Libertarianism ( Latin libertas , freedom ') or libertarianism ( loan word to English libertarianism ) is a political philosophy that adheres to an idea of negative freedom of action as a guiding norm and whose different currents all proceed from the principle of self-ownership and for a partial to complete abolition or restriction of the state .
The main issue here is the degree to which a state can set the rules of the game for each of its citizens. In relation to the political spectrum , the adjective “libertarian” stands for a free value orientation in the social area (this is independent of the other main ideological axis, which relates to the economic policy orientation on a scale “socialist” versus “market liberal”).
The expression libertarian for anarcho-communists (“liberal”, not to be confused with liberal), which emerged in France around 1860 , was able to establish itself especially in the English-speaking world and is now considered a somewhat broader, but basically equivalent, synonym for anarchist.
The libertarians agree on a number of normative and ontological principles, with differences mainly in questions of detail. Robust property rights and economic freedom are always central, which results in a social order based on free development that is in harmony with economic rights. Current state tasks should as far as possible be outsourced and transferred to private hands.
Within libertarianism, a distinction is made primarily between minarchist and anarchist currents. Libertarians who advocate a strict minimal state are to be separated from two further groups who demand a more or less important role for the government: the anarcho-capitalists , for whom the minimal state is too big, and the classic-liberals , who are somewhat open to it allow the state to provide public goods.
Furthermore, there is disagreement about property rights and the natural or utilitarian justification of individual freedom. In particular, a distinction is therefore made within libertarianism between left and right currents, which differ in terms of their different perceptions of borders and the acquisition of property rights.
In the middle of the 19th century, libertarianism in England was understood to mean the philosophical conception of free will . The first political use of the term "libertarian" comes from the anarchist Joseph Déjacque , who used the French expression libertaire in 1857 in a letter to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon to differentiate communist anarchism from what he believed to be liberal mutualism .
Since the mid-1950s, the term was used by property advocates, particularly in the United States . With the US civil rights movement in the 1950s, the focus in the development of the constitution was shifted from negative rights of defense and civil private autonomy to emancipation from minorities and the welfare state. In contrast to the 19th century, the government should no longer limit itself to simply safeguarding rights (“ night watchman state ”), but rather actively intervene in society. The word "liberal" has been presented in the United States with left-wing politics associated, which rejected the liberal minimum state philosophy and freedom in the sense of positive freedom more on social and cultural emancipation aimed disadvantaged.
The libertarians of the United States continue to refer to representatives of classical liberalism of the Enlightenment . Central are the property theory of John Locke and the moral and economic doctrine of Adam Smith . Positions that are described as libertarian in the USA should therefore often simply be translated as "economically liberal" in the German context .
The American linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky therefore repeatedly referred to himself as a libertarian socialist , criticizing the change in meaning of the term libertarian .
"Libertarian" was used as an adjective for anarchist and socialist utopias and was only taken up later in the classical-liberal context. In French, the American reinterpretation of libertarianism had its own concept, separated from libertaire . In German, too, there is a loanword to American libertarianism with libertarianism .
In addition, positions from the Austrian School of Economics were incorporated into the formation of the term. Ludwig von Mises , however, distinguished libertarianism from anarchist motives, which is why liberals criticize an anarchist reference. Even Friedrich August von Hayek the rule of law ( "rule of law") referred to the freedom-preserving function that could not be fulfilled in an anarcho-libertarian society. The networking between technology and pop culture makes libertarian ideology particularly visible. The Libertarian Futurist Society is responsible for annually awarding libertarian and classically liberal literature prizes. There are libertarian space projects. Transhumanists aim to artificially change the human body, also with a view to immortality . Bionomics describes economic processes with biological metaphors, whereby the results come to a libertarian perspective. The libertarian spirit is also widespread in computer science , as is the case with gun owners.
Because of the numerous different currents and positions, a uniform theory of libertarianism cannot be presented, only different variants of libertarianism. Within libertarianism there are a number of different currents, some of which do not recognize each other as "libertarian". The guiding norm is the idea of negative freedom of action .
A fundamental postulate shared by all groups of libertarianism is that every person belongs only to himself and not to the community and has a right to self-property . The individual always stands in front of the state, has the right to defend himself against violent interference by others and freedom is the only thing that can be demanded from others. Robust property rights and economic freedom are central, which results in a social order based on free development and not in conflict with it. In addition, current state tasks should be given up or transferred to private hands.
There is, however, no all-encompassing agreement on specific property rights or on the natural or utilitarian justification of individual freedom. In particular, a distinction is therefore made within libertarianism between left and right currents, which differ in terms of their different perceptions of borders and the acquisition of property rights.
The libertarian philosopher Roderick T. Long makes a fundamental distinction between libertarian capitalism, libertarian socialism and libertarian populism, three different social movements whose commonality is primarily a reference to a coherent or at least overlapping intellectual legacy.
Rothbard draws the conclusion that all tasks assigned to the state, including traditional tasks such as internal and external security , should be transferred to the market . In contrast to classical liberalism , which regards a minimum level of state institutions as necessary, the blurring of the boundaries between liberalism and anarchism is characteristic of this libertarianism.
Under an anarchy of private property, individual rights and market forces would prevail. While libertarians who want a small government hold this position to avoid abuse, the anarchists believe that this is only possible without a state. In the past, different private legal systems that were in competition with one another already functioned, as would be the case today in times of international trade. In addition, there have already been successful private security services in front of a state police force that have pursued criminals.
Furthermore, in recent years the American libertarian tradition has developed into a direction that understands libertarianism as a left philosophy and sees potential for broader support for libertarianism in the traditional left. Representatives of left-wing libertarianism include Hillel Steiner , Peter Vallentyne and Michael Otsuka . This left-wing libertarian discussion ties in with both the liberal tradition and anarchist positions. A difference to anarchism is that left-wing libertarians do not advocate the abolition of property, but a fairer distribution of natural resources.
Left-wing libertarian mutualists like Kevin Carson also see themselves as opponents of managed economies and make the free market economy strong against the cooperation of large companies and governments. Chris Sciabarra develops a dialectical libertarianism and turns against paleolibertarianism, since a libertarian economic order is incompatible with a conservative social policy.
Left libertarianism has developed from Georgism , mutualism and individual anarchist currents and strives for a combination of self-ownership and a fair distribution of resources . Here, the community is granted a common right to natural resources, at least in advance. The owner has to make a payment to the community.
The paleolibertarianism was in the United States of Lew Rockwell founded. An important center of this way of thinking is the Ludwig von Mises Institute of Alabama, whose ideological principles are based on the ideas of Ayn Rand and Murray Rothbard . Paleolibertarianism or libertarian populism is a mixture of libertarianism in politics and the economy and cultural conservatism in social issues. This social conservatism distinguishes the paleo-libertarian from the anarcho-capitalist currents, in which personal and economic freedom are equally in the foreground. Murray Rothbard argues that libertarianism is nothing more than a reformulation of the beliefs of the old right that opposed state intervention by the New Deal in the early 20th century. In an essay on right-wing populism in 1992, Rothbard regretted the defeat of Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke and accused the media of anti-Duke hysteria.
Individual representatives of right-wing libertarianism are critical of democracy as a form of government. Murray Rothbard justifies this with the fact that every state, including a democratic constitutional state, violates natural, individual rights, since it is ultimately a monopoly of enforcement and violence. Hans-Hermann Hoppe sees a monarchy as a lesser evil and justifies this with the fact that the state is privately owned and the monarch has a personal interest in the well-being of his property, whereas this is not the case with politicians and officials in a democracy. Hoppe emphasizes, however, that he is an advocate of a form of anarcho-capitalism and does not consider monarchy, democracy or any other form of government to be desirable. Hoppe is co-editor of the magazine peculiarly free , which is considered the intersection between economic libertarianism and the intellectual new right .
More recently, a rapprochement between libertarians and right-wing populists has been observed in the United States, but this is more based on the common enemy of the Democrats than on real ideological similarities. The right to gun ownership , enshrined in the United States' constitution, is also a concern of both movements. The tea party movement recruits its supporters not only from supporters of Ronald Reagan's politics and the tradition of Barry Goldwater but also from the libertarian camp. The entrepreneur and Trump -Unterstützer Robert Mercer supports both the libertarian Cato Institute , but is also active in the conservative Heritage Foundation and the ultra-right news portal Breitbart News .
Matthew Sheffield, author of the Washington Post , sees the far-right alt-right as influenced by the anarcho-capitalist and paleolibertarian thought leader Murray Rothbard, especially his considerations on race and democracy, and attributes Trump's brute rhetoric to Ron Paul's 2008 presidential candidacy. As early as 1976, the libertarian magazine Reason, supported by the Koch brothers , published a series of articles that put the Holocaust into perspective and made positive statements about the apartheid government in South Africa. However, anarcho-capitalist Jeffrey Tucker emphasizes the contradiction between the individual libertarian freedom of libertarianism and the group identity and tribalism of the alt-right.
Republicans Ron and Rand Paul are also prominent exponents of paleolibertarianism in the United States . In Poland, the politician and member of the EU Parliament Janusz Korwin-Mikke represents radical market and libertarian as well as social Darwinist ideas.
In practice, Augusto Pinochet's economic policy, influenced by the Chicago Boys , already showed libertarian traits in the 1970s. José Piñera , one of the Chicago Boys , moved to the Cato Institute after the end of the Pinochet regime . In Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro is influenced by similar ideas.
With regard to the right to and the acquisition of private property, there are different views within libertarianism. Libertarians argue that in the free society they seek for themselves, property can only be the result of voluntary interaction and not political doctrine .
It is controversial among libertarians to what extent the principle of self-ownership necessarily also implies the right to private ownership of material resources. While many anarcho-capitalists, citing Robert Nozick , assume that property rights are based on natural law, left-wing libertarians such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne and Michael Otsuka deny that the self-ownership principle can establish absolute rights to private property in external goods, especially land.
In contrast to modern theories of property , which are mostly based on a bundle of rights that can be subdivided in a differentiated manner among different beneficiaries, libertarians like Nozick or Rothbard understand property as an absolute and exclusive right to dispose of something. There are differing views among libertarians as to the extent to which property ownership of intellectual resources can be established.
Critical objections are often raised against anarcho-capitalist property theories that property in a mass society can only be guaranteed by a constitutional state as a monopoly of force. The concept of property (if it includes justice in the sense that the owner should have “earned” or “earned” his property in some way) presupposes the existence of a state in order to be meaningful in a mass society. Minarchists would agree with this position, while anarcho-capitalists point out that the relationship between states is just as similar as that, that there is no supreme monopoly of violence and that peaceful coexistence including property protection is obviously possible. However, this argument contradicts the constant occurrence and persistence of intra- and international conflicts and wars.
Libertarians reject intervening states in principle and demand a reduction of the state to its function of safeguarding fundamental freedoms or even a complete abolition of the state.
Accordingly, most libertarians are minarchists ; that is, they view a minimal state with a minimal tax rate as a necessary evil for maintaining public institutions protecting civil liberties and property rights, such as the police, a voluntary military without conscription, and public courts.
In contrast, anarcho-capitalists - such as B. David D. Friedman or Murray Rothbard - the state itself as superfluous or reprehensible. They completely reject state taxes , the state monopoly on the use of force and state legislation, and advocate a society in which these tasks are performed by private organizations of a commercial and non-commercial nature ( spontaneous order ). In contrast to the minarchists, they argue that no state can be kept within a reasonable framework and that it will inevitably develop into a despotic coercive system.
The political positions of minarchists and anarcho-capitalists on current mainstream issues often seem to overlap, as both poles view existing states as being too insistent and patronizing. Some libertarian philosophers like Tibor R. Machan see no real effective difference in either pole .
Natural law and consequentialism
Libertarians like Robert Nozick and Murray Rothbard see the rights to life, liberty and property as natural rights ; H. based on itself. Directly or indirectly, their views go back to the writings of David Hume and John Locke . Ayn Rand , another writer with great influence on libertarianism, saw this philosophy as rooted in natural law. Because of the a priori character of the norms, libertarianism is countered by the charge of fundamentalism .
Some liberals such as B. Milton Friedman , Ludwig von Mises or Friedrich Hayek derived property rights and contractual freedom from consequentialist considerations. In their view, liberalism is the most effective economic policy to create and maintain prosperity and wealth for all individuals in society. They also see the use of force as justified in some emergencies. Libertarians like Jan Narveson derive their philosophy from contract law - rationally acting people would agree on these rights as the basis of their interaction.
Many libertarians assume that an organization of society based on the market principle ultimately results in the most stable form of society with the greatest prosperity for all. They therefore demand complete laissez-faire in both economic and social policy. In general, they are of the opinion that tasks can be solved better and more cheaply by the market mechanism than it would ever be possible by states. For example, they advocate free trade and banking freedom . With the view that the market mechanism generally produces better results than is possible through state intervention, they contradict the prevailing economic opinion. Not least because of this, the Austrian school, which deviates from the prevailing opinion, is popular in libertarianism .
They regard any form of state intervention in the economy, for example by restricting freedom of contract or taxes , as illegitimate “ expropriation ”. Any sovereign taxation is therefore assessed as theft. An exception are the followers of Henry George (so-called Geolibertarians ), who consider a tax on property to be necessary. Intervention by the state in people's private lives, for example through state surveillance or conscription , is also combated .
The rejection and restriction of state power is based on the view that the state is a collection of selfish individuals who first and foremost use the power available to them for their own enrichment. Libertarians often accuse political opponents of “state fetishism” because they allow the state to gain excessive power without reconsidering the abuse of power practiced by politicians. Accordingly, libertarians often accuse other political directions that want to cope with economic, social and societal tasks through a centrally managed state of belief in the state: It is a mistake that the state can solve problems through central planning and intervention. Indeed, government intervention was only in the interests of lobbies , and the misallocation resulting from insufficient information combined with excessive power would harm people.
Contrary to the common opinion that today's world order is dominated by “ capitalist ” or “ neoliberal ”, many libertarians regard the current global state system as socialist and see a general tendency towards totalitarianism and collectivism . Accordingly, globalization , for example, is understood as the self-development of globally networked economic actors who wanted to restrict authoritarian states through protectionism in order to maintain their own power.
Most libertarians are skeptical of an unrestricted or unrestricted democracy under the rule of law . Some reject it as a form of rule (form of government). The economist Bryan Caplan criticizes irrational voting behavior in a democracy. Hans-Hermann Hoppe advocates “freedom instead of democracy” and sees the monarchy as a lesser evil compared to democracy.
On the other hand, there are also theoretical considerations and practical efforts to combine democracy and libertarianism. A minimal state based on democracy and the rule of law , which offers a stable regulatory framework with internal , external and legal security, but largely stays out of the shaping of economic and social life, can be described as libertarian democracy. According to political scientist Thomas Meyer , libertarian democracy is characterized by “a free market economy combined with free private property and the individual responsibility of citizens for their social and economic well-being” and a self-regulated market. Thomas Meyer sees libertarian democracy as defined in this way as the main form of liberal democracy, opposite to social democracy , and assesses it - alongside social democracy and political-religious fundamentalism - as one of the major political currents that in “the global arena of our time” “revolve around intellectual wrestling with political influence ”. Meyer, who essentially derives his theoretical considerations on libertarian democracy from the writings of Friedrich August von Hayek and Robert Nozick, also uses the category of libertarian democracy empirically as an antipole to social democracy and to assess democratic political systems. According to Meyer's theory and empiricism, democratic inclusion in libertarian democracies is deficient in comparison to social democracies. In accordance with the complexity of the term libertarianism, however, considerations of democratic theory that differ greatly from Meyer's definition can also be described as libertarian democracy. Claude Lefort's theory of democracy is sometimes referred to as libertarian democracy.
In the United States , many libertarians are active in the Libertarian Party , which is by far the third largest party behind the Democrats and Republicans . You see yourself beyond a political right-left scheme . Furthermore, there were and are also libertarians who are active within the two major parties. For example, former Republican MP Ron Paul led a libertarian campaign for years.
In Russia there is an unregistered party, the Libertarian Party of Russia (LPR for short), which belongs to the opposition organizations and is regularly involved in the organization of opposition rallies.
In Costa Rica there is the Movimiento Libertario party (German Libertarian Movement ), which is represented in parliament. In the 2014 election campaign, however, she switched to Christian-conservative and Christian-social positions.
Within Europe, the Polish party Kongres Nowej Prawicy (KNP for short, German Congress of the New Right ) can be described as libertarian in terms of economic policy, and strongly conservative views on socio-political issues . Although the party and its chairman, Janusz Korwin-Mikke , have so far not had any success in local or parliamentary elections within Poland , they won 7.15% of the vote and four seats in the 2014 European Parliament election . One of its predecessor parties, the Unia Polityki Realnej (German Union of Realpolitik , UPR for short) also positioned itself as a libertarian force within Poland.
The members of the Free Democratic Party (FDP for short) are known as Liberals . There is, however, its own libertarian network within the party with the “Libertarian Platform”. The Liberal Awakening group founded by Frank Schäffler , Member of the Bundestag , represents an ultra- liberal economic policy shaped by Friedrich August von Hayek . The Party of Reason is a small libertarian party that has been able to win municipal mandates by converting.
One of the earliest American libertarian publications was the Detroit News, founded in 1873 . In 1881 the magazine Liberty appeared in America, which was published by Benjamin Tucker until 1908. The Upper Franconian teacher Max Stirner exerted great influence on the pioneer anarchist Benjamin Tucker, who in turn influenced Murray N. Rothbard through the Liberty. Just a year after Liberty , the Kinston Free Press was founded in the 19th century.
Several libertarian American media outlets were formed in the 20th century. The Orange County Register first appeared in 1905 . The Las Vegas Review-Journal followed in 1909 and the Diamondback in 1910 . The Freeman appeared in 1946 and the Reason in 1968 . From 1969 to 1984 the publications Libertarian Forum followed . In 1977 Murray Rothbard founded the Journal of Libertarian Studies . In 1987 the Liberty appeared again under the same name as 1881 to 1908 .
Next Magazine has been published in Hong Kong since 1990 . In 1998, Le Québécois Libre was created in Canada . In England, the Brighton Voice was published from 1970 to 1980 . The magazine Spiked has been published since 2000 .
Position in the political spectrum and criticism
Libertarians often see themselves as radical representatives of liberalism and see themselves less in opposition to moderate liberals than as a subgroup in the spectrum of political liberalism. However, many libertarian positions, such as the availability of human rights and the rejection of democratic institutions, are viewed as illiberal. In particular, the view is criticized that the consistent priority given to the right to property and freedom of contract enables the consensual renunciation of fundamental rights. Nozick believes that in a libertarian society, anyone can sell themselves into slavery . A corresponding contract must be enforced. However, there are also libertarian blueprints according to which it is not permissible to renounce ownership of oneself.
Economically, libertarianism is opposed to national politics as well as left or socialist politics. Libertarians find minimal intervention in the economy tolerable. On economic issues, some libertarians see similarities with conservatives and try to form political alliances with them. Here, however, a distinction must be made between “conservative” in the American and in the European sense. While American conservatives advocate weak state intervention in the economy, which largely coincides with the goals of libertarian politics, the term “conservative” in Europe often denotes a more welfare-oriented policy, which in this case is diametrically opposed to libertarian ideals.
Socio-politically, the ideal of the minimal state leads to opposition to both left and socialist and right-wing, conservative and nationalist groups. From a libertarian point of view, social changes on the part of the state cannot have any positive effects on the individuals of a society; in truth, any political measures only serve particular interests and the despotic implementation of ideologies.
Despite this non-intervention principle, libertarians do have socio-political views. The spectrum ranges from neoconservatives who want to live a life according to appropriate values within the framework of a free society (or even see a condition between libertarianism and conservatism), to polemical as " sex, drugs and rock-'n'-roll " - Libertarians denote individuals who see libertarian society as a prerequisite for freedom of expression , sexual self-determination and self-realization . Libertarians of any direction, however, strictly reject the implementation of social designs through coercion and indoctrination .
Many libertarians resist being placed in the traditional right-left political scheme , as they see themselves in opposition to conservative and nationalist as well as socialist politics. In their view, there is no essential difference between (extreme) left and (extreme) right politics.
Instead of the left-right spectrum, some libertarians, particularly in the US, prefer a two-dimensional field to classify political views. The attitude to “personal freedom” is shown on the one hand and “economic freedom” on the other, with these ranging from “absolutely restrictive” to “absolutely liberal”. This can be found in the Nolan diagram , which was designed by the libertarian David Nolan and is named after him. According to this scheme, libertarians share views of the “left” in the social and “right” in the economic field. However, the scheme has also been criticized by libertarians for viewing the separation between social and economic issues as an illusion. Many in turn prefer a one-dimensional scheme that extends from libertarian to anti-libertarian politics - libertarians tend to see more in common than differences between left and right and in extreme cases communists and fascists .
In contrast, the paleolibertarian Rothbard argued that libertarianism was nothing more than a reformulation of the beliefs of the old right , which opposed state intervention through the New Deal in the early 20th century.
Gero Neugebauer recognizes in post-industrial society that “the decisive political conflict constellation” does not run “between right and left”, “but between a social-libertarian and a neoliberal-authoritarian political conception.” “Libertarianism (left) is on the political axis. and authoritarianism (right), i.e. on the one hand libertarian post-materialist values (such as direct democracy, ecology, gender equality, multiculturalism) and on the other hand authoritarian values (such as an internally and externally strong nation state, patriotism, security and order). It can certainly lead to value syntheses, i.e. someone for distributive justice and at the same time for performance thinking, or take libertarian positions in the environmental field, but authoritarian positions in questions of internal security. This corresponds to the complex thought patterns and value orientations of people in modern societies, which evade closed ideologies. " Both positions are also taken by the right-wing. ”“ In view of this complexity, a term such as political extremism is sub-complex for science and unsuitable as a working term. ” Karin Priester says in the same APuZ issue in which Gero Neugebauer wrote that it is in the USA The emerging minimal state libertarianism in the tea party movement attracts right-wing extremist factions such as militias, patriot groups or white suprematists. This has also been the case in Germany since 2007. She cites as an example that "in addition to the NPD chairman Udo Voigt and the national anarchist Peter Töpfer", "Angelika Willig, until 2009 editor-in-chief of Hier & Jetzt , the theory journal of the Saxon NPD youth organization Young National Democrats and a pioneer of a fundamental system change," were strangely free to speak in the magazine . According to their thesis, " social Darwinism , as the ideology of the natural superiority of the strong over the weak, the elite over the masses," functions as the ideological link between libertarianism and right-wing extremism .
Detmar Doering considers the libertarian ideal of a society based on complete voluntariness to be desirable from a liberal point of view, but criticizes that there is no real example of a stateless industrial society and that states have so far disappeared for reasons such as war, civil war or ethnic tensions. In addition, he presents statistical studies that in such unstable countries there is less freedom and legal order than in stable states. A violent transition to a non-state society could not work, since this would require stronger violence than the previous one, from which state power would again be formed. He cites the French Revolution as an example of such developments .
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- Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner: Left-libertarianism and its critics: the contemporary debate. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, p. 9.
- Fred E. Foldvary: The Ultimate Tax Reform: Public revenue from land rent . CSI Policy Study. Civil Society Institute, Santa Clara University, Rochester, NY 2006, doi : 10.2139 / ssrn.1103586 ( foldvary.net [PDF]).
- Thomas Meyer : What is democracy? A discursive introduction. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-15488-6 , p. 100 .
- Thomas Meyer: Practice of Social Democracy. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, p. 11.
- Thomas Meyer: Practice of Social Democracy. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, p. 486 ff.
- Rudolf Walther: Fighters for Libertarian Democracy. Obituary for the death of the philosopher Claude Lefort. taz.de, October 12, 2010. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Juan Carlos Hidalgo: ¿Movimiento Libertario o Cristiano? In: El Financiero. January 6, 2014.
- Luis Fernando Cascante: Otto Guevara presento plan más socialcristiano. In: La Republica. January 14, 2014.
- Liberal and conservative ideologies clashed in first official presidential debate InsideCostaRica, January 6, 2014.
- Anarchy in the FDP? In: Die Welt Online from September 21, 2008.
- Christian Butterbach: Memories of Benjamin Tucker . Retrieved January 3, 2013 (Translation: Memories of Benjamin Tucker by John William Lloyd (1935)).
- Note: see Benjamin Tucker on founding / discontinuing Liberty
- Christian Butterbach: Memories of Benjamin Tucker . Retrieved January 3, 2013 (Translation: Memories of Benjamin Tucker by John William Lloyd (1935)).
- Peter Mühlbauer: It sounds like a mixture of “liberal” and “pubescent” . Retrieved January 3, 2013 (in the section: Economic Anarchism and Anarcho-Capitalism ).
- Samuel Freeman: Illiberal Libertarians: Why Libertarianism Is Not a Liberal View. In: Philosophy and Public Affairs , Volume 30, 2001, pp. 105 ff.
- Samuel Freeman: Illiberal Libertarians: Why Libertarianism Is Not a Liberal View. In: Philosophy and Public Affairs , Volume 30, 2001, pp. 105, 131 ff.
- Hans-Hermann Hoppe : Property, Anarchy and State. Studies on the theory of capitalism ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), Opladen 1987, p. 110. (PDF file; 1.4 MB)
- Walter Block : Libertarianism and "Sex, Drugs, & Rock 'n' Roll" , Review of a Newspaper Article, The Wall Street Journal
- Why the "Left" and "Right" Are Only Two Wings of the Same Bird of Prey
- Economically liberal, socially liberal or simply liberal? ( Memento from March 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) NZZ Online
- freedomkeys.com Nolan Chart Variations
- Gero Neugebauer: Simple was yesterday. Essay on the structuring of political reality in a modern society . Subject: extremism . Ed .: bpb . No. 44 . APuZ , Bonn November 1, 2010, p. 3 f . ( online at: www.bpb.de and online as PDF ).
- Karin Priester: Fluid boundaries between right-wing extremism and right-wing populism in Europe? Subject: extremism . Ed .: bpb . No. 44 . APuZ , Bonn November 1, 2010, p. 38 ( online at: www.bpb.de and online as PDF ).
- Detmar Döring: Position Liberal: Rule of Law and Economic Freedom. (PDF; 775 kB), Liberal Institute of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation 2009, p. 24 ff.