Paul Auster

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Paul Auster (2010)

Paul Benjamin Auster [ pɔːl ˈbendʒəmɪn ˈɒ: stɚ ] (born  February 3, 1947 in Newark , New Jersey ) is an American writer . He also works as a director , critic , translator and editor . His works have been translated into over forty languages. Auster is married to the writer Siri Hustvedt for the second time .


Childhood and youth

Paul Auster was born on February 3, 1947 in Newark, New Jersey. His father Samuel's parents were Jewish immigrants and came from Stanislau in Galicia , today's Ivano-Frankivsk . His mother Queenie Bogat was also a descendant of Eastern European Jews from Ukraine and Poland. Auster's sister, Janet, was born on November 12, 1950. The siblings grew up in a medium-sized, educated middle class environment.

As early as 1959 Auster began to write poems and short essays. At the age of thirteen, when he was celebrating his bar mitzvah , he considered becoming a rabbi. His parents divorced during his senior year of high school. He and his sister lived with their mother after the separation. Even at an early age, Auster developed into a passionate book reader who regularly visited the city library. The novel Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky sparked in him a desire to become a writer himself.

Auster's second passion of those days was sport. His classmates envied him for his good performances in baseball, basketball and football. He was regularly sent to summer camp in northern New York, where he came into contact with many social outsiders.

In 1966 Auster finished high school and his mother was married for a second time. Auster demonstrated against the Vietnam War and was arrested once. He first met the writer and translator Lydia Davis , who would later become his first wife.

Life as an author

Book page signed by Paul Auster in the interview collection A Life in Words (2017)

Lydia Davis' father, an English professor, introduced Auster to French poets. During a month-long stay in Paris, Auster discovered his fondness for the French language and culture. He traveled to Italy, Spain and in the footsteps of James Joyce to Dublin. Back in Paris, he began an intensive study of poetry and wrote screenplays for silent films. The first drafts of novels began in 1968.

After returning to the United States, Auster studied English and comparative literature at Columbia University until 1970 . In August 1970, through the mediation of his stepfather, he hired for six months as a sailor for menial work on a tanker in the Gulf of Mexico.

From 1971 to 1974 he lived again in Paris. There he had an encounter with Samuel Beckett , which impressed him very much. He worked as a translator , English teacher and telephone operator for the New York Times . At the invitation of a film producer, he traveled to Mexico for a month as a ghostwriter for his wife.

Back in the USA, Auster accepted a teaching position at Columbia University, translated French authors into English part-time and worked as an editor of French literature for American publishers. At that time Auster worked almost exclusively as a poet and critic; his finances were bad. Together with his girlfriend Lydia Davis he moved into an apartment on Riverside Park with a view of the Hudson; the marriage took place on October 6, 1974. In the fall of 1975 Auster received a $ 5000 grant from the Ingram Merrill Foundation and wrote several one-act plays. In June 1977 his son was born. Under the pseudonym Paul Benjamin Auster wrote the detective novel Squeeze Play in 1978 .

The father died at the beginning of 1979 and Auster was able to secure his work as a writer with the inheritance. With the literary approach to the person of his father in The Invention of Solitude , the turn to the prose poet took place. His son became seriously ill with asthma; In the same year Auster and his first wife separated. He found a new apartment in Brooklyn. In February 1981 he met Siri Hustvedt , daughter of a Norwegian professor, at a poetry reading . The two became a couple, moved in together soon afterwards, and married in June 1982. Auster accepted a professorship at Princeton. In July 1987 the daughter Sophie was born; It was named after Sophie Fanshawe from the New York trilogy .

After the success of Stadt aus Glas , further literary works (prose, poetry, translations, scripts) appeared annually. The family moved into a house on Park Slope. Christmas 1990 the New York Times published Auggie Wren's Christmas story in its feature section , which was also read by Wayne Wang . After the first meeting between Auster and the director, the films Smoke and Blue in the Face were shot in 1994 . Auster began an artistic dialogue with Sophie Calle , which led to the joint book Double Game .

In 1998, Auster's son was found guilty of stealing $ 3,000 from a dead dealer's pocket and sentenced to five years suspended prison sentence. Another decisive experience in the recent past, which like many other biographical details found its way into Auster's literature, was a serious car accident in which Siri Hustvedt had to be cut out of the wreck.

Auster lives with his family in a Victorian house near Prospect Park in Brooklyn . He travels a lot, to readings in the USA and Europe.

Today Paul Auster is considered one of the leading American authors. He was Vice President of the PEN American Center for two terms (2005 to 2007) and served on its board of trustees for many years. It enjoys a special reputation in Germany and France, where its sales are higher than in the USA. According to the German news magazine Focus , Auster has earned around $ 20 million from the sale of his books.


Paul Auster (2008)

Auster became world famous for his series of experimental detective novels, which were collected as The New York Trilogy (1987). After the modest success of his prose debut The Invention of Solitude , City of Glass was initially rejected by seventeen publishers, but then made it onto the list of nominations for the Edgar Allan Poe Award . The trilogy contains the stories City of Glass - Stadt aus Glas (1985), which is about a crime writer who assumes different identities in the course of the story. Ghosts - Schlagschatten (1986) is about a detective named Blue who observes a man named Black for his client White. The Locked Room - Behind Closed Doors (1986) is the story of an author who worked up the life of another writer for a biography and it begins to live his life. At the beginning, each of the three novels looks like a classic crime story. The protagonists' observations and research do not lead to the investigation of a criminal case or the completion of an order, but ultimately reflect and illustrate their personal fate and lead to self-knowledge in the further course of the action. Oyster detective novels go beyond the usual framework of this genre. The form is used to represent and analyze existential problems and questions about human identity.

There are strong references in Paul Auster's work to the American transcendentalists of the 19th century, namely Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry David Thoreau . There are influences of post-structuralism in the sense of Jacques Derrida and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan .

Auster varied in his books the question of the relationship between natural order and the symbolic order of things. The transcendentalists believe in a separation of opposites, but at the same time also in the possibility of return to one another. Lacan's theory is that we perceive and structure the world through language. Our unconscious is also constituted by language, so that a fundamental deficiency in the perception of the world arises. Areas that can only be felt escape the linguistic definition. Oyster 's protagonists are often writers and seekers who feel at the mercy of the seeming disorder of the world and the chaos of events. The characters, and with them their creator , describe their return to orderly relationships. Finding and inventing structures, be it in the writing of imaginary books and biographies, be it in the construction and resolution of complex plot plots, defies chance as a fateful element. The author literally finds his salvation in language.

In his novel 4 3 2 1 (Rowohlt 2017) he artfully tells a life story in four variations - each according to the existential decisions made.

Recurring motifs

Self reference
There are cross-references in almost all of Oyster’s novels. The author himself sees his books as parts of the same map. Certain characters appear multiple times or are related to each other; Daniel Quinn, the protagonist from City of Glass , is, for example, the uncle of Jim Nashe from The Music of Chance . David Zimmer from The Book of Illusions is Marco Stanley Fogg's roommate. The name of Paul Benjamin, the main character in Smoke , is Auster's early pseudonym for his detective novel. The story Reisen im scriptorium is full of references to other books by Oyster.
Auster says that when he was fourteen he and a few friends were caught by the thunderstorm. One of the boys was struck by lightning and since that tragic day he has known that he owes his life to chance. Time and again, the characters in his books are hit by random, sometimes absurd twists of fate. The Red Notebook covers some random events that Auster collected.
Questions of identity
Many of Auster's characters are uprooted from their own history and go in search of their origins or try to fathom their being now. The novel Moon over Manhattan depicts the young Marco Stanley Fogg's search for meaning. Anna in In the Land of Last Things first has to completely break away from her old identity in order to be able to enter a new one.
In Moon over Manhattan , The Music of Chance or the Book of Illusions , the main characters have large amounts available at times, but deal with them in an unconventional way by using up their capital without increasing it significantly through additional income or the like. Counting down the remaining amount of money throughout history occurs several times.
The entire work is pervaded by anecdotes, some of which are of family origin and some of which come from popular biographies. For example the story of the philosopher who smokes his only manuscript during the war, which is used in In the Land of Last Things .
Lost father
In the story The Invention of Solitude , Auster tried to recognize and understand his own father after the death of his own father. As a child of divorce who lived with his mother, he lost direct contact at an early age. There are always distanced father figures, for example Peter Stillman Sr. in City of Glass .
Outsiders and eccentrics
Daniel Quinn loses contact with society during his surveillance and becomes homeless; William Gurevitch in Timbuktu is a tramp ; The millionaires Flower and Stone have a castle that was dismantled in England reassembled.
Spaces, as narrow and wide
There are protagonists who lock themselves in tiny spaces, others explore the partly unknown spaces of the landscape and the urban environment; Peter Stillman's walks through New York in the first part of the trilogy . In Journeys in the Scriptorium , an old man sits in a darkened room.
Conditions of writing
Many of Oyster’s characters are writers, some can be recognized as the author's alter ego. Repeatedly, novels and biographies of the main characters play an important role. Another repeating element is the book within the book.


In an interview for the Washington Post in December 2003, Auster named the authors who had the greatest influence on his work (order without rating): Charles Baudelaire , Samuel Beckett , Maurice Blanchot , Jorge Luis Borges , Albert Camus , Paul Celan , Louis- Ferdinand Céline , Miguel de Cervantes , Raymond Chandler , Jacques Derrida , Charles Dickens , Fjodor Dostojewski , William Faulkner , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Dashiell Hammett , Knut Hamsun , Nathaniel Hawthorne , James Joyce , Franz Kafka , Jacques Lacan , Stéphane Mallarmé , Herman Melville , Michel de Montaigne , Edgar Allan Poe , Arthur Rimbaud , William Shakespeare , Henry David Thoreau , Leo Tolstoi , Kurt Vonnegut , Ludwig Wittgenstein .

Paul Auster, September 2007

Cooperation with Sophie Calle

After Auster was inspired by the French conceptual artist Sophie Calle for the figure of Maria Turner in Leviathan, Calle returned the favor by realizing some of the art actions described there and finally asking the author for new instructions. Auster then wrote a multi-page concept for her, known as the Gotham Handbook , from which the joint artist's book Double-Game (English) / Doubles-Jeux (French) emerged in 2002 .

Work steps, extra-literary interests, political thinking

Writing habits

Paul Auster writes first thoughts on later books by hand with a pen or pencil in notebooks. He later types these notes on an Olympia typewriter that was built in the early 1960s. The author opposes computers. In 1996 he wrote a short homage that appeared as The Story of My Typewriter , illustrated by Sam Messer.

Movie, baseball and music

In addition to his books, Paul Auster worked on his own films.

Auster is a huge baseball fan, a passion that dates back to his early childhood. In the late 1970s, before he could become a successful writer, he developed a card game called Action Baseball , which was intended to recreate an entire baseball game. However, he couldn't find a publisher who wanted to publish the game. He later described the story of this and other early attempts revealingly in his autobiographical story From hand to mouth and had the playing cards, three one-act plays and his first novel Squeeze Play printed as an appendix.

In 2004, along with 16 other authors, he participated in the literary-musical project As Smart As We Are by the band One Ring Zero . The collaboration on his daughter's CD, released in 2006, is based on this contact: Sophie Auster (with One Ring Zero ). Three of the lyrics were penned by Auster, the rest are surrealist lyrics from the list of his own translations.

Political self-positioning and concept of democracy

On the occasion of the Corona crisis , Paul Auster gave an interview to Zeit in May 2020, in which he primarily expressed his assessment of the political situation in the USA. He feels disgust and shame about what has become of this country, how to handle the Corona crisis and "how the Republican Party and the monster at its head are using the crisis to continue to divide the country." Consequences of a 50-year shift to the right: All government action is seen as useless, if not diabolical and as a fraud against its own principles. “So the government refuses to help the nation”. When asked whether New York City understands that there could be a repeated corona risk in medically poorly supplied districts such as the Bronx or Queens , Auster emphasizes the urgency of learning from what is happening. Income, education and medical care are interdependent; many Americans could barely read. “A democracy suffers when its citizens are ignorant, vulnerable, and receptive to demagogues who only speak to emotions. Many people here do not learn what they need to analyze what they hear. "

About Donald Trump Auster says, "I can not stand the man. He has a vocabulary of 16 words, says every sentence twice and everyone is a lie. I call him number 45 or monster. ”Anyone who has children knows that two-year-olds see themselves in the center of the world, while five-year-olds are halfway sensible. “Number 45 is still two years old, in diapers, pounding the spoon on the high chair. We're watching a sick person. ”Trump's re-election is based solely on certain Republican dogmas . “They want the government to have an army to defend the country - and that's it. Otherwise: unrestrained capitalism. That is your bitter seriousness. "

The United States Constitution adds to the difficulties of uniting the country, says Auster. Their adoption in 1788 was a lazy compromise between the north and the slave owners in the south. It has poisoned the country to this day that blacks were counted as three-fifths of the population in order to get the South more representatives in the United States Congress . The role of the electoral college in the presidential election, which favors small states in the USA, currently ensures that the minority governs the majority. Equally absurd is the situation in the United States Senate , in which 580,000 Wyoming residents send two senators who have as much power as the two senators from California with almost 40 million residents. “The whole system is lopsided, it constantly throws us back.” Only a movement of the masses with an overwhelming majority would promise salvation.


“I live with my characters in fiction for an average of five years before I even start writing. They transform and spirit forms become real people. Then when the book is done, those characters are left and I just can't get rid of them. They stay in my memory like non-cancelable tenants or like ghosts that I cannot drive away and yet are very much alive. "

- Paul Auster

“But if you really want to achieve something, especially in art, you have to have the courage to go to inner places that you don't like to go to. Places within ourselves that cause fear and sadness. It has nothing to do with the outside world. There are writers who travel all over the world and research everything. And there are others like Emily Dickinson who never left their room. And yet she is a fabulous writer. "

- Paul Auster

“I didn't smoke for three days - and became a monster. But I didn't want to be someone who would hit people in the face or enter shop windows at some point. And so I decided to live a shorter life rather than being a bad person - and start all over again. "

“Your hands (...) They moved over your wife's bare skin and found their way into the last corner. That is where they are happiest, you can feel it, that is where they have always been happiest since the day you met them, because, to modify a line from a poem by George Oppen , some of the most beautiful places in the world are located on your wife's body. "




  • Unearth. Weston, Connecticut 1974.
  • Wall writing. The Figures, Berkeley 1976, ISBN 0-685-79213-7 .
  • Effigies. 1977.
  • Fragments from Cold. Parenthèse, Brewster / New York 1977.
  • Facing the music. Station Hill, Barrytown / New York 1980, ISBN 0-930794-29-X .
  • Disappearances. Overlook Press, Woodstock / New York 1988, ISBN 0-87951-328-4 .
    • Translation: From Disappearance. German by Werner Schmitz. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2001, ISBN 3-499-22721-5 (This is a selection of poems from the various volumes.).
  • Ground Work: Selected Poems and Essays. Faber & Faber, London 1990, ISBN 0-571-14153-6 .
  • Selected Poems. Faber & Faber, London 1998, ISBN 0-571-19509-1 .

Essays. Autobiography, letters and interview on the works


  • The Music of Chance , USA 1993; 98 min; R: Philip Haas (adaptation of his novel. Auster has a short guest appearance at the end of the film)
  • Smoke , USA 1995; 112 min; Screenplay: Auster; D: Wayne Wang (Oyster son Daniel can be seen as a young magazine thief.)
  • Blue in the Face , USA 1995
    • Script: Smoke & Blue in the Face: two films. Faber & Faber, London 1995, ISBN 0-571-17569-4 .
    • Translation: Smoke & Blue in the face: two films. German by Werner Schmitz. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1995, ISBN 3-499-13666-X .
  • Lulu on the Bridge , USA 1998; 103 min; Script & Director: Auster (Sophie Auster plays the role of Sonja Kleinman.)
  • The Center of the World , USA 2001; 88 min; Co-authors: Auster & Hustvedt; D: Wayne Wang, Miranda July .
  • Fluxus , HUN 2004; Original story: oyster; R: László Csáki (6-minute short film)
  • Le Carnet Rouge , F 2004; Screenplay: Auster; R: Mathieu Simonet (15-minute short film)
  • The Inner Life of Martin Frost , USA 2007; 94 min; Script & Director: Auster ( Sophie Auster can be seen in the role of Anna James .)
    • Screenplay: The Inner Life of Martin Frost Faber & Faber, London 2008, ISBN 0-571-23693-6 .
    • Translation: The Inner Life of Martin Frost. A film in German. by Werner Schmitz. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-24562-6 .


Editor and translator

Auster published a collection of true stories from US radio listeners based on a project he invented entitled I thought My Father was God (B&T Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8050-6714-9 ; Ich believed my father was God ; German by Thomas Gunkel , Volker Oldenburg . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2001, ISBN 978-3-498-00061-5 ). He has translated by Jean-Paul Sartre , Georges Simenon , Stéphane Mallarmé and Philippe Petit , among others .


  • 1979 NEA Fellowship for Poetry
  • 1984 Ingram Merrill Foundation Grant for prose
  • 1985 NEA Fellowship for prose
  • 1989 Prix ​​France Culture de Littérature Étrangère for the New York trilogy
  • 1990 Morton Dauwen Zabel Award , American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters
  • 1993 Prix ​​Médicis Étranger for Leviathan
  • 1996 Bodil Awards - Best American Film: Smoke
  • 1996 Independent Spirit Award - Best Screenplay Debut: Smoke
  • 1996 John William Corrington Award for Literary Excellence
  • 2006 Prince of Asturias Prize in the humanities category
  • 2007 Honorary Doctorate from the University of Liège
  • 2007 Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
  • 2011 honorary doctorate from the University of Copenhagen

He has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2003 and of the American Academy of Arts and Letters since 2006 .


  • Hans Joachim Alpers , Werner Fuchs , Ronald M. Hahn , Jörg M. Munsonius, Hermann Urbanek: Lexicon of Fantasy Literature. Fantasy Productions, Erkrath 2005, ISBN 3-89064-566-6 , p. 51.
  • Dennis Barone (Ed.): Beyond the Red Notebook. Essays on Paul Auster (Penn Studies in Contemporary American Fiction). 2nd ed. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pa. 1996, ISBN 0-8122-3317-4 .
  • Gerard de Cortanze (text), James Rudnick (photos): Paul Austers New York (“Le New York de Paul Auster”). Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1998, ISBN 3-8067-2826-7 .
  • John Clute : Auster, Paul. In: John Clute, Peter Nicholls : The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction . 3rd edition (online edition).
  • Christian Eilers: Paul Auster's autobiographical works: Stations of a writing career . Winter, Heidelberg 2019. (= American Studies - A Monograph Series; 301). ISBN 978-3-8253-6954-5 (plus dissertation, University of Mainz 2018).
  • Ulrich Greiner: Promised Land. American writers on America . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1997, ISBN 3-498-02480-9 .
  • Bernd Herzogenrath: An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Rodopi, Amsterdam 1999, ISBN 90-420-0453-3 (also dissertation, University of Aachen 1997).
  • Anne M. Holzapfel: The New York trilogy. Whodunit? Tracking the structure of Paul Auster's anti-detective novels . Lang, Frankfurt / M. 1996. (= Studies in German and English; 11) ISBN 3-631-49798-9 .
  • Beate Hötger: Identity in Paul Auster's cinematic work . Lang, Frankfurt / M. 2002. (= European university publications; series 30, 84) ISBN 3-631-38470-X .
  • Heiko Jakubzik: Paul Auster and the classics of the American Renaissance . University of Heidelberg 2002, DNB 983735492 (Dissertation University of Heidelberg 2002, VIII, 366 pages, illustrated full text online PDF, free of charge, 374 pages, 2.7 MB).
  • Martin Klepper: Pynchon , Auster, DeLillo . American postmodernism between play and reconstruction . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1996. (= North American Studies; 3) ISBN 3-593-35618-X .
  • Katarzyna Kuczma: Remembering Oneself, Charting the Other - Memory as Intertextuality and Self-Reflexivity in the Works of Paul Auster . Trier: WVT. 2012, ISBN 3-86821-362-7 .
  • Andreas Lienkamp , Wolfgang Werth, Christian Berkemeier (eds.): "As strange as the world". Approaches to the work of the narrator and filmmaker Paul Auster . LIT-Verlag, Münster 2002, ISBN 3-8258-6046-9 .
  • Werner Reinhart: Picaresque novels of the 80s. Ronald Reagan and the Renaissance of Political Storytelling in the United States. ( Field , Oyster, Boyle , Irving , Kennedy, Pynchon) . Narr, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-8233-5652-6 (plus habilitation thesis, University of Mannheim 2001).
  • Simone Sauer-Kretschmer, Christian A. Bachmann (Ed.): Paul Auster. Contributions to work and poetics. Bachmann, Essen 2012, ISBN 978-3-941030-16-9 .
  • Steffen Sielaff: The postmodern odyssey. Space and subject in Paul Auster's novels . Dissertation, University of Berlin 2004.
  • Carsten Springer: Crises. The works of Paul Auster . Lang, Frankfurt / M. 2001. (= American culture; 1) ISBN 3-631-37487-9 .
  • Carsten Springer: A Paul Auster Sourcebook . Lang, Frankfurt / M. 2001, ISBN 3-631-37450-X .


  • Paul Auster - My Life (ZDF, 2006. 42-minute documentary portrait by Victor Grandits and Jessica Krauss)
  • Paul Auster - What if (ARTE, 2018. 54-minute documentary portrait by Sabine Lidl)

Web links

Commons : Paul Auster  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Interviews and encounters

Readings and original tones

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Author's page at Rowohlt-Verlag
  2. according to an event announcement in “Zurich reads” from October 2014, where PA read himself
  3. Joel Shatzky, Michael Taub: Contemporary Jewish-American novelists A bio-critical Sourcebook . Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997, ISBN 978-0-313-29462-4 , p. 13.
  4. Paul Auster: Leben und Werk, in: Du 841, November 2013, p. 35
  5. From hand to mouth, p. 62ff
  6. From hand to mouth, pp. 91ff
  7. From hand to mouth, p. 119
  8. Paul Auster: Leben und Werk, in: Du 841, November 2013, p. 35
  9. From hand to mouth, p. 149
  10. Paul Auster: Leben und Werk, in: Du 841, November 2013, p. 35
  11. Paul Auster: Life and Work . In: Du 841 , November 2013, p. 35
  13. Focus , No. 06/19, February 2, 2019: "The Eternal Daughter" Article by Sebastian Goddemeier about Sophie Auster , musician and daughter of Paul Auster, on the subject of "famous parents". Focus Magazin Verlag GmbH, Munich. P. 82
  14. Gabriele von Armin: Paul Auster: "4321". About a society in turmoil . Review in Deutschlandradio on January 31, 2017, accessed January 31, 2017.
  15. ^ To coincidence: Interview with Paul Auster in Die Kunst des Hungers , pp. 205ff., P. 254 as well as Why write , in Die Kunst des Hungers , SS 259
  16. On money: Interview with Paul Auster in The Art of Hunger , p. 212f.
  17. To clearing: Interview with Paul Auster in Die Kunst des Hungers , p. 243f.
  18. Off the Page: Paul Auster, December 16, 2003
  19. Evija Trofimova: Paul Auster's Writing Machine A Thing to Write With . Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2014, ISBN 978-1-62356-081-2 , p. 72.
  20. Biography and interview in: Gérard de Cortanze, Die Einsamkeit des Labyrinths , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1999.
  21. The Invention of Solitude , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993.
  22. From hand to mouth , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1999.
  23. Smoke.Blue in the Face , Two films, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1995th
  24. Kenneth Kreutzer: Paul Auster: A Brief Biography , on
  25. As Smart As We Are , audio CD and book, Soft Skull Press 2004, ISBN 978-1-932360-42-4
  26. ^ Sophie Auster , audio CD (English & French), label: Naive (Indigo).
  27. We were never a democracy. The New York writer Paul Auster on the always offended President Trump, about his hard hit city, the weaknesses of American democracy - and the hope for a new beginning. Interview with Klaus Brinkbäumer in Die Zeit , May 20, 2020, p. 2.
  28. Paul Auster in an interview with Michael Naumann . In: Die Zeit , No. 6/2007.
  29. Paul Auster in an interview with Christiane Korff. In: Zeitmagazin , No. 18/1998.
  30. Focus , 9/2009 ("Sprüche der Woche")
  31. Winter Journal , page 185, / 6
  32. ^ For the German editions: author page at Rowohlt-Verlag
  33. Autobiographical article in the New York Times about his 1968 book Invisible
  34. ISBN 978-0-571-30369-4 review ( memento of November 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on
  35. page at Fischer publishers
  36. The Music of Chance in the Internet Movie Database (English)
  37. Smoke in the Internet Movie Database (English)
  38. IMDB for the film
  39. IMDB for the film
  40. IT and Production: Power of Desire. In: Archived from the original on April 5, 2015 ; accessed on March 18, 2016 .
  41. Fluxus in the Internet Movie Database (English)
  42. IMDB for the film
  43. IMDB for the film
  44. Interview with Stephen Rodefer 1985, printed in: Die Kunst des Hungers, p. 189 f
  45. Webcast of the celebration ; Note in A Life in Words , p. 11
  46. Book of Members 1780 – present, Chapter A. (PDF; 945 kB) In: American Academy of Arts and Sciences ( Retrieved January 10, 2019 .
  47. Academy Members. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed January 10, 2019 .