Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo [ ˈxorxe ˈlwis ˈβorxes ] ( audio ) (born August 24, 1899 in Buenos Aires , † June 14, 1986 in Geneva ) was an Argentine writer and librarian . Borges wrote a variety of fantastic stories and poems and is considered to be a co-founder of magical realism .
Borges was influenced literarily by Macedonio Fernández , Rafael Cansinos Assens , English-language literature ( Walt Whitman , Gilbert Keith Chesterton , George Bernard Shaw , Thomas De Quincey ), Franz Kafka and Daoism . Borges obtained his philosophical views, which are indebted to epistemological idealism and are reflected in his stories and essays, primarily from George Berkeley , David Hume and Arthur Schopenhauer . He had a lifelong friendship with the Argentine writer Adolfo Bioy Casares . Borges was a co-founder of the “Latin American Fantasticism ” and one of the central authors of the magazine Sur , founded by Victoria Ocampo and her sister Silvina in 1931 , which was dedicated to the cultural exchange between Latin America and Europe .
Jorge Luis Borges came from a wealthy Argentine family and grew up in Buenos Aires. His father, Jorge Guillermo Borges (1873-1938), was a lawyer, lecturer in philosophy and psychology and author of a novel ( The Caudillo , Palma de Mallorca 1921), various essays and stories, a drama, a translation of Edward Fitzgerald's adaptation of the quatrains by Omar Chayyām and several poems. English and Spanish were spoken at home (the father's mother came from Staffordshire ), which is why Jorge Luis Borges also read English books as a child (including reading Don Quixote first in English) from his father's library, which comprised several thousand volumes. His mother, Leonor Acevedo de Borges (née Acevedo Haedo, 1876–1975), was born in Uruguay and is also bilingual: she translated works by Katherine Mansfield , Herbert Read and William Saroyan from English into Spanish. From the beginning she promoted the artistic interests of her children. Jorge's sister, Norah Borges, became an important painter.
From 1914 Borges spent seven years in Switzerland because his father had an eye operation there. Jorge Luis learned German, Latin and French at the Collège Calvin in Geneva . He then studied in Spain, where he came into contact with some contemporary poets. At the age of about fifty he was completely blind , but this did not prevent him, with the help of friends, from continuing to work as a writer for several decades. From 1955 Borges was director of the Argentine National Library .
After his first marriage failed just a few years later, Borges married his long-time secretary and travel companion, the author María Kodama, shortly before his death . Jorge Luis Borges died on June 14, 1986 in Geneva at the age of 86; his grave is on the Cimetière des Rois . The gravestone is adorned with a verse from the old English poem The Battle of Maldon : and ne forhtedon na (line 21), which can be translated as "... and by no means fearful". On the back there is an excerpt from the Völsunga saga : "Hann tekr sverðit Gram ok leggr i meðal þeira bert", ("... he takes the sword Gram and places it bare between them").
Borges had a comprehensive education in literature and philosophy . Among other things, he was familiar with the sagas of Scandinavia, the Old English language and the Kenningar , the comprehensive works of Thomas De Quinceys and Ralph Waldo Emerson , the poetry and philosophy of antiquity, the German Middle Ages , the old Far East and the Kabbalah .
He had a particular fondness for metaphysical literature, which he regarded as "a branch of fantastic literature ". Borges was familiar with the works of German philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer or Oswald Spengler , which he read in the German original. Familiarity with the literary tradition of many cultures is reflected in the diversity of his own literary work.
Jorge Luis Borges became known to a larger audience through his fantastic stories. He also wrote numerous poems and essays, edited catalogs of books and collections of quotations, worked for magazines and worked as a translator. He has also published works under the pseudonyms B. Suarez Lynch and H. Bustos Domecq , which were created in collaboration with Adolfo Bioy Casares .
Borges always chose a short form for his works: few of his texts are longer than ten or fifteen pages. His prose is always dense, elected, apt, stylistically elegant and without any superfluous word. He advocated the theory that entertainment literature can also be of literary value. He appreciated Arthur C. Doyle's crime novels as well as William Shakespeare's dramas.
Although many of his works are set in Argentina and there are repeated references to events and people in Argentine history, Borges strictly rejected regionalism in literature: a writer must be able to open up the entire universe. This attitude is also reflected in Borges' preoccupation with world literature, the focus of which was on European and North American authors, but which also included works from other cultures, such as the Far East.
A constant theme at Borges is infinity. In The Immortal (El inmortal) z. For example, the journey to the troglodytes leads the narrator to the realization that eternal life means the eternal return of the same and with it the extreme boredom and the paralysis of all vitality. The introduction to the story is the story of the acquisition of an antiquarian copy of the first edition of Pope's Homer translation by Princess Lucinge - probably an allusion to Princess Liliane Marie Mathilde, called Baba, de Faucigny-Lucinge, nee. Beaumont, baronne d'Erlanger (1902–1945) , who ran a famous salon and whose husband Jean-Louis Charles Marie Francois Guy Prince Faucigny-Lucinge was a grandson of Charles Ferdinand, Duc de Berry (1778–1820), and thus the memory evoked in the bibliophile Jean de Valois, duc de Berry . The manuscript of the story is said to have been found in the last of the six volumes of this edition, which the princess bought from the antiquarian Cartaphilus, who was buried on the island of Ios like Homer in Smyrna, the alleged birthplace of Homer, shortly before his death. Borges is reflected in Homer, who comes across in the story in various incarnations, including one of the troglodytes and Cartaphilus.
But he was not only concerned with infinity, but also with the phenomenon of time and how the human mind and human feeling perceive, interpret and deal with it. Another reason why he was very interested in traditions from all parts of the world, because he found them timeless and wanted to have recognized in all of them together the longing for eternity. He also shared various idealistic and mythical views of various philosophers and thinkers, B. the idea that all people are one genius who has written and writes the great works of world literature; or that the act of procreation connects us with our ancestors because it is an act that humans have committed through all time, a kind of myth that separates us from the illusion of time.
Another recurring theme are books that Borges repeatedly made the main characters in his stories (e.g. in The Library of Babel , The Sand Book , Examining the Work of Herbert Quain , The Path to Amotásim , or Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius ). These books often emanate a fantastic power that shakes the foundations of reality, changes it or creates realities of its own. At the same time, Borges' stories are populated by bibliophile and well-read Hommes de lettres , who deal with or write obscure writings or encyclopedias. The pleasure of quoting or mentioning real and fictional books, including the location and date of publication, is also a characteristic of many of Borges' stories. Overall, fiction as a theme plays a major role for him: “Borges is obsessed with the idea that the human mind created a world of thought systems“ out of nothing ”, which now continues to create further thought systems and poetic fictions to infinity. "( Marianne Kesting )
Borges is considered a forerunner of postmodernism and is one of the most cited authors in poststructuralism . One of Borges' favorite stylistic devices is deception, playing with the reader, mixing reality and surreality . In the narratives, on the one hand, real people, events, etc. are named and quoted, but on the other hand, non-real, often impossible or magical people, objects, places or events are treated like realities. A striking example of this is the story Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius . This stylistic device often embarrasses Borges commentators, because it is often impossible to prove whether, for example, a writer mentioned was invented by Borges or whether he actually existed but was only known to Borges himself. According to Angel Flores, Borges' Universal History of Infamy (Historia universal de la infamia) from 1935 marked the birth of magical realism in Latin American literature.
Borges' literary essays give a comprehensive and original insight into world literature . The form of the lyric is heavily based on ancient models, and in the early poems also borrowed from the tango or the milonga .
The literary scholars Gisbert Haefs and Fritz Arnold classify Borges as one of the most important writers of the 20th century, without whom modern Hispanic literature, magical realism and the work of authors such as Alejo Carpentier , Gabriel García Márquez or Mario Vargas Llosa would be inconceivable. Thanks to his extensive knowledge of non-Spanish authors, Borges broke out of the “post-romantic solidification” of Spanish-language literature and enriched it with new techniques, topics and content.
Borges was of crucial importance for both magical realism and the formal structures of the narrators and works of postmodernism. While the stories from The Universal History of Malice were recognized and described early on by some South American authors as the first works of magical realism, it is now agreed that Borges, especially in his fictions , anticipated many elements of postmodern narration.
The story The Library of Babel inspired Umberto Eco to design the monastery library in the novel The Name of the Rose . The blind librarian and adversary Williams von Baskerville, Jorge von Burgos, is a throwback to Jorge Luis Borges. Likewise, the plot of Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius has been adopted in Eco's Das Foucault Pendulum , where a fictional world suddenly intervenes in reality. Eco also wrote the following quote: “Although they differ so much in style, two authors show us a picture of the next millennium: Joyce and Borges.” Michael Ende was also familiar with Borges' work: his short story Der Korridor des Borromeo Colmi ist subtitled as a tribute to Borges. Daniel Kehlmann identifies Borges as one of his favorite writers in his Göttingen poetics lectures ( These very serious jokes ), also because he recognizes the merging of reality and fiction in his own work.
In his novel Selige Zeiten, Brüchige Welt , Robert Menasse describes the author Borges as follows: Leo (...) gave the impression of a man who was born an old man straight away.
Borges never considered himself a political writer. However, many of his works contain allusions to political events in his home country. Borges was an opponent of Juan Perón . His conservative, sometimes somewhat anti-democratic political orientation can also be explained by the fact that Perón came back to power for the second time after 1946 through a democratic election in 1973 after he had been overthrown for the first time in 1955; Also, during Borges' youth in Argentina, it was common for elections to be manipulated on a large scale by street gangs who captured or threatened voters - especially in Buenos Aires; some of his stories mention this work as a last chance for gauchos who killed someone in a knife duel and were subsequently arrested. If they agreed to work for the “election teams”, they were often released immediately.
- La biblioteca de Babel (German The Library of Babel ) (1941), in: Ficciones (German fictions )
- Examen de la obra de Herbert Quain (German examination of the work of Herbert Quain ) (1941), in: Ficciones (German fictions)
- Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius (German Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius ) (1944), in: Ficciones (German fictions)
- Las ruinas circulares (German: The circular ruins) (1944), in: Ficciones (German fictions)
- El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (Eng. The garden of paths that branch out) (1944), in: Ficciones (Eng. Fictions)
- El aleph (German Das Aleph ) (1949), in: El Aleph (German Das Aleph)
- El sur (German: The South ) (1953), in: Ficciones (German fictions)
- 1935: Historia universal de la infamia (German universal history of wickedness ), stories
- 1944: Ficciones (German fictions ), short stories
- 1949/1952: El Aleph (dt. The Aleph), stories
- 1960: El hacedor (Ger. Borges and I), poems and prose
- 1970: El informe de Brodie (German David Brodies report, 1972), short stories
- 1975: El libro de arena (German The Sand Book, 1977), short stories
- 1941: Antología de la literatura fantástica (German anthology of fantastic literature) with Adolfo Bioy Casares
- 1967: Introducción a la literatura norteamericana (German introduction to US literature )
- 1977: ¿Qué es el Budismo? (Eng. What is Buddhism ?) with Alicia Jurado
Chronological overview of works
- around 1920: Zincer's cards (narrative) - unpublished, lost
- 1923: Buenos Aires with fervor (poetry)
- 1925: Moon opposite (poetry)
- 1929: St. Martin's notebook (poetry)
- 1930: Evaristo Carriego (essays)
- 1932/1935: Discussions (essays)
- 1935/1961: universal history of infamy (prose)
- 1936: History of Eternity (prose)
- 1936/1939: Of books and authors (essays)
- 1941: The Garden of Paths That Branch (prose)
- 1941/1952: Inquisitions (essays)
- 1942: Six tasks for Don Isidoro Parodi (prose, together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1942: The Relentless Memory (short story)
- 1943/1945: A model for death (prose, together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1944: Tricks (prose)
- 1945: Two memorable fantasies (prose, together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1949/1952: The Aleph (prose)
- 1957/1968: Unicorn, Sphinx and Salamander - Handbook of Fantastic Zoology (anthology, edited together with Margarita Guerrero)
- 1960: Borges and I (prose and poetry)
- Museum (poetry and prose)
- The Book of Heaven and Hell (anthology, edited together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1964: The other, the same (lyric)
- 1965: For the six strings (poetry)
- 1967/1968: The poet's craft (Harvard lectures)
- 1967: Chronicles of Bustos Domecq (prose, together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1969: In Praise of the Shadow (poetry)
- 1970: David Brodie's report (prose)
- 1972: The gold of the tigers (lyrics)
- 1975: The Sand Book (prose)
- The deep rose (lyric)
- Forewords (essays)
- The Library of Babel (anthology series with 30 volumes of fantastic literature, forewords by Borges)
- 1976: The iron coin (poetry)
- The Book of Dreams (anthology, edited together with Roy Bartholomew)
- 1977: New stories from Bustos Domecq (prose, together with Adolfo Bioy Casares)
- 1979: Borges orally (essays)
- 1980: Six Nights (Poetry)
- 1980/1983: Shakespeare's memory (prose)
- 1981: the number (lyric)
- 1982: Nine Dantesque Essays (Essays)
- 1985: The Conspirators (lyric)
- 1988: Personal Library (Essays)
Publications in German
The German edition in paperbacks was published by S. Fischer:
- Volume 1: Moon opposite (poems 1923–1929. Contains the volumes of poetry "Buenos Aires in fervor", "Moon opposite" and "Notebook of St. Martin".)
- Volume 2: Kabbalah and Tango (Essays 1930–1932. Contains an expanded version of the volume Evarristo Carriego and a revised version of the essay volume “Discussions”.)
- Volume 3: Malice and Eternity (Stories and essays 1935–1936. Contains "The Universal History of Malice" and "The History of Eternity".)
- Volume 4: Of Books and Authors (Reviews 1936–1939. Gathers the articles - mostly author vitas, reviews and literary sketches - that Borges wrote for the weekly newspaper "El Hogar".)
- Volume 5: Fictions (Stories 1939–1944. Contains "The garden of paths that branch out" and "Tricks".)
- Volume 6: Das Aleph (Stories 1944–1952. Contains the volume of stories "Das Aleph".)
- Volume 7: Inquisitions (Essays 1944–1952. Contains the volume of essays “Inquisitions” - formerly “Interviews”.)
- Volume 8: Unicorn, Sphinx and Salamander (With Margarita Guerrero - Handbook of Mythical Creatures and Fairy Tale Characters.)
- Volume 9: Borges and I (prose and poems. Composed of various literary sketches, stories and lyrical sentences that were originally published under the title "El Hacedor".)
- Volume 10: The cyclical night (poems 1934–1965. Contains “The other, the same” and “For the six strings”.)
- Volume 11: The Book of Heaven and Hell (anthology with Adolfo Bioy Casares on the subject of the various literary views of heaven and hell.)
- Volume 12: Shadows and Tigers (Poems 1966–1972. Contains “Praise of the Shadows” and “The Gold of the Tigers”.)
- Volume 13: Mirror and Mask (Stories 1969–1985. Contains "David Brodie's Report", "The Sand Book" and "Shakespeare's Memory".)
- Volume 14: Rose and Coin (poems 1973–1977. Contains “The deep rose”, “The iron coin” and “The story of the night”.)
- Volume 15: Book of Dreams (anthology with Roy Bartholomew on dreams in selected world literature from the Gilgamesh epic to Kafka.)
- Volume 16: The Last Voyage of Odysseus (Essays 1979–1982. Contains “Borges, oral”, “Seven Nights” and “Nine Dantesque Essays”.)
- Volume 17: Possession of Yesterday (Poems 1981–1985. Contains “The Numbers” and “The Conspirators”.)
- Volume 18: Personal Library (Forewords and Reviews 1975–1985. Contains "Forewords" and "Personal Library")
- Volume 19: Mord nach Modell (crime stories, prose and a detective novel, all with Adolfo Bioy Casares . Contains “Six tasks for Don Isidro Parodi”, “Two memorable fantasies” and “Murder after a model”. The first two books appeared under the Pseudonym H. Bustos Domecq, the novel under B. Suárez Lynch.)
- Volume 20: Twilight and Pomp (prose with Adolfo Bioy Casares . Contains "Chronicles of Bustos Domecq" and "New stories of Bustos Domecq". Both published with the pseudonym of the title.)
The following were also published by S. Fischer:
- Read Borges (Contains “Autobiographical Essay” by Jorge Luis Borges, “The Abolished Time or the Reader as Author” by Fritz Rudolf Fries , “The Archer, the Arrow and the Disc” by Octavio Paz , “Borges or the Seer” by Marguerite Yourcenar, "Daten zu Leben und Werk" by Gisbert Haefs and an "Epilog" by Jorge Luis Borges. S. Fischer, 2001, ISBN 3-596-11009-2 )
- The Poet's Craft (From the lectures Borges gave at Harvard University). S. Fischer, 2008, ISBN 978-3-596-17501-7 )
Other important German publications and compilations:
- Labyrinths (Selected stories from "Fiktionen" and "Das Aleph". Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1962, ISBN 3-423-05306-2 )
- The One and the Many: Essays on Literature (Hanser Verlag 1966)
- Praise of the shadow (Hanser Verlag, 1978, ISBN 3-446-11373-8 )
- Complete short stories (Hanser Verlag, 1980, ISBN 3-446-10928-5 )
- The story of the night (Hanser Verlag, 1984, ISBN 3-446-14150-2 )
- The eternal race between Achilles and the turtle (Essays, Gustav Kiepenheuer Bücherei Nr.63)
- The Library of Babel (Contains 6 stories from "Fictions", "The Aleph" and "David Brodie's Report". Reclam-Verlag, 1986, ISBN 3-15-009497-6 )
- The two labyrinths (reading book. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-423-10590-9 )
- Five-minute poems (Hanser Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-446-19712-5 )
- The man in the mirror of his books. A biography (Ullstein Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-548-26559-6 )
- Reading is thinking with a foreign brain (with Osvaldo Ferrari, Arche Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-7160-2102-4 )
- Mythical animals from Oaxaca (The story "Zoologiá Fantástica", illustrated by Francisco Toledo, Swiridoff 2001, ISBN 3-934350-41-0 )
- A new refutation of time and 66 other essays (Eichborn, 2003, Die Andere Bibliothek series , ISBN 3-8218-4738-7 )
- In the labyrinth (reader with stories, essays and poems. S. Fischer Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-596-50632-8 )
- An Eternal Dream (collection of essays, with texts not previously published in German. Hanser Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-446-23547-2 )
- The Infinite Library (Selected Stories. S. Fischer Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-596-51158-7 )
The complete works of Borges were edited by Gisbert Haefs and Fritz Arnold and translated into German for this purpose. The hardback edition was published by Hanser Verlag (the paperback edition by S. Fischer Verlag ).
A series of fantastic literature compiled by Borges appeared under the title The Library of Babel . The series with 30 volumes was published in German from 1983 by Edition Weitbrecht and re-edited by the Gutenberg Book Guild from 2007 .
Translations into Spanish
- 1906: Oscar Wilde : The Happy Prince
- 1936: Virginia Woolf : Jacob's Room
- 1937: Virginia Woolf: Orlando
- 1941: William Faulkner : Wilde Palmen und Der Strom
- 1941: Henri Michaux : A barbarian on the move
- 1943: Franz Kafka : The Metamorphosis
- 1970: Walt Whitman : Blades of Grass
- 1969: Invasion ( Invasión , directed by Hugo Santiago)
- 1969: The strategy of the spider ( La strategia del ragno , directed by Bernardo Bertolucci )
- 1991: The South ( El sur , directed by Carlos Saura )
- 1992: The death and the compass , directed by Alex Cox
- 1944: Grand Prize of the Argentine Writers' Union (first prize winner)
- 1956: First National Prize for Literature, Argentina
- 1961: Formentor International Publisher Award (together with Samuel Beckett); Commendatore, Italy
- 1962: Commandeur de l'Ordre des Lettres et des Arts
- 1965: Order of Knighthood of the Very Distinguished Order of the British Empire
- 1965: Order of El Sol del Perú
- 1966: Madonnina, Milan
- 1968: Elected honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 1970: Matarazzo Sobrinho, Brazil (Inter-American Literature Prize)
- 1971: Jerusalem Prize for the freedom of the individual in society
- 1971: Elected honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
- 1972: Honorary Doctorate from Michigan State University
- 1973: Alfonso Reyes Prize
- 1976: Order of Bernardo O'Higgins
- 1979: Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 1979: World Fantasy Award for life's work
- 1980: Balzan Prize for Philology, Linguistics and Literary Criticism, presented by the Italian President Sandro Pertini
- 1980: Premio Cervantes , Spain (with Gerardo Diego)
- 1980: Prix mondial Cino Del Duca , France
- 1983: Member of the French Legion of Honor
- On May 23, 2000 the asteroid (11510) Borges was named after him
- Heinz Flügel : The world - a labyrinth. Encounter with the poet Jorge Luis Borges. Berlin 1967.
- Ernst E. Behle: Jorge Luis Borges. An introduction to his life and work. (= European university publications. Series 24, Volume 2). Peter Lang, Bern 1972, ISBN 3-261-00700-1 .
- John Michael Cohen: Jorge Luis Borges. (= The modern writers series). Oliver & Boyd 1973, Edinburgh, ISBN 0-05-002625-9 .
- Karl-Josef Niggestich: Metaphors and polarity in the world view Jorge Luis Borges. (= Goppinger Academic Contributions. No. 98). Kümmerle 1976, ISBN 3-87452-317-9 .
- Yves Bonnefoy : homage to Jorge Luis Borges. In: Accents. H. 6, December 1988, focus: Borges, Philippe Jaccottet , Susan Sontag , pp. 486–496 of the Jg. Übers. Friedhelm Kemp
- Gabriela Massuh: Borges: an aesthetic of silence. Erlangen 1979, ISBN 3-7896-0125-X .
- Borges reading. With contributions by Borges, Fritz Rudolf Fries , Octavio Paz , Marguerite Yourcenar and Gisbert Haefs . Fischer, Frankfurt 1991, ISBN 3-596-11009-2 .
- Joachim A. Hagen: The fantastic with Jorge Luis Borges. Tectum Verlag 1996, only on microfiche, ISBN 3-89608-810-6 .
- Alfonso de Toro: El productor 'rizomórfico' y el lector como "detective literario": la aventura de los signos o la postmodernidad del discurso borgesiano (intertextualidad-palimpsesto-rizoma-deconstrucción). In: Karl Alfred Blüher , Alfonso de Toro (ed.). Jorge Luis Borges: Procedimientos literarios y bases epistemológicas. Vervuert, Frankfurt 1992, pp. 145-184.
- Alfonso de Toro: Reality as a journey through the characters: Cervantes , Borges and Michel Foucault . In: Journal for Aesthetics and General Art History . 2, 39, 1994, pp. 243-259.
- Christian Nicaise: La violence de Jorge Luis Borges ou: L'épreuve du photomontage. L'Instant perpétuel, Rouen 1995, ISBN 2-905598-38-7 .
- Alfonso de Toro: Reflections on the type of text 'Fantastic' or: Borges and the negation of the fantastic. Rhizomatic simulation, 'directed chance' and semiotic scandal? In: Elmar Schenkel , Ludwig Stockinger, Wolfgang Friedrich Schwarz, Alfonso de Toro (eds.): The magic typewriter. Essays on the tradition of the fantastic in literature. Vervuert, Frankfurt 1998, pp. 11-58.
- Adelheid Hanke-Schaefer: Jorge Luis Borges for an introduction. Junius, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-88506-987-3 .
- Michael Maar among others: Jorge Luis Borges for the hundredth. In: Accents . H. 4, August 1999, ISBN 3-446-23219-2 , , pp. 289-384 of the year
- Alfonso de Toro: Reflections sobre el subgénero fantástico. La literatura virtual o Borges y la negación de lo fantástico. Simulación rizomática. Azar dirigido y skándalon semiótico. In: Studi di Litteratura Ispano-Americana. 33, 2001, pp. 105-151.
- Heinz Schlaffer : Borges . S. Fischer, Frankfurt 2001, ISBN 3-596-11709-7 .
- Susanne Zepp: Jorge Luis Borges and the skepticism. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-515-08343-X .
- Daniella Séville-Fürnkäs: Poetic Relocalizations: Jorge Luis Borges' early poetry . Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2004, ISBN 3-631-52029-8 .
- Jean-Clet Martin: Borges. Une biography de l'éternité. L'éclat, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-84162-131-6 .
- Adelheid Hanke-Schaefer: Lament for Germany: Echo of German voices in the work of Jorge Luis Borges. Walter Frey Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-938944-05-9 .
- Victor A. Ferretti: Boreal Validity. On the northerly, space and the imaginary in the work of Jorge Luis Borges. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56638-1 . (At the same time dissertation at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel 2006)
- Alexander HD Bothe: Aesthetic Transcendence and Speculative Metaphysics of Jorge Luis Borges. Attempt a philological and philosophical dialogue with theology. Saarbrücken 2007, ISBN 978-3-8364-3161-3 .
- Alfonso de Toro: Borges Infinitio. Borgesvirtual. Pensamiento y Saber en los Siglos XX y XXI . Georg Olms, Hildesheim 2008.
- Enrique Hernández-D'Jesús: The other face of Borges / El otro semblante de Borges. Photo book with an essay by Issa Makhlouf and a table talk with Jorge Luis Borges, in German, French and Spanish. Edition Delta 2010, ISBN 978-3-927648-32-6 .
- Leopold Federmair: North-South. <about Jorge Luis Borges>. In: Ders: Buenos Aires, Word and Flesh. Twelve essays . Klever-Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-902665-22-5 , pp. 25-43.
- Christine Rath: Shameful history: Metahistorical reflections in the work of Jorge Luis Borges. Transcript, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8376-1766-5 .
- Gonzalo Salvador: Borges y la Biblia . Vervuert, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-86527-621-6 .
- Norman Thomas Di Giovanni: Georgie & Elsa: Jorge Luis Borges and his wife; the untold story. Friday Project, London 2014, ISBN 978-0-00-752437-2 .
- Emil Cioran : Contradicting Contours. Suhrkamp, 1986. ISBN 978-3-518-01898-9 . (Originally: Exercises d'admiration, Gallimard, Paris)
- Literature by and about Jorge Luis Borges in the catalog of the Ibero-American Institute of Prussian Cultural Heritage, Berlin
- Literature by and about Jorge Luis Borges in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Jorge Luis Borges in the German Digital Library
- Literature by and about Jorge Luis Borges in the catalog of the library of the Instituto Cervantes in Germany
- Jorge Luis Borges in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Jorge Luis Borges in the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (English)
- Entry about Jorge Luis Borges ( memento from June 19, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) on Literature in Context , a multilingual project of the University of Vienna (in German , archived from the original ).
- The Century of Borges (literary essay by Alfonso de Toro on Borges' work in the context of postmodernism and postcolonialism )
- Jorge Luis Borges: El idioma analítico de John Wilkins / The Analytical Language of John Wilkins. (Essay, bilingual Spanish / English)
- A Dictionary on Borges (English, PDF, 1.8 MB)
- Essays on Borges by Ulrich Schulz-Buschhaus (Das Aufsatzwerk)
- Vera Elisabeth Gerling: The gaucho in the comet's tail. About National stereotypes in Borges and its translation in ReLÜ , review journal, 8, 20. April 2009 (for translation Philology Borges')
- Jorge Luis Borges, Richard Burgin: Jorge Luis Borges - Conversations. University Press of Mississippi, 1998, p. 57 ff.
- Angel Flores: Magical Realism in Spanish American Fiction. In: Lois P. Zamora, Wendy B. Faris, Lois Parkinson Parkinsonzamora: Magical Realism - Theory, History, Community. Duke University Press, 1995, pp. 109-119.
- Emir Rodríguez Monegal: Jorge Luis Borges - A literary biography. Paragon House, 1988, pp. 170 ff.
- georgetown.edu ( Memento from January 9, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- John Berger, Yves Berger: Aquí nos vemos. Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España, ISBN 84-204-8842-9 .
- Alfonso de Toro: Reflections on the text type 'Fantastik' or Borges and the negation of the fantastic. Rhizomatic simulation, 'directed chance' and semiotic scandal. In: Elmar Schenkel, Ludwig Stockinger, Wolfgang F. Schwarz, Alfonso de Toro. (Ed.). The magic typewriter. Essays on the tradition of the fantastic in literature . Vervuert, Frankfurt am Main 1998, pp. 11-58.
- Reflexiones sobre el subgénero fantástico. La literatura virtual o Borges y la negación de lo fantástico. Simulación rizomática. Azar dirigido y skándalon semiótico. In: Studi di Litteratura Ispano-Americana. 33, 2001, pp. 105-151.
- Originally in the volume El Aleph (1949), cf. Jorge Luis Borges: All the stories. The aleph. Fictions. Universal story. Wickedness. Hanser, Munich 1979, pp. 7-23.
- The world - our hallucination . In: The time . July 23, 1965, ISSN 0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed December 27, 2016]).
- Alfonso de Toro: El productor 'rizomórfico' y el lector como 'detective literario': la aventura de los signos o la postmodernidad del discurso borgesiano (intertextualidad-palimpsesto-rizoma-deconstrucción). In: KA Blüher / Alfonso de Toro (eds.). Jorge Luis Borges: Procedimientos literarios y bases epistemológicas . Vervuert, Frankfurt am Main 1992, pp. 145-184.
- Alfonso de Toro: Reality as a journey through the characters: Cervantes, Borges and Foucault. In: Journal for Aesthetics and General Art History. 2, 39 (1994): 243-259.
- Alfonso de Toro: Borges Infinitio. Borgesvirtual. Pensamiento y Saber en los Siglos XX y XXI. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2008.
- Ilse Nolting-Hauff: Homer's wanderings - adventures of intertextuality in El inmortal by Jorge Luis Borges. In: Karl Maurer , Ilse Nolting-Hauff, Joachim Schulze: The foreign word - Studies on the interdependence of texts - Festschrift for Karl Maurer for his 60th birthday. Gruner, 1988, p. 411.
- Jorge Luis Borges: Fictions. Stories 1939-1944 . In: Gisbert Haefs, Fritz Arnold (ed.): Jorge Luis Borges. Works in 20 volumes . 11th edition. tape 5 . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 2 - 3 .
- Jorge Luis Borges: Fictions. Stories 1939-1944 . In: Gisbert Haefs, Fritz Arnold (ed.): Jorge Luise Borges. Works in 20 volumes . 11th edition. tape 5 . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992, p. 165 ff .
- Klaus Ickert, Ursula Schick: The secret of the rose decrypted. Munich 1986, p. 54 f.
- opus5 interactive medien gmbh, http://www.opus5.de/ : S. Fischer Verlage - Fiktionen (paperback). In: www.fischerverlage.de. Retrieved October 9, 2016 .
- Michael Ende: The prison of freedom. Munich 2007, p. 81.
- Robert Menasse: Selige Zeiten, brüchige Welt, Roman, Suhrkamp Verlag, Taschenbuch, Frankfurt 1997, p. 11 (below)
- Uwe Stolzmann: The poet and the dictators: Jorge Luis Borges' political preferences - in life and in the essay. In: NZZ. July 1, 2006.
- List of Honorary Doctorates from Michigan State University
- Also contributions to Borges by Armin Senser , Paul Ingendaay , Gerhard Köpf , Alfonso de Toro, Leopold Federmair . The de Toro article is also online, see web links
|SURNAME||Borges, Jorge Luis|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Borges Acevedo, Jorge Francisco Isidore Luis (full name); Suarez Lynch, B. (pseudonym); Bustos Domecq, H. (pseudonym)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Argentine writer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 24, 1899|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Buenos Aires|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 14, 1986|
|Place of death||Geneva|