Bernardo Bertolucci (born March 16, 1941 in Parma , † November 26, 2018 in Rome ) was an Italian film director . Between 1962 and 2012 he directed 16 feature films. His narrative style, committed to secrecy, was often operatic and melodramatic and left plenty of room for ambiguities. Bertolucci staged many times with references to music, painting and literature. His most highly regarded works include The Great Mistake / The Conformist, The Last Tango in Paris , 1900 (Novecento) and The Last Emperor .
Origin and youth
Bertolucci was born in Emilia-Romagna in the early 1940s . The family lived outside Parma in the rural village of Baccanelli, where he had frequent contact with the children of simple farmers. His mother was a literature teacher and his father, Attilio, was a nationally known poet and taught art history . Before he even went to school, Bertolucci came into contact with poetry , which he received every day, because his father's poems often revolved around the domestic environment. Bernardo began writing poetry at the age of six. In addition, the father worked as a film critic for the Gazzetta di Parma and regularly drove to Parma to see films he was supposed to write about. He often took Bernardo with him, who then equated “Parma” with “cinema”. When he was 15, he made two 16mm amateur shorts.
When the family moved to Rome , he lost points of reference and felt uprooted. He now had to do with children from the petty bourgeoisie: "What was intended as a social advancement, I experienced as a downgrading of the way of life, because after all the peasants have something older and therefore more aristocratic than the petty bourgeoisie." In the first few years in Rome he had the city refused. The family's circle of friends there included the poet and later filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini . The father worked for a publisher and helped Pasolini in 1955 to publish his first novel and then poems. As a reward for successfully completing school, Bertolucci was allowed to spend a month in Paris in 1959 , where he often visited the Cinémathèque française . At twenty he had the impression that making films was a given. He dropped out of his literature studies at the University of Rome and became an assistant director for Pasolini's debut Accattone . Since Pasolini was inexperienced in film as a man of letters and had to first acquire its means of expression, Bertolucci had the feeling of witnessing the “birth of cinematic language”. The following year Bertolucci published the volume of poetry In cerca del mistero and received the award in the section for the best first work at one of the most prestigious literary prizes in Italy, the Premio Viareggio . Nevertheless, he finally turned away from writing.
Family and personal life
Bernardo's younger brother Giuseppe was a theater director. His cousin Giovanni is a film producer and has performed this role on some of his films. Bernardo Bertolucci met Adriana Asti while Accattone was being created , and she became his partner for the next few years. She played the female lead in his second feature film Before the Revolution . In 1980 he married the British screenwriter Clare Peploe .
Bertolucci suffered from back problems for many years. A failed disc operation forced him into a wheelchair. This made him aware of the bad situation for wheelchair users in Rome, among other things. a. because many public buildings there are not barrier-free . In 2012 he launched a campaign to improve the situation. He fell ill with cancer , from the consequences of which he died on November 26, 2018 at the age of 77 in Rome.
Like several other important Italian film directors, such as Pasolini , Visconti and Antonioni , Bertolucci professed Marxism . He said that he had been a communist from childhood when he spent a lot of time among farmers. At first for sentimental reasons; When the police shot a communist one day, he decided on their side. However, he did not join the Communist Party until 1968 . Despite the Marxist attitude, he spoke out in favor of individualism. “The most important discovery I made after the events of May 1968 was that I didn't want the revolution for the poor, but for myself. The world should have changed for me. I discovered the individual aspect of political revolutions. ”He distinguished himself from those among the Marxists who want to serve the people, and found that the people would be best served if they served themselves because only then could they be part of the people be. Cinema, even political, has no political impact. In the late 1970s, he spoke of guilt for not taking enough part in the life of the party.
Creative approach and style
At the beginning of his cinematic work, Bertolucci postulated: “I don't see any difference between cinema and poetry. By that I mean that there is no mediation from the idea to the poem, just as there is no between an idea and a film. ”The idea itself must be poetic, otherwise no poetry can arise. He later weakened this statement by postulating that the film was closer to the poem than the novel. When, at the age of 15, he was filming a traditional pig slaughter with a 16 mm camera at a farm, the butcher stabbed the heart and the maddened animal escaped. It ran bleeding across the snow-covered courtyard, which appeared imposing even in black and white and aroused in him the conviction to allow as much space as possible for chance when shooting. He viewed the scripts only as sketches, which he adapted to the locations as well as to the actors who were not supposed to transform themselves into the written characters.
The visual style of his films is characterized by long tracking shots and very consciously designed colors. He defined image details and camera movements as part of his directorial style, his personal “handwriting”. His long-time cameraman Vittorio Storaro , involved in eight works between 1969 and 1993, was only responsible for the lighting. Typical of Bertolucci's narrative style are references to works of painting, opera, literature and film or quotations from them. The opening credits of some of his films consist of a fade-in of one or more paintings. All films up to 1981 contain a dance scene, some of which give the plot a new twist. The dances express political or sexual conflicts, with exuberant joy and strict obedience to the rules. His style is often described as being related to opera, because it echoes the melodrama and musical lyric poetry that is on display and entire actions can be inspired by Verdi operas. The singing of arias and other allusions to Verdi serve as an ironic commentary on what is happening. His films fall into a wide variety of genres, if the term genre is appropriate. To the displeasure of many viewers, the conclusions of his works are mostly open, "retreats, dissolutions into the unreal, so as not to have to set a point."
Autobiographical elements have often found their way into Bertolucci's films; however, he often developed scripts with co-authors. He allowed countless discussions, preferably with film magazines, in which he explained his works and the intentions he pursued in them. He often showed the influences in his films, from art as well as from his personal life and from his psychoanalysis. He made an effort to be recognized as the author of his films.
Bertolucci saw something positive in ambiguities, contradictions and paradoxes, because freedom must be total, even if this leads to incoherent attitudes. “We should work against what we've done. You do something, then you contradict it, then you contradict the contradiction and so on. Liveliness arises precisely through the ability to contradict oneself ... ”The title of his only published literary work, the volume of poems In cerca del mistero, means“ In search of the secret ”. This search ran through his entire cinematic work. He moved both in the world that can be experienced and in dreams, sounding out the relationship between past and present, between what one is and what one has to be. "He juggles between genres, styles and theories and shuffles the cards anew for every game." He played with all forms, avoided monotony and constantly tried new things that astonished and alienated. He wanted to be as unpredictable as possible for his audience and surprise them, just as he liked to be surprised by the works of others. Convinced that a film can only be completed by the viewer, he believed every interpretation of a work to be correct. Bertolucci was a cosmopolitan, which was particularly evident in his major international productions, which were played on four continents. "Bertolucci's protagonists are prisoners who can break out of their homeland, but are still prisoners of their longing abroad."
Identity and doppelganger motif
His work would be best described in mathematical terms by the number 2, geometrically by the ellipse, which has two centers instead of a single center. The viewer, accustomed to directing his attention to one point, is forced to pay attention to two centers. Bertolucci often questioned identities ; The motifs of schizophrenia , divided personalities and the doppelganger appear repeatedly . Many characters led parallel lives or were played by the same actor. Most obvious is the principle in Partner , which is based on Dostoevsky's novel The Double . The same actor also plays two roles in the strategy of the spider , father and son. The two characters Olmo and Alfredo in 1900 were born on the same day and Bertolucci subjected their parallel lives to a comparison. In the dreamers there is a pair of twins, a brother and a sister who cannot break away from each other. But events within a film often took place twice in a different form. Sometimes the images contained reflections, and reality and imagination coexisted. Nothing in Bertolucci's universe was unique either.
Transience and death
Nothing is solid in Bertolucci's universe. People, societies, situations and morals are gradually transformed and transient. Aging and physical decay play a major role. Death is not a brutally occurring end point of earthly life, but rather present within life as an agony dismembered into numerous fragments, “a long, panting cry.” Bertolucci quoted the saying that film shows death at work. The basis of all poetry is the passing of time. The time appears in a striking number of the titles of his films, most obviously in Before the Revolution and 1900 . The moon in La Luna is responsible for the tides. There is the Last Tango and the Last Emperor , and death is present in agony and La Commare Secca .
Oedipal conflicts with father figures
His characters are often subject to a determinism and cannot escape the past. For example, there are young people who want to break out of their family and social class, but inevitably live according to the patterns of the past. They are faced with a male authority figure who arouses mixed feelings and which they ultimately reject. The rebelling sons win victories only temporarily, the strategies of the fathers outlast. Parricide appears as a motif more or less openly in almost all films in the first half of his career.
At a young age, Bertolucci had to deal with several father figures who had an influence on his life and work, from which he wanted to free himself. His father Attilio Bertolucci was a well-known poet in Italy. Bernardo Bertolucci published his own volume of poetry, but this remained his only literary work. He wanted to compete with his father and then felt that he would lose the fight. Therefore, he switched to another area, the cinema. Another time he justified the end of his poetic work by not wanting to convey the same thing in poetry and in films.
The second character was Pier Paolo Pasolini . He lived in the same building for a few years; young Bernardo was friends with him and regularly read his poems to him; a relationship developed like that between teacher and student. This continued when Pasolini appointed him his assistant director in 1961. Pasolini's influence remained modest stylistically.
The artistically dominant figure was the French film director Jean-Luc Godard . The films from Bertolucci's first two decades are characterized by an aesthetic and political confrontation with Godard and his work. While he was celebrating Godard's influence in Before the Revolution and Partners , he realized his own style in the strategy of the spider and then stepped into symbolic parricide in the film The Great Error . In the Last Tango in Paris, he finally caricatured Godards and his own cinematic mania in the character of the young filmmaker Tom. At the end of the 1960s, Godard radicalized himself politically and aesthetically and was hostile to Bertolucci's turn to more conventional large-scale productions.
In the late 1960s, Bertolucci named Pasolini and Godard as his preferred directors, two great poets whom he greatly admired and therefore wanted to film against both of them. Because in order to make progress and to be able to give something to others, you have to fight with those you love most.
Women as minor characters
Bertolucci often addressed the oppression of sons by fathers or by patriarchy . The focus of the narrative and emotional events are male characters, while the female roles are derivatives of male fears and feelings of hatred. They are often low or even destructive roles that usually have a sexualized function within the narrative. In the character Caterina in La Luna , Bertolucci revealed his view that creative work and motherhood cannot be successfully reconciled. The women, as a rule, have no intellectual interests and live for instincts and sensual pleasure. It is the male figures who suffer and who mentally process this suffering.
Early years (until 1969)
The first years of his cinematic work were characterized by the search for his own style and themes. At the age of only 21, Bertolucci was surprisingly given the opportunity to make his first film. After the success of Pasolini's film Accattone , the producer was eager to film one of his short stories. Since Pasolini had already turned to the Mamma Roma project , the producer commissioned another author and Bertolucci, who was alien to the depicted milieu of Roman proletarian petty criminals, to develop the material for a script. Nevertheless, he tried to meet the producer's expectations for a "pasolinesque" product. After completion, the producer offered him the direction. Bertolucci tried to make La Commare Secca (1962) "his" film through a style of its own that was not influenced by Pasolini. Particularly noticeable are the numerous tracking shots, of which the participating cameraman claimed he had never had so many to do in a film.
During this time he never saw himself as part of Italian cinema; he was closer to the French cinematography, which he found most interesting. He preferred to speak to the press in French because it was the language of cinema. In his second film Before the Revolution (1964), produced by a film-loving Milanese industrialist, he was able to deal with his own personal topic: the difficulty of an intellectual of bourgeois origin, at the same time being a Marxist and for the proletarian masses, the fear of to be thrown back in one's own milieu because the roots are so strong. He later explained that he had not yet found a solution to this fear of his own cowardice, that the only way was to join the dynamism and "incredible vitality" of the proletariat, the real revolutionary force in the world. The style reveals stylistic influences from Godard and Antonioni . The work was rarely performed in Italy and received mostly negative reviews there, while the response from international film critics was better. While shooting, he first met Vittorio Storaro , who worked as a camera assistant. Storaro had the impression that Bertolucci had tremendous knowledge, especially for someone his age, but also showed a lot of arrogance.
In the following years Bertolucci leaned over again from offers, spaghetti westerns to turn. He didn't want to compromise and, like many other directors, didn't want to make films in which he only half believed. Several years passed without him being able to realize a long feature film. During this time, only collaboration on the screenplay of Spiel mir das Lied von Tod , a television documentary about the oil transport and the short film agony of death , a contribution to the episode film Love and Wrath .
The cinematic ideal he pursued in the 1960s was a cinema that was about cinema, reflecting and renewing its own language, in the spirit of Godard. The films should be self-aware and teach audiences who don't understand anything about film. At that time he wrote his scripts together with Gianni Amico , with whom he shared the worldview and who encouraged him to work in a cinéphile, experimental manner that did not take into account the general public. This is how Partner came about , where he imitated Godard in terms of content and form. The confused film met with little understanding; he soon distanced himself from the “neurotic”, “sick” side work . He later found that his intense preoccupation with film language had led him to stylistic arrogance and that he felt a great desire for an audience for his films to find a partner . He fell into a deep depression and began psychoanalysis in 1969 .
This became a creative engine and helped him to free himself from the "sick theories", as he called them, which stylistically shaped his early work. There was a substitute relationship between analysis and work: “When I make a film, I feel good and don't need any analysis.” One of the first fruits of his new method was The Spider's Strategy , which he shot in 1969 for Italian television. For the first time, Vittorio Storaro was responsible for the light; Bertolucci was to work with him for over two decades and they were close friends. The two developed an unmistakable visual language, Bertolucci's specific visual style came to full fruition for the first time, unadulterated by Godard's influence. He dealt with his preferred topics such as the connection of history and historiography with the present, the struggle of the son with the father, divided identities, fascism and resistance.
International large-scale productions (1970–1976)
With the Big Error , also known as The Conformist, Bertolucci entered the stage of major international productions. The film was shot in an elaborate historical setting in France and Italy, starring Jean-Louis Trintignant in the lead role. Again he sounded out Italy's fascist past and constructed a psychosexual explanation for the actions of the main character. The work is characterized by a time-fragmented plot and a visual style that emphasizes content-related statements with the help of the light used. The great success established Bertolucci as a world-class filmmaker. Bertolucci's collaboration with Franco Arcalli , which lasted until his death in 1978, began with the great error . Thanks to Arcalli, he realized that he could gain new perspectives with the cut. Since he experienced Arcalli as stimulating and full of ideas, and the editing turned into a revision of the script, Arcalli also advanced to become a scriptwriter.
Bertolucci reached another high point with the drama The Last Tango in Paris (1972), with Marlon Brando in the lead role. The only superficially apolitical film depicts the pain of a middle-aged man and his suffering from the suppression of the pleasure principle in Western culture. The film has been a dominant topic of conversation because of its drastic, outspoken depiction of sex. The scandalization and attempts at censorship resulted in an enormous box-office success, in the USA it remained the most profitable European film for years.
With these successes behind him, Bertolucci was able to tackle a project that is often described as megalomaniac: the telling of half a century of Italian history in the more than five-hour 1900 . The film was valued at $ 7 million by the US film studios, and it ended up costing over 8 million. Although based entirely in Italy, several roles are played by international stars, including Burt Lancaster , Gérard Depardieu , Donald Sutherland , Dominique Sanda and Robert De Niro . It is a song of praise to the peasant class and to communism. The film surprised the critics with its conventional form; Bertolucci consciously chose a simple and emotional film language based on mass cinema in order to be able to spread his message more widely. Because of the political content, the studios did not want to distribute 1900 in the United States as planned. There was also a judicial dispute between Bertolucci, the producer Grimaldi and the studios over the version to be published. They pushed through severe cuts for the US version, hardly evaluating the film there, and the US criticism of the work met with complete rejection as propaganda. In Europe it was only slightly shortened. Bertolucci later recognized the contradiction between the capitalist, multinational conditions of production and the naive, locally rooted utopian vision.
Smaller productions (1977–1982)
Several planned film projects, including the film adaptation of Dashiell Hammett's novel Red Harvest, failed because he was unable to convince producers of them. He wanted to make his first American film based on a classic from US literature. He only considered the project as a political film, but the American producers did not understand his reading of the novel. When sizing his next two film projects, Bertolucci had to be much more humble. The drama La Luna (1979) about an incestuous mother-son relationship was created with a much smaller budget and few actors. The film was shot mainly in Rome, partly in Parma and New York, and it is starring US actors. Bertolucci pointed out that in this work there is no longer a constant question about the nature of film and cinema; La Luna is not ashamed of pleasure. But precisely this insistence on a conventional, consumable narrative style disappointed the criticism. He remained even more focused on his home region around Parma in The Tragedy of a Ridiculous Man (1981), where he brought the nebulous political situation in Italy to the fore. With the exception of Anouk Aimée , it was made up of Italians and was in Italian. During the quarter century of his collaboration with Storaro, it was the only film for which he brought in another cameraman. He left more space for metafilmic discourse than he had since Partner and denied the audience a comprehensible plot and identification with a character. The work aroused very different evaluations from the critics - some noted a resigned attitude - and received little attention from the audience. Some film journalists surveying his entire oeuvre believe that tragedy is possibly Bertolucci's most underrated work.
Other cultures (1983–1993)
At the beginning of the 1980s, Bertolucci was very disappointed in Italy and the political system. He also lost interest in the present. This led him to search for something completely different and the peculiarities of non-western cultures. As a result, he made three films, again with Storaro, in which he could treat his subjects against the background of China, North Africa and Buddhism. What these three films have in common is that the director had become more forgiving of father figures who now appeared as teachers and wise men. The first project was The Last Emperor (1987), in which he portrayed the life of the last Chinese emperor Pu Yi as the cinematic Marco Polo - for the first time the Chinese government had allowed a western film production company to shoot in the Forbidden City . With his success with critics and audiences is the showered with awards historical drama another high point in Bertolucci's work. The subsequent film The Sheltering Sky (1990) led him to Morocco and the Sahara and with the stars Debra Winger and John Malkovich occupied . It is about a couple who flee from western civilization and who lose their identity in the encounter with the stranger and the Sahara. The critics disagreed on how well Bertolucci hit themes and characters in Paul Bowles' novel ; but even some of the negative reviews attested to the work that its view of the landscapes and cities of North Africa was sensual and overwhelming.
The third of the “exotic” productions is Little Buddha from 1993, with which Bertolucci wanted to appeal to children of all ages. It explores Buddhism and reincarnation . Many critics found the work too simple and missed the complexity of his previous works. It was his first film that was not built around a political, psychological, or intersex conflict. The director described himself as a skeptical amateur Buddhist, interested only in the aesthetic and poetic side of this philosophy. After the fall of the communist utopia of the usual space for dreams, he found a new inspiring field in Buddhism. The changeover was easy for him, because Buddhism has in common with Marx and Freud that they all focus not on deities but on people.
Late work (from 1994)
When he was over fifty, conflicts with father figures were no longer an important part. The themes of his earlier films appear in Emotion and Seduction (1995) in the form of melancholy, withdrawn 68ers , but the main character is a young inexperienced girl. His next work, the Kammerspiel Shandurai and the Piano Player (1998), met with a lot of critical acclaim, but initially no distribution in Germany. It only made it to cinemas when interest in Bertolucci reawakened with the dreamers' commercial success in 2003. The dreamers are three young people who lived a three-way relationship in Paris in 1968 and cut themselves off from the events on the street. Some of the critics accused Bertolucci's late works of being old man's fantasies turned into films, in which he delicited himself on the bodies of young women.
After the dreamers , he couldn't complete another film for almost ten years. The Bel Canto project , the film adaptation of Ann Patchett 's novel of the same name about a hostage-taking in South America, had to be postponed indefinitely. In 2007 he turned to another project, a drama about the Italian musician and murderer Carlo Gesualdo , who lived in the 16th century. It was not until 2012 that his first feature film directing work after a ten-year break, Ich und Du (Io e te), premiered out of competition at the Cannes Film Festival.
- 1962: La Commare Secca (La commare secca)
- 1964: Before the Revolution (Prima della rivoluzione)
- 1968: partner
- 1969: agony , episode of love and anger (Amore e rabbia)
- 1970: The strategy of the spider (La strategia del ragno)
- 1970: The Great Error (Il conformista)
- 1972: The last tango in Paris (Ultimo tango a Parigi)
- 1976: 1900 (Novecento)
- 1979: La Luna
- 1981: The tragedy of a ridiculous man (La tragedia di un uomo ridicolo)
- 1987: The Last Emperor (The Last Emperor)
- 1990: The Sheltering Sky (The Sheltering Sky)
- 1993: Little Buddha
- 1996: Feeling and Seduction (Stealing Beauty)
- 1998: Shandurai and the piano player (L'assedio / Besieged)
- 2003: Die Träumer ( I sognatori, also The Dreamers )
- 2012: Me and You (Io e te)
Bertolucci has also made several short and documentary films.
In addition to the 1962 Premio Viareggio for his volume of poetry In cerca del mistero (Best First Work), Bertolucci received 49 film and festival awards over the course of his career, including two Oscars and two Golden Globe Awards for The Last Emperor . He was nominated for 32 other awards.
A selection of the prizes and awards won, including some nominations:
- 1970: Interfilm Prize (Honorable Mention) at the Berlin International Film Festival for Der große Errtum
- 1970: The British Film Institute's Sutherland Trophy for The Big Mistake
- 1971: National Society of Film Critics Award for Der große Errtum ( Best Director )
- 1972: Oscar nomination for The Great Mistake ( Best Adapted Screenplay )
- 1973: Nastro d'Argento for The Last Tango in Paris ( Best Director )
- 1974: Golden Globe nomination for The Last Tange in Paris ( Best Director )
- 1974: Oscar nomination for The Last Tango in Paris ( Best Director )
- 1977: Bodil for 1900 (Best European Film)
- 1988: César for The Last Emperor ( Best Foreign Film )
- 1988: Two David di Donatello for The Last Emperor (Best Director, Best Screenplay - together with Mark Peploe )
- 1988: Directors Guild of America Award for The Last Emperor (Best Feature Film Director )
- 1988: European Film Prize for The Last Emperor (Special Jury Prize)
- 1988: Gilde Film Award for The Last Emperor (Best Foreign Film)
- 1988: Two Golden Globe Awards for The Last Emperor (Best Director, Best Screenplay - together with Mark Peploe)
- 1988: Nastro d'Argento for The Last Emperor (Best Director)
- 1988: Two Oscars for The Last Emperor (Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay - together with Mark Peploe)
- 1989: British Academy Film Award for The Last Emperor ( Best Film - together with Jeremy Thomas )
- 1989: Kinema Jumpō Prize for The Last Emperor (Best Foreign Language Film)
- 1991: Golden Globe nomination for Heaven over the Desert (Best Director)
- 1994: Golden Camera for Little Buddha (Film - International)
- 1998: Freedom of Expression Award from the National Board of Review (for publishing the Director's Cut of The Last Emperor )
- 2013: Nastro d'Argento for Me and You (together with the rest of the film staff)
- 1997: Honorary leopard at the Locarno Film Festival
- 1998: British Film Institute Fellowship
- 2007: Honorary Golden Lion of the Venice Film Festival (as "perhaps the most famous contemporary Italian director, and one of the most important and influential in the history of cinema")
- 2008: Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (Official Inauguration November 2013 at 6925 Hollywood Blvd.)
- 2011: Palm of Honor at the Cannes Film Festival
- 2012: European film award for a lifetime achievement
- Bernardo Bertolucci: The director who likes to shoot with young people. Conversation with video recordings, France, Germany, 2013, 43:30 min., Moderation: Vincent Josse, production: arte , series: Square , first broadcast: October 27, 2013 on arte, summary by arte ( memento from December 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
- Bernardo Bertolucci in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Literature by and about Bernardo Bertolucci in the catalog of the German National Library
- Link catalog on the subject of Bernardo Bertolucci at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Essay on the work of Bernardo Bertolucci in: senses of cinema , 2004 (English)
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Les Lettres Françaises , January 10, 1968, printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 32-37
- Bernardo Bertolucci 1984 in: Dall'anonimato al successo, 23 protagonisti del cinema italiano raccontano , printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 175-182
- F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , Introduction pp. IX-XVI
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Gili, Jean: Le cinéma italien . Union Générales d'Editions, Paris 1978, ISBN 2-264-00955-1 , pp. 40-42; Bertolucci in: Ungari, Enzo: Bertolucci. Bahia Verlag, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-922699-21-9 , pp. 87-91; Original edition in Ubulibri, Milan 1982, pp. 11-12; Bertolucci in Les Lettres Françaises , January 10, 1968
- Gili 1978, p. 62
- Gérard 2000, introduction p. XVII
- Gili 1978, pp. 40-42
- Tonetti, Claretta Micheletti: Bernardo Bertolucci. The cinema of ambiguity . Twayne Publishers, New York 1995, ISBN 0-8057-9313-5 , pp. Xv
- sda : Italian director Bertolucci starts campaign for the disabled. In: Freiburger Nachrichten , October 16, 2012.
- Bernardo Bertolucci, Director of The Last Emperor and Last Tango in Paris, Has Died at 77. In: Vogue. November 26, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2018 .
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Gili, Jean: Le cinéma italien . Union Générales d'Editions, Paris 1978, ISBN 2-264-00955-1 , pp. 63-64
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Sight & Sound , autumn 1972 edition
- Gili 1978, p. 46 and Cineaste , Winter 1972–1973
- Gili 1978, p. 67
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with the Cahiers du cinéma , March 1965
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Film Quarterly , vol. 20, no. 1, autumn 1966, printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 17-27
- Kolker 1985, p. 105
- Pierre Pitiot and Jean-Claude Mirabella: Sur Bertolucci . Editions Climats, Castelnau-le-Lez 1991, ISBN 2-907563-43-2 , p. 79
- Kolker 1985, p. 106
- Marsha Kinder: Bertolucci and the Dance of Danger In: Sight & Sound , Fall 1973, pp. 186–187
- Film Quarterly , vol. 37, no. 3, spring 1984, p. 62
- Kolker 1985, p. 61; Pitiot 1991, p. 41
- Urs Jenny : Phantom Africa. In: Der Spiegel , No. 43, October 22, 1990, pp. 276-278; similar to Urs Jenny: Delirium for three. In: Der Spiegel, No. 4, January 19, 2004, pp. 148–149
- Dietrich Kuhlbrodt : Bernardo Bertolucci . Film 24 series, Hanser Verlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-446-13164-7 , p. 99
- Gili 1978, pp. 54-55
- Robert Philip Kolker: Bernardo Bertolucci . BFI Publishing, London 1985, ISBN 0-85170-166-3 , pp. 3-4
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Cinema e film, No. 7/8, date of publication given implausibly as spring 1968 (probably 1969), printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 38-50
- Carlo Tagliabue: Bertolucci: The narrow road to a forked path, in: Framework, 2, autumn 1975, p. 13
- Witte 1982, pp. 7-8; similar to Kolker 1985, p. 1
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Sight and Sound, April 1994, pp. 18–21
- Witte 1982, p. 16.
- Tonetti 1995, foreword on page xi; Pitiot 1991, p. 34
- cf. Pitiot 1991, pp. 35-36; Tonetti 1995, foreword on page xi; Gili 1978, p. 62
- Film review March 1971, p. 139
- Pitiot 1991, p. 36
- Pitiot 1991, p. 33
- Bertolucci in: Ungari 1984, p. 30. According to his statements, this statement was made by Jean Cocteau .
- Karsten Witte : The late mannerist . In: Bernardo Bertolucci, Film 24 series, Hanser Verlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-446-13164-7 , pp. 21-22
- Positif, March 1973, p. 35
- Kolker 1985, p. 171
- Ungari 1984, p. 223
- Yosefa Loshitzky: The radical faces of Godard and Bertolucci . Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1995, ISBN 0-8143-2446-0 , p. 14
- Richard Roud: Fathers and Sons . In: Sight & Sound , Spring 1971, p. 61
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Jean Gili: Le cinéma italien, Paris 1978, p. 001
- Loshitzky 1995, pp. 13-17
- Kolker 1985, pp. 225-233
- Loshitzky 1995, p. 186
- Kolker 1985, p. 1
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Il giorno , August 19, 1962, printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 6-9
- Bertolucci in conversation with Il tempo , January 2, 1983, cited above. in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 169-170
- Vittorio Storaro in Guiding light . In: American Cinematographer , February 2001, p. 74
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Il giorno , September 22, 1967, printed in: F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , p. 31
- Bernardo Bertolucci in conversation with Positif, November 1981, pp. 19-25
- Gili 1978, p. 55
- Ungari 1984, p. 52
- Bertolucci in conversation with Il tempo, January 2, 1983, quoted in. in F. Gérard, TJ Kline, B. Sklarew (eds.): Bernardo Bertolucci: Interviews . University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. 173-174
- Bertolucci in Positif , March 1973, p. 29, and in Gili 1978, p. 56
- Gili 1978, p. 63
- Ungari 1984, pp. 72-73
- Bertolucci in Gili, Jean: Le cinéma italien, Union Générales d'Éditions, Paris 1978, ISBN 2-264-00955-1 , pp. 59-60
- Kolker 1985, p. 70
- Kolker 1985, pp. 72-73
- Ungari 1984, p. 191
- Bertolucci in conversation with Positif, No. 424, June 1996, Paris, p. 25
- Witte, 1982, pp. 72-75
- Ungari, Enzo: Bertolucci. Bahia Verlag, Munich 1984, pp. 197-198
- Bertolucci cit. in: Kolker 1985, p. 161
- Kline, T. Jefferson: Bertolucci's Dream Loom, 1987, p. 148; Kolker 1985, pp. 152-159
- Gérard, Fabien S. (Ed.): Bernardo Bertolucci. Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 2000, ISBN 1-57806-204-7 , pp. XX; similar to Film Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 3, spring 1984, p. 57
- Bertolucci in conversation with Positif, No. 424, June 1996, Paris, p. 25; Gérard 2000, p. XX, speaks of an "oriental trilogy".
- Tonetti 1995, p. 226
- Reclams Filmführer, Philipp Reclam Jr., Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-15-010389-4 , p. 756; Franz Ulrich in Zoom , No. 22, 1990, pp. 7-9; Dirk Manthey, Jörg Altendorf, Willy Loderhose (eds.): The large film lexicon. All top films from A-Z . Second edition, revised and expanded new edition. Volume III (HL). Verlagsgruppe Milchstraße, Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-89324-126-4 , p. 1316 . ; Greg Changnon in: Magill, Frank N. (Eds.), Magill's Cinema Annual 1991, Salem Press, Pasadena 1991, ISBN 0-89356-410-9 , pp. 328-331
- Bernardo Bertolucci in Neue Zürcher Zeitung , February 18, 1994, p. 65
- Birgit Glombitza: On the high seat of the fatherly. In: taz , January 21, 2004, p. 16; Hanns-Georg Rodek : The revolution ends in the bathtub. In: Die Welt , January 21, 2004; Cinema, 2004, No. 1: The Dreamers; Annette Stiekele: Show your teeth to the bourgeoisie. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , January 22nd, 2004 and by the same author: Lonely artist saves poor African cleaning lady . In: Hamburger Abendblatt, March 3, 2005.
- Variety, August 24, 2007: Bertolucci comes home to Venice
- IMDB list of Bertolucci's film awards in the Internet Movie Database (accessed November 27, 2018).
- News ( Memento of September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) of the Biennale, Venice, June 18, 2007, online resource, accessed on September 14, 2007.
- Bernardo Bertolucci on the official website of the Hollywood Walk of Fame, where the star is listed as 2513th after the inauguration date 2013.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Italian film director|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 16, 1941|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Parma , Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 26, 2018|
|Place of death||Rome|