1936

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Olympic torch-bearers, 1936
1936
Course of the front in the first two years of the Spanish Civil War
The civil war in Spain begins with the siege of the Alcázar of Toledo .
Edward's Instrument of Abdication
Edward VIII renounces the British crown in favor of the relationship with Wallis Simpson .
Jesse Owens in the long jump at the Olympics
In Berlin the
XI. Summer Olympics exploited for propaganda purposes.
1936 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1384/85 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1928/29 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 92/93 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1340/41 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2479/80 (southern Buddhism); 2478/79 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 77th (78th) cycle

Year of the Fire Rat丙子 ( since January 24th , before that Wood Pig乙亥)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 25
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1298/99 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4269/70 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1314/15 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1354/55 (March 23/24)
Japanese calendar 昭和Shōwa 11;
Koki 2596
Jewish calendar 5696/97 (September 16-17)
Coptic calendar 1652/53 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1111/12
Minguo calendar (China) Year 25 of the Republic
Seleucid era Babylon: 2246/47 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2247/48 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2478/79 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1682
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1992/93 (April)

With two major international sporting events, the year 1936 offered the National Socialists the opportunity to present the German Reich to the outside world in a brilliant way. The Olympic Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen , at which a torch relay is carried out for the first time , and in particular the Olympic Summer Games in Berlin are also exploited for propaganda purposes . From the Nazis' point of view, the perfect staging is not even tarnished by the fact that Jesse Owens, an African American , becomes the most successful athlete at the Games . After all, with the German Empire, a nation other than the United States becomes the most successful nation at the Summer Olympics for the first time.

Domestically, the oppression and persecution of Jews and other minorities is being consistently continued and, in terms of foreign policy, war is being prepared more and more openly . Adolf Hitler terminates the Locarno treaties and allows the Wehrmacht to march into the demilitarized Rhineland , an aggressive act to which France and Great Britain offer no significant resistance. The Berlin-Rome axis is concluded with the fascist Italy of Benito Mussolini , which has just overrun Ethiopia and founded the colony of Italian-East Africa , and the Anti-Comintern Pact against the Soviet Union with the Japanese Empire .

Civil war is now breaking out in Spain . The fascist Falange and the national right in the military under Francisco Franco tried to come to power with a coup, but encountered unexpectedly strong resistance from the republican government . After international brigades - voluntary associations consisting of members of numerous European and American nations - support the republic in its defensive struggle, the German Reich sends the Condor Legion to support the fascists, a welcome dress rehearsal for the warworthiness of the German armed forces.

The British monarchy will be shaken by a scandal at the end of the year. King Edward VIII prefers his relationship with divorced bourgeois Wallis Simpson and abdicates . His brother Albert follows him as George VI. to the throne after.

The cultural highlights of the year are the world premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's musical fairy tale Peter and the Wolf , Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind , the International Surrealist Exhibition in London and the premiere of Charlie Chaplin's satirical silent film Modern Times .

From a sporting point of view, the perfect year for the German Reich is rounded off by Max Schmeling's victory in boxing against the previously undefeated Joe Louis in New York of all places. And the Austrian Sepp “Bubi” Bradl manages the first jump of a person over 100 meters with skis .

events

Politics and world events

Spanish Civil War

José Calvo Sotelo
The Alcázar of Toledo
  • July 21: José Moscardó , military governor of the province of Toledo , declares martial law in Toledo . The next day, Republican units begin the siege of the Alcázar of Toledo .
  • August 7th: The nationalist army takes Almendralejo .
  • 10/11 August: The nationalists under Juan Yagüe win the Battle of Mérida .
  • August 11: During the Guipúzcoa offensive , nationalists conquer the old Basque capital, Tolosa .
  • August 13: When Franco's air force attacks a Republican warship, German soldiers are deployed in Spain for the first time.
  • August 14: In the Battle of Badajoz , Francisco Franco's troops achieve one of the first major victories in the Spanish Civil War and capture the city of Badajoz .
  • August 16 to September 4: The battle for Mallorca , an amphibious landing by the republican army to bring the island of Mallorca back under the control of the Second Spanish Republic, fails after initial successes. In total, there are at least 1,500 fallen on both sides.
  • August 17-21: The victory in the battle of the Sierra Guadalupe is a big step for the nationalists under Juan Yagüe on the march to Madrid . On August 21, Guadalupe fell into the hands of Major Antonio Castejón Espinosa . On August 27, the three nationalist units meet in Navalmoral and begin the first air raids on Madrid.
  • September 3: Republican militias try to stop the march of the nationalists on Madrid near Talavera de la Reina . The Battle of Talavera de la Reina ended with a defeat for the Republicans and soon afterwards began the siege of Madrid .
  • September 23: The nationalists conquer San Sebastian in the Basque Country , ending the Guipúzcoa offensive .
  • September 26th: Nationalist troops arrive north of Toledo. The Republicans then break off the now hopeless siege of the Alcázar of Toledo .
  • September 28: Nationalist troops conquer Toledo in the Spanish Civil War and free the trapped defenders of the Alcázar . More than 200 retarded Republicans are massacred.
  • September 29th: The Spanish nationalists appoint General Francisco Franco as head of state and military commander in chief.
  • October 9th: Following a decision of the Comintern on August 3rd, with the support of Stalin, the first international brigades are set up for the benefit of the Republican government. Military commander of the XI. International Brigade is Manfred Stern . On October 12th, the first 650 volunteers reached the port of Alicante on the steamer Ciudad de Barcelona , where they were divided into three battalions and marched directly to Madrid.
  • October: The siege of Madrid by Franco troops begins.
  • October 25: On the orders of the Republican government, over 500 tons of gold, around three quarters of the gold reserves of the Spanish National Bank, one of the largest gold treasures in the world, are brought from the Spanish port of Cartagena to Odessa in the USSR to protect them from access by the nationalists .
  • Beginning of November: The German " Legion Condor " intervenes in the Spanish civil war
  • November 20: The leader of the Falange fascist party , José Antonio Primo de Rivera , is executed by the Republicans. Francisco Franco is his successor. This day is celebrated as 20-N by followers of Franquism to this day .

German Empire

  • January 1: Only members of the Hitler Youth are to be admitted to the civil service career in Germany.
  • March 7: Germany terminates the Locarno treaties . Wehrmacht troops occupy the demilitarized Rhineland ( Rhineland occupation ). Great Britain refuses France support for a military reconquest, so this does not happen.
  • March 16: Rudolf Hess , as the "Deputy of the Führer", forbids all student members of the NSDAP from membership in a student association .
Ballot for the Reichstag election

Abyssinian War

Switzerland

Soviet Union

Extract from the 1936 constitution

Other events in Europe

Police victims in Thessaloniki

United States of America

Latin America

China

Other international events

Insurgent troops on February 26th
  • February 26: During a coup attempt in Tokyo by members of the Kōdō-ha party, 1,400 officers occupy the parliament, the war ministry and the police headquarters. The uprising will be put down by February 29th.
  • April 19: The death of six protesting Arabs in Jaffa by British police officers boosted the Arab uprising against the British mandate .
Faruq I.
  • April 28th: ​​With the death of his father Fu'ad I. 16-year-old Faruq becomes the new king of Egypt . At this time he is doing officer training at the Woolwich Military Academy in London. A regency council takes over the guardianship of the ruler for one year.
  • June 19 / December 31 August: The Native Trust and Land Act provides that the reserve areas that the black population in the Natives Land Act have been allocated from 1913, of 7.13% (9,709,586 hectares ) to about 13.6% of the total area of South Africa to are enlarge. The proportion of the black population in the total population of the country is around 61% at this point in time.
  • August 26th: A British-Egyptian treaty of alliance restricts the British military occupation to the Suez Canal zone.

International conferences and contracts

business

Money economy

International exhibitions

Fire at the Crystal Palace
After the fire
  • November 30th: London's Crystal Palace , a glass exhibition building from 1851, is destroyed by fire.

Patents and business start-ups

traffic

RMS Queen Mary

miscellaneous

science and technology

Aviation and Transport

The Hindenburg reaches Lakehurst
  • March 4th: The LZ 129 Hindenburg , the largest aircraft ever built, has its maiden voyage with 85 people from Friedrichshafen via Meersburg back to Friedrichshafen. The three-hour journey over 180 kilometers is led by Ernst A. Lehmann , Hans von Schiller and Hugo Eckener. On March 19, the rigid airship will be delivered to the Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei (DZR). The first commercial passenger voyage to the USA starts on the evening of May 6th at 9:30 p.m. in Frankfurt and ends after the record time of 61.5 hours on May 9th at 6:10 a.m. at the anchor mast in Lakehurst . By the end of the year, the Hindenburg will travel ten times to the USA and seven times to Brazil and transport around 1,600 people.
  • May 11: The Reichsbahn sets a world speed record for steam locomotives with a class 05 locomotive. The locomotive reaches a speed of 200.4 km / h.
  • July 8th: For the first time, an airplane, a Ju 52 , lands at the Rhein-Main airport and airship port , which is officially opened. On July 14th, the LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin landed an airship at the new airport for the first time.
  • July: The German chief engineer and inventor Engelbert Zaschka publishes one of the first writings in German on the nature of the helicopter with the title rotary wing aircraft. Gyroscopes and helicopters.
  • September 5: Beryl Markham's first solo flight across the Atlantic in an east-west direction ends with a crash landing in Nova Scotia .
  • November 24: Maurice Claisse achieved with a Breguet - Coaxial " Gyroplane Laboratoire " a flight altitude of 158 meters: a world record.

Technical achievements

Hoover Dam (1942)

miscellaneous

Skull with hair of the goat man

Culture

Visual arts

Movie

literature

Early Phantom Comics logo

Music and theater

Rodgers and Hart

society

  • January 16: American serial killer Albert Fish is executed on the electric chair . The number of his victims is indefinite, 16 or more people are presumed.
  • May 21: Abe Sada is arrested by police in Tokyo . In her handbag are the severed genitals of her lover, whom she strangled three days earlier during an erotic game . The case attracts national attention.

religion

Disasters

Sports

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Victor Franz Hess
(1883–1964)
AustriaAustria Austria "For the discovery of cosmic rays " Victor Franz Hess
Carl David Anderson
(1905-1991)
United States 48United States United States "For the discovery of the positron "
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Peter Debye
(1884-1966)
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands "For his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structures through his research on dipole moments, on the diffraction of X-rays and on electrons in gases" Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Henry Hallett Dale
(1875-1968)
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom "For their discoveries in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses" (Dalesches principle)
Otto Loewi
(1873–1961)
AustriaAustria Austria (born in Frankfurt am Main , German Empire ) German EmpireThe German Imperium 
Nobel Prize in Literature
(awarded in 1937)
Eugene O'Neill
(1888-1953)
United States 48United States United States "For his dramatic poetry, which is characterized by strength, honesty and strong feeling as well as an independent understanding of the tragic" Eugene O'Neill
Nobel Peace Prize Carlos Saavedra Lamas
(1878-1959)
ArgentinaArgentina Argentina President of the League of Nations Assembly and mediator in the conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia (1935) Carlos Saavedra Lamas

Born

January

Reiner Klimke

February

Burt Reynolds, 1991

March

April

May

June

July

Rex Gildo, 1975
Klaus Bresser (2008)

August

Yves Saint Laurent, 1976
Robert Redford (2005)

September

Buddy Holly, 1957
Al Oerter
  • September 20: Paulus Böhmer , German writer († 2018)
  • September 20: Andrew Davies , British teacher, writer and screenwriter
  • September 21: Dickey Lee , American singer and songwriter
  • September 21: Yuri Luzhkov , Russian politician († 2019)
  • September 21: Sunny Murray , American jazz musician († 2017)
  • September 21: Jean Pütz , German science journalist and television presenter
  • September 23: Klaus Knall , German conductor and cantor
  • September 23: Manfred Tümmler , German voice actor and film actor († 1990)
  • September 24: Jim Henson , American director and TV producer († 1990)
Jim Henson, 1989
Silvio Berlusconi, 2010

October

Gerhard Ertl, 2008
Michael Landon, 1990

November

Wolf Biermann, 2008
Cardinal Théodore-Adrien Sarr (2008)

December

Klaus Kinkel, 2005

Exact date of birth unknown

Tariq Aziz

Died

January February

Rudyard Kipling
George V.

March April

Robert Bárány
  • 0April 8: Robert Bárány , Hungarian physician and neurochemist (* 1876)
  • 0April 9: Ferdinand Tönnies , sociologist, economist and philosopher (* 1855)
  • April 11: Karl Schell , Swiss composer, conductor and organist (* 1864)
  • April 14th: Georg Wiegner , German agricultural chemist and soil scientist (* 1883)
  • April 15: Hilda Sehested , Danish pianist and composer (* 1858)
  • April 17: Fritz Hommel , German orientalist (* 1854)
  • April 17: Julius Spengel , German composer, conductor and pianist (* 1853)
  • April 18: Ottorino Respighi , Italian composer (* 1879)
  • April 27: Karl Pearson , English mathematician (* 1857)
  • April 28: Otto Arendt , German publicist and politician (* 1854)
  • April 28: Fuad I , King of Egypt (* 1868)
  • April 30: Oran Pape , American football player (born 1904)

May June

July August

García Lorca 1932

September October

November December

Basil Zaharoff, 1928

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1936  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files