A resource [ ʀɛsʊʀsə ] ( French la resource [ ʀəsuʀs ], German , means' source ' of Latin Resurgere , do well' ) is a means, condition as well as characteristic or property to keep track of goals to manage requirements, specific actions to make or to run a process in a targeted manner.
A resource can be a tangible or an intangible good . In business administration , economics and organizations , this usually means resources , money , land , raw materials , energy or people and (working) time, in psychology also skills, personal characteristics or a mental attitude, in sociology also education , health , Prestige and social networking. The terms “strengths” or “sources of strength” are often used in psychological and psychosocial fields of action.
In economics , resources are typically considered to be labor , land , the environment and capital as factors of production (and, depending on the objective of the analysis , other productive forces as well ), for example raw materials or social factors such as education , diversity or research .
Some economists advocate a theory called a Resource-Based View (RBV). In this theory to explain the competitive advantage of companies, the term resource is central. The basic idea is to "the uniqueness of the company - the competitive advantage over other suppliers - not to explain its position on the product market, but by the quality of resources ..." One can in RBV an alternative to Michael E. Porter's Market-Based View see .
The RBV distinguishes between five types or types of resources:
- Financial resources ( cash flow , creditworthiness, etc.)
- Human resources (unskilled workers, skilled workers, engineers, managers, etc.)
- Organizational resources (information systems, integration departments, etc.)
- Physical resources (buildings / real estate , facilities, service stations, etc.) and
- Technological resources (quality standards, brand names, research know-how, etc.).
These five types can be divided into material, “tangible” (financial resources and physical resources) and immaterial (human resources, organizational resources, technological resources) resources. Jay Barney wrote in 1991 that a resource must meet four conditions to ensure a competitive advantage; it must: (1.) be valuable, (2.) be scarce, (3.) cannot be imitated and (4.) must not be substitutable. The so-called VRIO framework has developed from these four conditions. The VRIO framework analyzes the resources of an organization and puts them in connection with the business activities. For companies, the planning of resources is particularly important - such as with regard to employees (e.g. during shift planning) or raw materials in production.
The term “capabilities” describes the organizational ability “to combine resources and actions, to coordinate them and to develop new ones.” This means, among other things, that the resource base has to be permanently rebuilt (so-called dynamic capabilities ). The ability that a company has in particular is also called core competence .
An increasing problem in modern times is the overexploitation of natural resources . For example, from 1958 overfishing led to the cod wars . Other examples are irreversible soil erosion , deforestation or lowering of the groundwater .
In addition to economic resources, sociology also names physiological (health), social (e.g. network of relationships) and cultural resources (e.g. education) and structural resources (e.g. social environment). They influence the social status of an actor in a given society .
With his theory of types of capital (also known as types of capital), Pierre Bourdieu provides decisive impetus for a complex understanding of resources in a social framework. He differentiates between three types of capital: economic, social and cultural capital, which can be transformed into one another. Bourdieu does not use the concept of resources, but the concept of types of capital, which essentially corresponds to the current social-scientific understanding of resources.
- Economic capital: all resources that are "immediately and directly convertible into money".
- Cultural or symbolic capital is divided into three forms: (1.) Incorporated form: internalized knowledge, education, skills and attitudes. Appropriation (incorporation) takes time and energy. (2.) Objectified form: cultural goods (books, sound carriers, paintings). (3.) Institutionalized form: state-recognized and guaranteed educational qualifications and academic titles .
- Social capital consists of the current and potential resources "associated with having a permanent network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual knowledge or appreciation". "The size of social capital ... depends ... on the extent of the network of relationships that the individual can actually mobilize, as well as on the size of the (economic, cultural, symbolic) capital owned by those with whom he is related" . This gives social capital a similar meaning to economic capital.
Types of capital (resources) have the property of creating access to other resources and of being mutually transformable. They can be transformed in various ways into further resources (or sub-categories of capital) for coping with life demands and for creating health and quality of life. Such resource transformations require the use of personal effort and skillful strategies. Acquiring or expanding the resource of individual social capital requires investments in social relationships , for example . In the accumulation of the various types of capital and their transformability, Bourdieu recognizes the mechanism that can secure an advantageous position in society over the long term and also make this “inheritable” to future generations (reproductive mechanisms of social inequality). Knecht extends the results on the socially unequal distribution of resources.
The sociologist Nan Lin defines (individual) social capital as resources that can be mobilized and are rooted in the social structure. As positive effects for the individual he emphasizes the increased flow of information, the increased individual influence, the social network as a social "testimony" of the individual and the social support and confirmation. Among other things, the hierarchical position (as a structural factor) and the strength of the ties (as an individual factor) play a role.
Psychology, Social Work and Psychotherapy
These disciplines focus on human and interpersonal resources (in addition to economic ones) as essential conditions for an individually successful lifestyle. The use of resources serves to "cope with everyday or specific life requirements and psychosocial development tasks, to pursue and fulfill needs, wishes and (life) goals and to maintain or restore health and wellbeing". In addition, resources are required to expand one's own resources (e.g. further training) or to maintain other resources (e.g. skills bring money or social prestige, etc.)
. With the Essen Resource Inventory (ERI), multidimensional personal, social and structural resources can be validly measured in a questionnaire, with which the resource allocation can be objectively differentiated.
A possible distinction is here:
1. Personal resources (also referred to as individual, personal, interpersonal, internal resources, personal or individual resources)
- Physical resources (e.g. health, fitness, physical attractiveness).
- Psychological resources (e.g. cognitive resources such as skills, education or knowledge; emotional resources or favorable personality traits such as optimism; action resources and coping styles ("coping"); recognized roles or positions).
- Interactional psychological resources (also referred to as interpersonal or relational resources; e.g. ability to relate, to deal with conflict or to criticize, ability to seek social support).
- Economic resources (e.g. money, property, (stable) earned income).
2. Environmental resources (also referred to as environmental or external resources)
- Social-emotional resources (also referred to as psychosocial or interpersonal resources; e.g. partnership or family relationships, friendship relationships; enable social exchange and integration, support and belonging).
- social resources (e.g. personal contacts and relationships, social embedding in networks, opportunities to participate).
- Socio-ecological resources (e.g. living environment, quality of the socio-ecological infrastructure, quality of workplaces).
- Welfare state and socio-cultural resources (e.g. access to education, health and cultural offers, rule of law, opportunities to participate).
Resources are not always understood as such by every person and in every situation or phase of life. Rather, the perception of what serves as a resource varies depending on the context in which a person is located: e.g. B. age, gender, stage of development, mood, value system. In addition, the perception of resources depends on the upcoming tasks / requirements, on the current or long-term goals of a person and on the understanding of the individual life situation. The usefulness of resources only arises when they are assessed as sensible, usable and useful by the person or by relevant reference persons (e.g. spouse , friend , educator , counselor , therapist ) for the desired goals or problem solving, and also when they are assessed also fit into the person's emotional-cognitive evaluation system (functionality and task dependency of resources). Schiepek and Cremers formulate the relationship between resource and purpose as at least a three-digit means-end relationship: "An object (X) can be referred to as a resource in relation to a goal (Z) by an assessor or his value system (B): R (X) = f (Z, B). "
Before this means-end recording or usefulness assessment, possible resources are to be understood as potentials or possibilities (quasi as dormant or potential resources). They become activated resources when they are recognized as useful in a certain context to achieve the goal and are used accordingly. Certain resources, such as material means ( money , income , housing), education , social inclusion are often also valued as universally valid resources.
In the perception of resources, there are often differences between the assessment of outside persons ( educator , counselor , therapist ) and the perception and assessment of resources by the person concerned . Outsiders often recognize more resources than the person concerned. Aspects that are initially negatively assessed by the social environment can also turn out to be functional resources, e. For example, problem behavior can turn out to be an individual (possibly less useful in the long term) attempt to solve a problem.
Resources favor or impair one another. This has an impact on the further development and configuration of resources and ultimately on the ability to cope with life demands. Well-developed psychological and interactional resources, such as empathy and conflict resolution skills , promote the design and management of social and other environmental resources. Conversely, accessible social resources such as integration or opportunities for socio-cultural participation (in general: living conditions conducive to development ) in turn promote the development and configuration of personal, psychological and interactional resources.
Principle of action and goals
In social work and in systemic counseling and therapy, the focus on the resources of the clients and their environment is a fundamental principle of action. Klaus Grawe demonstrates that working with resources is a key factor in psychotherapy and counseling. The aim of social work and psychosocial counseling , and in general also of psychotherapy and pedagogy , is on the one hand to interrupt the loss of resources (see also the theory of resource conservation ) and on the other hand to allocate resources (also impaired R.) to individuals and their social and structural environment identify, promote and activate and make them accessible for a (subjectively) successful way of life , including the resource transformations that take place in it.
In psychotherapy , resources are inner potentials of a person and concern e.g. B. abilities, skills, knowledge, skills, experience, talents, inclinations and strengths that are often not even aware of. Another resource is the fulfillment of meaning and the finding of meaning after a loss of meaning. These sources of strength can be used in psychotherapy to promote healing. The resource-oriented approach is based on research that shows that traumatic experiences , such as those during the Second World War, could be processed relatively well by people with access to their resources. For the first time, systemic family therapy is said to have followed and integrated the resource-oriented approach.
Psychotherapy as a whole can be resource-oriented or it can specifically highlight and consolidate certain resources. One method for this is what is known as “anchoring”, a term from hypnotherapy that is also used in various other forms of psychotherapy, such as EMDR .
Example: To anchor, the person remembers a positive situation (called in EMDR: “point of power”) that is filled with particularly rich resources. In order to get a good access, it is necessary to perceive the corresponding sensory impressions, e.g. B. pictorial memories, smells , background noise , moods or body perceptions. This particularly good mood (i.e. the resource) should be transferred with the anchoring to a situation that was previously perceived as unpleasant, scary or threatening.
The work-life balance is also considered from the point of view of the provision of resources. Time, money and leeway for decision-making are named as essential resources for this . there are also personal resources. The latter includes all the physical, psychological, emotional and social resources available to the individual. In relation to the work situation, the burnout syndrome is seen as the extreme case of exhausted personal resources. If the level of the currently available personal resources falls below a limit of resilience , both personal resilience and the ability to recover are significantly reduced.
science and technology
The term `` resources '' also has different meanings in computer science :
- In complexity theory , resources, such as computing time on a processor or storage space in main memory , are viewed in a more abstract way as resources.
- Network resources are
- Certain program components stored in files are also referred to as resources, see Resource (software) .
- In web architecture , a resource generally refers to anything that has identity (represented e.g. as a URL ) in the sense that it can be a source for descriptions about itself.
In deposit science, the resource is understood to be the largest possible amount available. This corresponds to the concentration of an ore or another mineral-fossil target fraction in the earth's crust. It is often equated with the element abundance.
However, this amount does not provide any information about the amount of deposits that are also available for mining. This amount is called the reserve base. This is to be understood as the amount of resource that meets the specific minimum physical and chemical criteria for current mining and production practices, including those for grade, quality, thickness and depth. The reserve base includes both currently economically exploitable reserves as well as reserves that can possibly be economically exploited within a certain planning period and assumed technical and economic developments.
However, even the reserve base does not provide any information about the amount actually available in mining. This amount is called the reserve. The reserve is to be understood as the amount of the identified reserve base that could be economically and technically extracted or produced at the time of determination. As a rule, however, it is not the lack of technical prerequisites, but the lack of profitability that defines the boundary between the reserve and reserve base. This limit therefore shifts depending on the prevailing economic but also political framework conditions. Dynamically rising prices triggered by excess demand can lead to a considerable increase in reserve quantities within a short period of time. Example: The global indium reserves increased from 2,800 t in 2006 to 11,000 t in 2007.
The " resource curse " (also resource trap ) indicates the various negative consequences that the wealth of natural resources can have for a country and its population, especially the apparent paradox that economic growth in countries that rely heavily on the export of mineral and fossil raw materials are generally less dependent than in resource-poor countries.
- Work equipment , productive force
- Citizens resource , resource orientation , resource management , resource productivity
- Resource Conservation Theory
- Zurich resource model
- Resource management
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