Mario Vargas Llosa

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Mario Vargas Llosa (2011)
Mario Vargas Llosa Signature.svg

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa [ˈmaɾjo ˈβaɾɣas ˈʎosa] (born March 28, 1936 in Arequipa , Peru ; since 2011 Marqués de Vargas Llosa) is a Peruvian writer , politician and journalist, who has also had Spanish citizenship since 1993. He is one of the leading Latin American novelists and essayists .

In the 1980s, Vargas Llosa was actively involved in Peruvian politics and became chairman of a new liberal party. In 1990 he ran as a candidate for an electoral alliance for the office of Peruvian President and was long considered a favorite, but then lost the runoff against Alberto Fujimori . In 2001 he described himself as a "liberal democrat".

Mario Vargas Llosa was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in December 2010 .


Mario Vargas Llosa's parents, who separated before their son was born, are Ernesto Vargas Maldonado, telegraph operator and airfield operator for the Panagra company in Tacna , and Dora Llosa Ureta. The mother comes from a long -established, middle-class family in Arequipa from Spain . Not least because of her difficult situation as a single parent, she moved to Cochabamba in Bolivia with her parents and her then one-year-old son . Vargas Llosa spent his childhood there and completed elementary school at the Catholic Colegio La Salle . Under the government of José Luis Bustamante y Rivero , his maternal grandfather became prefect in the northern Peruvian city of Piura , which is why the entire family settled there. In 1946 he met his father, whereupon he and his mother moved in with him in Lima .

Vargas Llosa continued to attend schools run by the Salesians of Don Bosco in Piura and Lima , before switching to a military school in Callao for two years at the instigation of his father . He spent the last year of his school education again in Piura, where, as before in Lima, he also worked in the editorial department of a local newspaper and staged his first play "The Flight of the Inca".

Mario Vargas Llosa, actor and author of “Los cuentos de la peste”, with Aitana Sánchez-Gijón , Teatro Español , Madrid (2015).

After finishing school, Vargas Llosa began studying law and literature at the National University of San Marcos at the same time in Lima ; He completed the latter. His writing activity increased as his activity as a journalist waned.

In Lima, at the age of 19, he married Julia Urquidi Illanes, the sister of a sister-in-law of his mother. The marriage remained childless and was divorced in 1964. With the Javier Prado scholarship , he received his doctorate in philosophy and literature from 1959 at the Complutense University of Madrid . In the same year he received the Leopoldo Alas Prize for the short story "Die Anführer" . Vargas Llosa first attracted attention as a writer with the novel “The City and the Dogs” ( La ciudad y los perros ).

In 1965 he married his cousin Patricia Llosa in Lima, whom he met at the Sorbonne in Paris and with whom he has three children: Álvaro Vargas Llosa , writer, Gonzalo and Morgana, photographer. He settled in Paris and worked with his then wife for France Télévisions and as a journalist for the AFP news agency . The family later moved to London and Barcelona. In 1974 Llosa returned to Peru and became the director and presenter of a political program on television.

In the 1980s, Vargas Llosa turned to politics. In contrast to the mostly left-leaning other South American intellectuals of the time, Vargas Llosa, who distanced himself from his own left-wing positions from the 1960s, firmly represented liberal positions. In his autobiographical work “The Fish in the Water - Memories”, he describes this development from the left to the staunch neoliberal , as Dieter Plehwe puts it. However, Vargas Llosa rates the expression neoliberalism as a "caricature created by enemies of liberalism". Vargas Llosa sees himself, according to his biographer Juan José Armas Marcelo, as “liberal without any further additions, with everything that the term traditionally means, political and intellectual”. In 1986 he criticized Gabriel García Márquez for what he believed to be one-sided and uncritical overestimation of the socialist model by some Latin American intellectuals, with the following words:

“The fact that a writer in this way condemned the leader of a regime in which there are many political prisoners - including several writers - that practices rigorous intellectual censorship, does not tolerate the slightest criticism and has forced dozens of intellectuals into exile is something that fill me, as we say in Spanish, with strange shame. "

- Mario Vargas Llosa

In the Uchuraccay case , the mistaken murder of eight journalists by Indian farmers, the Peruvian President Fernando Belaunde made him chair the commission of inquiry. When the government formed by the left-wing APRA party under Alan García Pérez wanted to nationalize the Peruvian banking system in 1987, he led the protest against it. In 1987 Vargas Llosa co-founded and soon after became chairman of the liberal Movimiento Libertad . In 1988 the party formed an alliance with the two major Peruvian conservative parties, the National Democratic Front (Fredomo). In 1990 Vargas Llosa applied for the Fredomo for the Peruvian presidency. He advocated the privatization of state property and a free market economy . During the election campaign he was considered a favorite and received the most votes in the first ballot with 34 percent. In the runoff election, however, the outsider Alberto Fujimori won with 56.5 percent.

After the lost election, Vargas Llosa turned back to literature and became a lecturer in Latin American literature at several US universities. He wrote essays for the Spanish daily El País . He later left Peru and moved to Madrid , where he obtained Spanish citizenship in 1993 and became a member of the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy [of Language]) in 1995 . He lives in London.

On October 7, 2010, it was announced that Vargas Llosa would receive the Nobel Prize in Literature 2010 "for his cartography of power structures and sharp-edged images of individual resistance, turmoil and defeat". The award ceremony took place on December 10, 2010 in Stockholm .

In 2010, he warned against Islamic fundamentalism in his lecture at the liberal economic think tank Libertad y Desarrollo (Freedom and Development) . Islamic fundamentalism has replaced communism as the main enemy of democracy; Islamic fanatics should not be allowed to exploit democracy “to penetrate our societies and to sow terror”.

In connection with the Peruvian presidential elections in 2011 , Vargas Llosa caused a national and international sensation, as he compared the emerging decision between the candidates Ollanta Humala and Keiko Fujimori with the choice between “AIDS and terminal cancer”. When the runoff election between these two politicians actually took place after the first ballot on April 10, 2011, he publicly expressed his support to Ollanta Humala towards the end of May and asked all “Peruvian democrats” (quote) to vote for this candidate.

In January 2012, the 75-year-old turned down the offer of the new Spanish Prime Minister Rajoy to take over the management of the Spanish Cervantes Institute, which is comparable to the Goethe Institute . The daily El País stated that Vargas Llosa saw the offered post as "incompatible" with his writing activity.

In mid-2015, his current relationship with Filipino-Spanish journalist and model Isabel Preysler and his filing for divorce from Patricia Llosa became known.

In autumn 2017 he was an important actor on the part of the Spanish government against the Catalan aspirations for independence. At the counter-demonstration on October 8, he gave a much-noticed militant speech.

Mario Vargas Llosa commented on the situation in Venezuela in February 2019:

“The Venezuelan regime will defend its power tooth and nail. Nicolás Maduro and his corrupt henchmen know full well that prison is waiting for them. There is nothing left to negotiate. One can only hope for a quick fall. "

- Mario Vargas Llosa

His niece is the Peruvian film director Claudia Llosa , his cousin the Peruvian film director Luis Llosa .


Many of Vargas Llosa's works are set in Peru and address its society. Vargas Llosa often criticizes undemocratic and corrupt left or right-wing systems, the low threshold for violence and the sometimes racist class order in Peru and Latin America in general . Later works also play in other Latin American countries such as Brazil or the Dominican Republic , as he now gained more experience abroad as a recognized author through increased travel activities . Vargas Llosa's work also takes up universal themes that go beyond Latin America.

In addition to the “standard novel”, his work also includes the genres of criminal history, political thriller , historical novel , comedy , as well as plays, essays , political writings and literary studies. Many of his writings are autobiographical.

Due to the inherent, ideology-independent criticism of all anti-democratic governments that disregard human rights, Vargas Llosa sat between all stools and was sharply attacked by both left-wing and right-wing representatives and states in his home country, in other Latin American states and in part by the Western public . This is offset by numerous honors for his work by organizations that are committed to democracy and humanism.

Vargas Llosa's books are published in German translation by Suhrkamp Verlag . A change of publisher to Rowohlt for the new book El sueño del celta , which was organized by the author's Spanish agency and announced in November 2010, was reversed after the author intervened. The German translation with the title Der Traum des Kelten was published by Suhrkamp on September 12, 2011. The book traces the life story of the Irish freedom fighter Roger Casement .

Some of his works and the motifs and literary techniques used in them are treated as examples below.

"The leaders" and "The city and the dogs"

In the narrative collection Los jefes (“The Leaders”) from 1959 and in the novel “The City and the Dogs” ( La ciudad y los perros ) from 1963, through which he first became known to a wider audience, Vargas Llosa processed autobiographical experiences from the Cadet Institute . This novel shows how an authoritarian clique led by a leader called a "Jaguar" regulates the balance of power within the cadet institution. A classmate who exposes the theft of an exam text is shot dead, and other people interested in the investigation are silenced by pressure. The world of the cadet institution proves to be paradigmatic for social structures characterized by machismo , power struggles and cockiness, in which the stronger asserts himself through mafia-like structures. The book was publicly burned in Lima in 1964.

In “The young dogs. Tail Cuellar ”( Los cachorros. Pichula Cuellar ) from 1967 describes Vargas Llosa's frustration as the result of a social determinism, its compensation through daring macho behavior and the ultimately failing attempt at social integration.

The concept of the "novela total"

The works from La ciudad y los perros to Conversaciones en La Catedral from 1969 are shaped by Vargas Llosa's own literary theory of the “total novel” ( novela total or totalizante ), according to which the novel should pursue the not modest goal of a complete, mimetic image to create reality that depicts all facets of reality and thus forms an autonomous and independent world. Vargas Llosa sees this in Tolstoy'sWar and Peace ”, Thomas Mann'sThe Magic Mountain ”, as well as in the chivalric novel Tirant lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell , which he admires . The main criterion of the “total novel” can be seen as the representation of the fragmentation of the previously supposedly unified world and the elaboration of an artistic, unifying synthesis. The Latin American forerunners of Vargas Llosa's concept of the "total novel" were Ciro Alegría and José María Arguedas .

"The green house"

His novel The Green House (La casa verde) , published in 1965, won the Premio Internacional de Novela Rómulo Gallegos literary prize in 1967 . Some critics, such as Gerald Martin , who specializes in Latin American literature , see it as Vargas Llosa's most important work and one of the most important Latin American novels at all. In this complex novel, five artfully parallel storylines, in which people and motifs are partly related to one another, are brought together into a whole. Fragments of the five storylines are first systematically put together in the individual chapters and later sporadically, so that the impression of a simultaneous stage with five pieces results. The setting of a primeval forest, sparsely populated Amazon region with a mission station and a garrison contrasts with a European-influenced small town on the coast with an upper class, petty bourgeoisie, slums and the brothel outside called casa verde . The storylines span a period from the beginning of the 20th century to the 1960s:

  • The mission station and the fate of a stolen, missionized and later cast out Indian girl named Bonifacia , who later works in the casa verde brothel .
  • The story of the Japanese adventurer Fushia , who built a jungle empire.
  • The fate of the wealthy founder of the casa verde brothel Don Anselmo and his daughter Chunga .
  • The machinations of the rubber traders who make Indians and soldiers alike the plaything of their interests.
  • The description of four regulars of the brothel, the invincible and the relationship of their leader Lituma to the prostitute Bonifacia (mostly called Selvatica in this storyline ).

Literary "disorientation techniques"

Based on the origin of La casa verde , Vargas Llosa described his techniques and ideas regarding the form of the novel in Historia secreta de una novela in 1971 . He aims to provoke the same disorientation in the reader that characterizes the search for meaning of the characters in the novel. To do this, he uses techniques such as the fragmentation of the plot, the deliberate use of gaps in the plot, the sudden and unprepared introduction of new situations, the insertion of fragments of other narratives, the nesting or interlacing of frame narratives, mythical elements, as well as shifting, dissolving and mixing of narrative perspectives.

"Conversation in the 'Cathedral'"

The conversation in the "Cathedral" (Conversación en la catedral) , published in 1969, is Vargas Llosa's most complex novel. Based on a conversation between Santiago Zavala , the son of a minister, and Ambrosio , his father's former chauffeur, in the Bar La catedral , more than 70 individual fates over a period of 14 years are described. Here represents Santiago , of the truth about the involvement of his father in machinations of the dictatorial regime of Manuel A. Odría want to find out the weakness of Latin American intellectuals. The former servant Ambrosio , who comes from a criminal background and is of mixed race origin (his mother is indigenous Indian and his father a black), stands for the "common people". Vargas Llosa succeeds in presenting a relatively comprehensive representation of Peruvian society, and he paints a picture of a corrupt and incompetent native bourgeoisie .

Use of original Peruvian idioms

In this and other novels, Vargas Llosa follows a tendency in Latin American literature - for example in Cabrera Infante or José Donoso - to allow the protagonists to speak directly in the language variety spoken in the respective country and not the standard language (here Spanish). This is intended to give the reader a more direct and authentic impression of the people and their reality, the spontaneity and expressiveness of the real language of the country, without the intervention of the narrator. Hispanic literary studies often discuss this tendency in relation to Vargas Llosa under the term oralidad.

New style from 1973

After Conversación en la catedral , Vargas Llosa moves away from his concept of the total novel and partly from his previous focus areas. The captain and his women's battalion (Pantaleón y las visitadoras) from 1973 and Aunt Julia and the art writer (La tía Julia y el escribidor) from 1977, also filmed as Julia and her lovers in 1990, are more humorous and erotic, easier to read texts.

Nevertheless, socio-political issues reappear in Vargas Llosa's work. The difficulty of differentiating between subjective perspective and objective reality or fiction and falsification in the modern media world forms a new, central theme in his subsequent works. The historical novel The War at the End of the World (La guerra del fin del mundo) from 1981 is about the smashing of a religious sect hyped up by the state and directed press to pose a national threat. Vargas Llosa's departure from socialism, which was finally caused by the smashing of the Prague Spring, has led to increased criticism in his works of the practices of socialist, Latin American regimes and terrorist organizations. Mayta's story (Historia de Mayta) from 1984, for example, deals with a revolutionary who was excluded from a communist group (probably Sendero Luminoso ) and who then earns his living as an ice cream parlor owner. Here, too, the difficulty and questionability of reconstructing the truth through extensive travel and research is a central topic.

"The storyteller"

In the novel The Storyteller (El hablador) , a first-person narrator who bears the clear traits of the author Vargas Llosa reports the story of a friend, the Jewish-born Saúl Zuratas, who, fascinated by the Peruvian jungle Indians of the Machiguenga , gives up his identity and joins the nomadic people integrated. Saúl becomes a storyteller, an institution of this people and passes on the myths of the people by walking through the jungle and visiting the scattered groups and families of the Machiguenga in order to entertain them with stories. In this way they preserve their traditions, which isolate them from western civilization and maintain their closeness to nature. The narrative intention of the book can be found in this dialectic of closeness to nature and destruction by industrial society:

“The idea of ​​the balance between man and nature, the awareness of the environmental destruction caused by industrial society and modern technology, the appreciation of the knowledge of the primitive who is forced to respect his living space if he does not want to perish, is a view that in In those years it did not represent an intellectual fashion, but it began to take root everywhere, even in Peru. "

100,000 paperback editions of the book were received as part of the “ Eine Stadt. A book. “ Given away in October 2011 in Vienna and Berlin .

Detective novels

In his two works, who are based on the genre of the crime novel, Who killed Palomino Molero? (¿Quién mató a Palomino Molero?) From 1986 and Death in the Andes (Lituma en los Andes) from 1993, Vargas Llosa eliminates many content and linguistic dispensable elements.

In Who Killed Palomino Molero? the main character is a murdered mestizo soldier. The investigations described only reveal that after his escape with the daughter of a colonel, he was apparently tortured to death by the colonel. Here, too, as in many of Vargas Llosa's works from the 1970s onwards, the real relationship between the colonel, the daughter and the soldier ultimately remains unresolved.

In Death in the Andes from 1993, the two policemen of a remote road construction, Corporal Lituma and his assistant Tomasito , try to solve the mysterious disappearance of three people. The novel is characterized by an omnipresent violence and brutality, whether on the part of the terrorists of the Shining Path , the fighting army and police, the underworld of a coastal city, the animistic ideas and rites of the indigenous construction workers or the threatening nature itself with its storms and landslides The author succeeds in combining the current Peruvian willingness to use violence and social brutality with pre-Columbian sacrificial rites and to hint at a Dionysian source of violence and inhumanity ( personified for example in the figures of the canteen keeper Dionisio and his wife), which goes beyond Peru and the present day. Vargas Llosa himself describes his novel in a similar way in an interview with the magazine Der Spiegel in 1996 . The literary critic Gustav Seibt reviewed in the FAZ : " Death in the Andes is a strict and instructive book, its language and narrative are as clear, hard and puzzling as the landscape in which it is set."




  • La llamada de la tribu. Alfaguara, Madrid 2018.



Critical Writings

  • Contra viento y marea (ensayos); Against wind and weather, German Elke Wehr (1988, contains Albert Camus in a new perspective (1962), literature is fire (1967), Das Tagebuch des Ché (1968), literature and exile (1968), Flaubert, Sartre and the Nouveau Roman (1974), Albert Camus and the Moral of Borders (1975), Antonio consejero (1979), The Cheap Intellectual (1979), The Kilobrecher (1980), The Mandarin (1980), The Logic of Terror (1980), Euclides da Cunha (1980), The Elephant and Culture (1981), The Apra and Peru (1981), A Visit to Lurigancho (1981), The Trug of Third World Ideology (1983), A glass of champagne, little friend? ( 1983), Freedom for the Free? (1983), The Land with a Thousand Faces (1984), The Art of Lying (1984), The Aims and the Means (1984), The Birth of Peru (1985), The Culture of Freedom (1985), answer to Günter Grass (1986) )
  • Nationalism as a new threat , Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 978-3-518-41130-8 (collection of articles)
  • La tentación de lo imposible, ensayo sobre Los Miserables de Victor Hugo (2004); Victor Hugo and the Temptation of the Impossible, German Angelica Ammar (2006)
  • El viaje a la ficción, ensayo sobre Juan Carlos Onetti (2008); dt. The world of Juan Carlos Onetti. Translated by Angelica Ammar, Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-518-42088-1 .
  • La civilización del espectáculo , dt. Everything Boulevard: Who loses his culture, loses himself. Translated by Thomas Brovot, Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-518-42374-5 (collection of articles).

Film adaptations

  • 1985: The city and the dogs ( La ciudad y los perros )
  • 1987: The Jaguar ( Jaguar )
  • 1991: Julia and her lovers ( La tía Julia y el escribidor )
  • 2000: Pantaleón y las visitadoras
  • 2006: The goat festival ( La fiesta del chivo )

radio play

  • 2010: Aunt Julia and the art writer. Editing: Daniel Howald, director: Claude Pierre Salmony, speaker: André Jung , Christoph Bantzer u. a., Schweizer Radio DRS / Der Hörbuchverlag, Munich (10 CD)


Web links

Commons : Mario Vargas Llosa  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files



Individual evidence

  1. Announcement in the Spanish State Gazette of February 3, 2011 ( Memento of the original of November 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Mario Vargas Llosa. Biography. Instituto Cervantes, accessed July 16, 2014
  3. "I am a liberal democrat". Transcript of an interview on ORF , June 2001
  4. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010: Mario Vargas Llosa. In: (English)
  5. ^ Raymond L. Williams: Vargas Llosa - Otra historia de un deicidio. Taurus, 2001, ISBN 968-19-0814-7 , p. 30.
  6. Barbara Lich: Mario Vargas Llosa has been one of the most important writers and intellectuals in Latin America for decades. Federal Agency for Civic Education
  7. ^ Report on the Nobel Prize for Literature for Vargas Llosa
  8. ^ Dieter Plehwe: Neoliberal ideas from the national periphery moved into the center. In: UTOPIEkreativ , July / August 2001, pp. 634–643.
  9. "Quienes colmaban la sala del Cervantes no perdieron ni una palabra del elocuente discurso de Vargas Llosa, quien defendió en todo moment el liberalismo en sus distintas variantes: político, económico, cultural, aunque califico 'la noción de' neoliberoic unalismo 'neoliber creada por los enemigos del liberalismo '. En su opinión, decir neo en este caso equivale a pseudo, es decir, falso. " Mario Vargas Llosa y los Grandes Casos ( Memento of July 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  10. ^ JJ Armas Marcelo: Vargas Llosa: el vicio de escribir. Volume 212 of Literatura (Nuevas Ediciones de Bolsillo), Verlag DEBOLSILLO, 2008, ISBN 978-84-8346-725-1 , p. 445.
  11. Peter Brockmeier, Gerhard R. Kaiser: Censorship and self-censorship in literature. Königshausen & Neumann, 2001, p. 256.
  12. [Mario Vargas Llosa: Against Wind and Weather - Literature and Politics. ] Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt a. M., 1988, p. 254.
  13. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010. Press release. In:
  14. Vargas Llosa: Islam-Fundamentalism main enemy of democracy. In: Kleine Zeitung from December 19, 2010
  15. MVLL no se arrepiente de haber comparado a Humala y Keiko con cáncer y sida. In: El Retrieved June 6, 2011 .
  16. Peru wants the decision between the extremes . Time online. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  17. Cultural policy: Vargas Llosa refuses to chair the Cervantes Institute. In: Focus from January 20, 2012
  18. ^ Mario Vargas Llosa confirma que ha pedido el divorcio a su esposa. In: El Pais. November 17, 2015, accessed November 17, 2015 .
  19. ^ Las frases más destacadas de Vargas Llosa en la manifestación contra la independencia. In: El País , October 8, 2017, accessed December 5, 2017 (Spanish)
  20. Long way to the Freedom Weltwoche , February 6, 2019
  21. New book by Vargas Llosa now at Suhrkamp ( memento from March 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , March 23, 2011.
  22. Christoph Strosetzki: A short history of Latin American literature in the 20th century. Beck, Munich, 1994, pp. 178-179.
  23. Britt Diegner: Continuities and (Auf) breaks - The Peruvian novel of the 1990s. Martin Meidenbauer Verlagbuchhandlung, 2007, p. 143 ff.
  24. ^ Carlos Schwalb: La narrativa totalizadora de Jose Maria Arguedas, Julio Ramon Riberyo y Mario Vargas Llosa. New York, 2001, p. 16 ff.
  25. ^ M. Keith Booker : Vargas Llosa Among the Postmodernists. Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 1994, p. 6.
  26. The green house can be seen as "Vargas Llosa's most complex work, in which the specifically Latin American life experience of the author has produced the richest characters and stories". Blurb of the Suhrkamp edition, 1st edition 1992.
  27. ↑ A more detailed summary in the separate booklet (so-called primer ) for the edition The Green House at Bertelsmann Club, Gütersloh 1991, author Inge Hillmann, "Jahrhundert-Edition" series, pp. 12-14. This booklet contains a number of photos of Llosa as well as a timeline of his life up to 1990.
  28. Note: For example, the leader of the indomitable from La casa verde , Corporal Lituma , appears almost 30 years later in Vargas Llosa's novel Death in the Andes (Lituma en los Andes) . Lituma's experiences from the casa verde , described as early as 1965, are taken up.
  29. Strosetzki: Small history of Latin American literature in the 20th century. Beck, Munich 1994, p. 180.
  30. Sara Castro-clear: Understanding Mario Vargas Llosa. University of South Carolina Press, 1990, pp. 105 ff.
  31. Susanne M. Cadera: Depicted orality in novels by Mario Vargas Llosa. Romance Studies at the University of Cologne, 2002, p. 12. (Cologne Romance Studies, new series - issue 80)
  32. Strosetzki: Small history of Latin American literature in the 20th century. Beck, Munich 1994, p. 181 u. 182
  33. Mario Vargas Llosa: The Storyteller. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main, 2nd edition 1990, p. 282 f.
  34. A city. A book. 100,000 free books each by Mario Vargas Llosa in Vienna and Berlin. ( Memento of the original from October 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: , accessed on October 21, 2011 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  35. Interview Vargas Llosas with Hannes Stein and Helene Zuber in the magazine Der Spiegel No. 15/1996
  36. From the opening credits to Mario Vargas Llosa: Death in the Andes. Roman, from the Spanish by Elke Wehr. 1st edition. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt a. M. 1997. (Suhrkamp pocket book 2774)
  37. Honorary Members: Mario Vargas Llosa. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed March 26, 2019 .
  39. ^ Jury: Mario Vargas Llosa receives Freedom Prize 2008. In: Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom, accessed on December 23, 2017 .
  40. Announcement in the Spanish State Gazette of February 3, 2011. ( Memento of the original of November 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Spanish) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  41. Press release from February 4th 2011. (Spanish)
  42. Mario Vargas Llosa receives Carlos Fuentes Prize. In: , November 23, 2012