Michael E. Porter

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Michael Porter (2009)
The model of a value chain according to Michael Eugene Porter.
Competitive forces

Michael Eugene Porter (born May 23, 1947 in Ann Arbor , Michigan ) is an American economist and university professor of economics at the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness at Harvard Business School . He is considered one of the leading management theorists. In several rankings he was chosen as one of the most influential management thinkers. His work focuses on questions of strategy and competition: for sole proprietorships, regions and economies. He is considered one of the founders of strategic management . His book Competitive Advantage (1985) is one of the standard works in management literature.

Porter is known in particular for the formulation of the three generic competitive strategies ( segmentation , differentiation and cost leadership ), the value chain ( Value Chain ) corresponding to the production process of a company in the form of a block arrow represents, and competition analysis and determination of the industry and market appeal of using the five - Forces model ( Five Forces ).

In addition to his academic work, Michael Porter is a consultant for companies and governments. He is co-founder of the management consultancy Monitor .


The following selected models and management concepts are based on the scientific work of Michael Porter:

  • The industry structure analysis , on the basis of which the competitive mechanisms of a market can be characterized.
  • The value chain ( Value Chain ), which company is the logical relationship between activities in a company and can be derived from strategic questions.
  • The concept of generic strategies, since there are basically three different successful competitive strategies ( segmentation , differentiation and cost leadership ).
  • The diamond model which can be used to describe the competitiveness and clustering of economies and regions in individual industries
  • The Porter hypothesis , according to which strict environmental regulation can promote innovation and lead to efficiency gains and competitive advantages.

Michael Porter repeatedly comments on current political issues, such as the debate on health reform in the USA.


Porter has been criticized by the academic world for the inconsistent reasoning in his claims. Critics described his conclusions as partially not empirically investigated and based only on selected case studies. They also claimed that Porter failed to appreciate the original authors on which his axioms were based.


  • Note on the structural analysis of industries . Case No. 9-376-054, Boston / Mass .: Intercollegiate Case Clearing House 1974.
  • Interbrand choice, strategy and bilateral market power , Harvard Economic Studies, Cambridge / Mass .: Harvard University Press 1976.
  • With Caves, RE; Spence, AM: Competition in the open economy , Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1980.
  • Competitive strategy. Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors , Free Press, New York 1980. ISBN 978-0743260886
  • The Contributions of Industrial Organization to Strategy Formulation: a promise beginning to be realized . Harvard Business School Working Paper 79-60, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston / Mass. 1980.
  • Cases in competitive strategy , The Free Press, New York 1983.
  • Competitive strategy, methods for analyzing industries and competitors. 1st edition. Frankfurt (Main): Campus 1983.
  • Competitive Advantage , Free Press, New York 1985. ISBN 0-684-84146-0
  • Competition in Global Industries , Boston / Mass. 1986.
  • With Cynthia A. Montgomery (Eds.), Strategy. Seeking and Securing Competitive Advantage , Boston / Mass .: Harvard Business Press 1991.
  • The Competitive Advantage of Nations , Free Press, New York 1998. ISBN 0-684-84147-9
  • Can Japan Compete? , 2000, ISBN 0-465-05989-9 .
  • With Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg: Redefining Health Care. Creating Value-Based Competition on Results . Harvard Business School Press, Boston 2006, ISBN 1-59139-778-2 .
  • With Mark R. Kramer: Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review , 89 (1-2), 2011: 62-77.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Michael Eugene Porter. Competitive Advantage. Achieve and maintain top performance. Translated from English by Angelika Jaeger. Frankfurt / Main: Campus Verlag, 1986. ISBN 978-3-593-33542-1
  2. Biography on search.credoreference.com, accessed March 8, 2015 (English)
  3. http://www.managementdenker.de/44/41351.html
  4. Torsten Frohwein: “The Porter Hypothesis in the Light of the Reorganization of European Chemicals Regulation - Does it hold? -. “UFZ discussion paper 7/2003.
  5. Source Porter, ME & Teisberg, EO (2006) "Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition On Results", Harvard Business School Press, 2006
  6. Sharp, Byron; Dawes, John (1996), "Is Differentiation Optional? A Critique of Porter's Generic Strategy Typology," in Management, Marketing and the Competitive Process, Peter Earl, Ed. London: Edward Elgar.
  7. Jump up ↑ Speed, Richard J. (1989), "Oh Mr Porter! A Re-Appraisal of Competitive Strategy," Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 7 (5/6), 8-11.
  8. Yetton, Philip, Jane Craig, Jeremy Davis, and Fred Hilmer (1992), "Are Diamonds a Country's Best Friend? A Critique of Porter's Theory of National Competition as Applied to Canada, New Zealand and Australia," Australian Journal of Management, 17 (No. 1, June), 89-120.
  9. ^ Allio, Robert J. (1990), "Flaws in Porter's Competitive Diamond ?," Planning Review, 18 (No. 5, September / October), 28-32.
  10. False Expectations of Michael Porter's Strategic Management Framework, by Omar AKTOUF, Dr. HEC Montréal