1947

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1947
Notice board on the Marshall Plan
General Marshall developed the Marshall Plan named after him , which played a decisive role in the reconstruction of West Germany.
Flag of india
India gains independence.
Harry S. Truman
US President Harry S. Truman proclaims the Truman Doctrine .
1947 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2700
Armenian calendar 1395-1396
Ethiopian calendar 1939-1940
Badi calendar 103-104
Bengali calendar 1353-1354
Berber calendar 2897
Buddhist calendar 2491
Burmese calendar 1309
Byzantine calendar 7455-7456
Chinese calendar
 - era 4643-4644 or
4583-4584
 - 60 year cycle

Fire dog ( 丙戌 , 23) -
Fire pig ( 丁亥 , 24)

French
revolutionary calendar
CLV - CLVI
155–156
Hebrew calendar 5707-5708
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2003-2004
 - Shaka Samvat 1869-1870
Iranian calendar 1325-1326
Islamic calendar 1366-1367
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 22
 - Kōki 2607
Coptic calendar 1663-1664
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4280
 - Juche era 36
Minguo calendar 36
Modern Olympics XIII
Seleucid calendar 2258-2259
Thai solar calendar 2490

In 1947 the ideological differences between the emerging Eastern bloc and the Western world became clearer. In the first months after the end of the war, the commonalities of the four victorious powers were still in the foreground when regulating the post-war order, but the emerging Cold War is increasingly separating the previously united war coalition of the allies. This is particularly clear in the Truman Doctrine , in which the US President warns of “direct or indirect aggression” by “totalitarian regimes” - the Soviet Union is not mentioned by name, but the reference is obvious.

overview

Europe

Eastern Europe

In the states of Eastern Europe, the communist party was initially just one political force among several; the office of head of government was in the hands of a bourgeois politician who led a popular front government in which the communists were mostly responsible for internal security.

With the help of the Soviet occupying power, the Communist Party succeeded in seizing political power in Poland , Hungary , Romania and Bulgaria , using a mixture of legal means and threats; not infrequently the political opponent is denigrated as fascist and subjected to reprisals. In Czechoslovakia , the communist Klement Gottwald holds the post of head of government, but first has to take into account the twelve bourgeois ministers in his government.

Tito in Yugoslavia, on the other hand, leads a socialist people's republic, which has largely managed the liberation from German occupation on its own and can thus appear confidently towards the Soviet Union and the emerging Eastern Bloc .

Germany

Marshall Plan Aid in West Berlin

In the Soviet zone of occupation, the trend towards a transformation of society is also advancing; After the SPD, as the most important competitor, was eliminated in the previous year through the compulsory unification of the SPD and KPD to form the SED and the communist-oriented SED is now the dominant force in the country, important groundwork is also set in the economic field in 1947; Thus the German Economic Commission is set up, which controls the economic life of the Soviet zone centrally from East Berlin.

Since economic life in the western zones of Germany is being rebuilt on a capitalist basis, a uniform economic policy for Germany is increasingly becoming impossible. Offers by the USA to support Eastern European countries and the Soviet Zone with Marshall Plan aid are seen by the Soviet Union as Western propaganda; under pressure from the Soviets, Czechoslovakia is forced to withdraw its original offer to accept the aid. The differences become clear in Germany when the conference of the Prime Ministers of all four zones in Munich has to be broken off without any results, since the respective mandate of the occupying powers does not allow a constructive discussion of the paths to state unity for the participants. Under these circumstances, the amalgamation of the British and US American zones to form the bizone appears to be a further step towards division rather than a stage on the way to all-German unity.

Greece and Turkey

The Truman Doctrine mentioned refers specifically to the states of Greece and Turkey , to which Truman pledges aid amounting to 400 million dollars. Greece in particular is confronted internally with a civil war in which the government troops are fighting against communist insurgents, who are now also supported by their now communist neighbors Albania , Yugoslavia and Bulgaria .

Malta

Malta is granted self-government as a parliamentary democracy by Great Britain.

middle East

Iran

The influence of the Soviet Union in Iran, however, can be successfully suppressed; Here, directly on the Turkish border, with the help of Soviet troops, the Kurds and Azerbaijanis had their own states, but these are now being reintegrated into the Iranian state after the Soviet troops have withdrawn.

Palestine

UN partition plan for Palestine

In the meantime there are tensions in Palestine that have less to do with the formation of international blocs than with religious differences. In Palestine, the immigration of Jews has assumed increasingly dramatic proportions. The return of the refugees from the "Exodus" to Europe, even to the hated Germany, aroused international attention and, for many, documents the excessive demands placed on the British authorities with the problem. The question of how to proceed after the planned end of the British mandate in Palestine in May 1948 therefore also preoccupies the UN, which is working out a partition plan, which, however, is met with fierce criticism from both Jewish extremists and the Arab side. The attacks on the British occupation forces and the incidents between Jewish settlers and Palestinians are getting worse.

Asia

China

In the Republic of China , the advance of communist troops under Mao is slowly continuing without any dramatic breakthroughs in the civil war there.

India

British India is granted independence in August and divided into two independent states, India and Pakistan , under the Mountbatten Plan . Over ten million people are being resettled in the other country. The tensions between Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India immediately erupted over the question of which of the two new states Kashmir should belong to. The population of this principality is religiously mixed, but the Maharaja Hari Singh decides to join India, which calls on Muslim militias that, with the support of Pakistan, are active in western Kashmir. As a result, Indian troops land in the Kashmir Valley and the First Indo-Pakistani War breaks out , which finally ends - without a peace agreement - with the de facto partition of Kashmir.

Japan

In Japan, the post-war constitution is enacted under the American occupation government , which contains some unique formulations such as Article 1, the Tennō as the "symbol" of the state and Article 9, the renunciation of war.

Taiwan

A popular uprising begins with the February 28 incident .

Events

Politics and world events

January

George C. Marshall

February

Logo of the VVN-BdA

March

April

Friedrich IX. as crown prince

May

June

July

August

Flag of Pakistan
Flag of india

September

October

Territorial claims in Kashmir
  • October 16 : The military governments for the British and US zones of occupation present a definitive dismantling list ; compared to previous lists, it is significantly reduced with 682 listed establishments.
1947: UN flag

November

In Thailand, influential army officers have launched a coup against the civilian government of Thawan Thamrongnawasawat

December

economy

  • September: An extremely good wine is brought in in the Bordeaux wine-growing region. Especially in Saint-Émilion and Pomerol the wines are of fantastic quality.
  • Merger of the Maggi company with the Nestlé Group to form Nestlé-Alimentana AG, today's Nestlé AG

science and technology

Hughes H-4 Hercules

Culture

religion

Sports

Disasters

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

Born

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Day unknown

Died

January

Al Capone , around 1935

February

March

Henry Ford (1919)

April

Christian X. , 1925

May

Philipp Lenard (around 1905)

June

July

August

September

October

Max Planck , around 1930

November

Ernst Lubitsch , before 1920

December

Victor Emmanuel III , around 1905

Day unknown

Nobel Prizes

Web links

Commons : 1947  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files