powell , former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates , and Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Senator Bob Corker .
At the federal level, the national party body of Republicans is the Republican National Committee . Its main tasks are to support election campaigns, to collect donations and to organize the four-year Republican National Convention , at which the party's presidential candidate this year is determined. In addition, the overall party orientation of the party is coordinated in the RNC, for example via the party program.
The Republican Party is divided into associations at the state level. There are also party organizations for certain social groups, such as the college association College Republican National Committee , the women's organization National Federation of Republican Women or the youth associations Young Republican National Federation and National Teen Age Republicans , each of which is divided into federal sub-organizations.
Party Associations in the States
There are associations in all 50 states, as well as the populated territories of the United States.
|Association||Chairman||Seat upper chamber||Seat lower chamber||logo|
|Republican Party of American Samoa||William Sword|
|District of Columbia Republican Party||Darlene Glymph||
|Republican Party of Guam||Tony Ada||
|Northern Mariana Islands Republican Party||James Ada|
|Puerto Rico Republican Party||Jenniffer González|
|Republican Party of the Virgin Islands||John Canegata||
There are also republican foreign associations around the world, most of which are organized in Republicans Overseas . Some, however, still operate under the name of the former organization Republicans Abroad .
Presidents appointed by the Republican Party
Ulysses S. Grant
Rutherford B. Hayes
James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
William Howard Taft
Warren G. Harding
Dwight D. Eisenhower
George W. Bush
- Candidate emerged from the elections as the winner and thus incumbent.
- The candidate emerged from the elections as the loser.
- * The candidate was already president at the time of the election.
|1856||John C. Frémont||1,342,345||33.1%||114||38.5%|
|1864||Abraham Lincoln *||2,218,388||55.0%||212||91.0%|
|1868||Ulysses S. Grant||3,013,650||52.7%||214||72.8%|
|1872||Ulysses S. Grant *||3,598,235||55.6%||286||81.3%|
|1876||Rutherford B. Hayes||4,034,311||47.9%||185||50.1%|
|1880||James A. Garfield||4,446,158||48.3%||214||58.0%|
|1884||James G. Blaine||4,848,936||48.2%||182||45.4%|
|1892||Benjamin Harrison *||5,190,819||43.0%||145||32.7%|
|1900||William McKinley *||7,228,864||51.6%||292||65.3%|
|1904||Theodore Roosevelt *||7,630,457||56.4%||336||70.6%|
|1908||William Howard Taft||7,678,395||51.6%||321||66.5%|
|1912||William Howard Taft *||3,486,242||23.2%||8th||1.5%|
|1916||Charles Evans Hughes||8,548,728||46.1%||254||47.8%|
|1920||Warren G. Harding||16,144,093||60.3%||404||76.1%|
|1924||Calvin Coolidge *||15,723,789||54.0%||382||71.9%|
|1932||Herbert Hoover *||15,761,254||39.7%||59||11.1%|
|1944||Thomas E. Dewey||22,017,929||45.9%||99||18.6%|
|1948||Thomas E. Dewey||21,991,292||45.1%||189||35.6%|
|1952||Dwight D. Eisenhower||34,075,529||55.2%||442||83.2%|
|1956||Dwight D. Eisenhower *||35,579,180||57.4%||457||86.0%|
|1972||Richard Nixon *||47.168.710||60.7%||520||96.7%|
|1976||Gerald Ford *||39.148.634||48.0%||240||44.6%|
|1984||Ronald Reagan *||54.455.472||58.8%||525||97.6%|
|1992||George Bush *||39.104.550||37.4%||168||31.2%|
|2000||George W. Bush||50.460.110||47.9%||271||50.4%|
|2004||George W. Bush *||62.040.610||50.7%||286||53.2%|
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- Robert Allen Rutland: The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush . University of Missouri Press, Columbia 1996, ISBN 0-8262-1090-2 .
- Eric Foner : Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, New York 1995, ISBN 978-0-19-509497-8 .
- Republican National Committee (not available outside of the United States)
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- McCain Inspires Rocky Revival By Moderates , Observer, May 31, 2014 (English)
- Donald Trump is Transforming the GOP Into a Populist Party , The New Yorker, February 29, 2016 (English)
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- The black art of the populists , Süddeutsche Zeitung
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- National Journal: Why the San Diego Mayor's Race Should Worry Democrats , Feb. 12, 2014
- Republicans Are No Longer the Party of Business October 3, 2013 in Bloomberg Businessweek
- Marcia Pally: The New Evangelicals. Berlin University Press, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-940432-93-3 , p. 72.
- Republican hearth , New York Times (English)
- 10 Questions for Pat Buchanan - TIME
- Scotchie, Joseph, ed., The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right, 1999., Gottfried, Paul, The Conservative Movement, 1993., Gottfried's "Paleoconservatism" article in American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia (ISI: 2006), and the “What Is Paleoconservatism?” symposium in Chronicles magazine, January, 2001
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- Richard Perle in an interview with PBS
- The Weekly Standard
- The New York Times
- Fiscal Conservatism , US Conservatives (English)
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- Thomas Moser: Grasstopsters: The donors in the background of the tea party , diagoge.com, from August 28, 2010
- The tea party movement ( Memento of 8 February 2015, Internet Archive ), Regional Center for Political Education of Baden-Württemberg
- Liberal Republicans — They're Alive! , Prospect.org (English)
- RINO Republicans. A New Definition. , Redstate.com (English)