Federico García Lorca

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Federico García Lorca (1932)
Federico García Lorca signature.svg

Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca [feðeˈɾiko ðel saˈɣɾaðo koɾaˈθon de xeˈsus ɣaɾˈθi.a ˈloɾka ], commonly known as Federico García Lorca , (born June 5, 1898 in Fuente Vaqueros , Granada province near Granada ; † August 19, 1936 in Víznaros ) was a Spanish lyric poet and playwright. He is one of the leading figures of the Generación del 27 , which includes poets such as Vicente Aleixandre , Dámaso Alonso , Rafael Alberti , Pedro Salinas , Jorge Guillén and Gerardo Diego . Together with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, he renewed the Spanish theater, which was frozen in late Romantic formulas and a flat naturalism .


Childhood and youth in Granada (1898–1919)

García Lorca's birth house in Fuente Vaqueros

Federico García Lorca grew up in rural Fuente Vaqueros , in the fertile Vega de Granada . His father was a wealthy aristocratic farmer, patriarchal but liberal. His mother was a village school teacher interested in music and literature. His childhood playmates included his younger brother Francisco, his little sisters Concha and Isabel and the numerous children of relatives living in Fuente Vaqueros. In 1909 the family moved to the provincial capital, Granada , where the father rented a handsome house with a garden in the city center. During his school days Federico received music lessons and he was so enthusiastic about music that he considered studying music after graduating from school. However, his father was studying law at the University of Granada and so the seventeen-year-old matriculated not only in the law but also in the philosophy faculty. As a student, Federico frequented the artistic and literary circles of the provincial capital and made his first attempts at writing. The poetic models of these apprenticeship years were Rubén Darío , the creator of modernism and the pioneer of Spanish poetry of the twentieth century, the Andalusians Antonio Machado and Juan Ramón Jiménez . Her influence was reflected in the first volume of poetry by the young Federico, which appeared in 1918 under the title Impresiones y paisajes and whose printing was financed by his father.

In the Madrid Residencia de Estudiantes (1919–1929)

With this first work under her arm, Lorca set off for Madrid in the spring of 1919 to complete his studies at the university in accordance with his father's wishes, but also with the intention of participating in artistic and intellectual life in the capital. He moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes , an institution founded in 1910 on the model of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge on the basis of liberal and cosmopolitan principles. There he found not only the ideal atmosphere for studying and writing, but also for friendly and intellectual exchange. In the Residencia he soon became the focus of a wide circle of friends, including the young Catalan Salvador Dalí , who studied painting at the Madrid Art Academy of San Fernando, and the budding filmmaker Luis Buñuel . A close friendship developed between Lorca and Dalí, which was strengthened through artistic affinity and visits by Lorca to Dalí's parents' house in Cadaqués .

Lorca, who published his second volume of poems Libro de poemas in 1921, soon found a connection to Madrid's theater life. Despite an initial failure with the modernist play El maleficio de la mariposa , which only saw four performances in the Teatro Eslava in 1920, the Tragicomedia de don Cristóbal y la señá Rosita was created in 1922 , a farce in the style of French puppet theater that did not take the stage came, but is regarded as a finger exercise for the later work La zapatera prodigiosa (1930). During these intense years up to 1925, the poems that appeared in 1927 under the title Canciones , the modernist drama Mariana Pineda , which was also performed in 1927, and above all the first drafts for the book of poems Romancero gitano , published in 1928 by Ortega y Gasset published Revista de Occidente appeared and made Lorca suddenly famous. The poet's first creative period culminates in the Romancero's poems , in which the traditional folk song - romance - is given new content and formally expanded. On a personal level, the Romancero's success coincided with the end of his friendship with Dalí, who moved to Paris in the spring of 1929 to work with Buñuel on the film Un chien andalou .

Trip to New York and Cuba (1929–1930)

The break with Dalí, who was also artistically motivated, and the extraordinary audience success of the Romancero contributed to a serious crisis that Lorca tried to escape by a long and long journey to the USA and Cuba . In June 1929, accompanied by a friend of the family, Fernando de los Ríos, he traveled to New York via Paris and London . There he settled in a dormitory at the University of Columbia and took some English courses, which he did not attend regularly. He preferred to wander through the huge metropolis and be impressed by it, as he reported in his letters home. During the summer he spent several weeks with American friends in Eden Mills, Vermont , where he worked on his New York impressions, the later poems of the Poeta en Nueva York cycle , and then returned to New York and his student room in Columbia. In a letter to his parents he wrote: “I started something for the theater that can be interesting. You have to think of the theater of the future, what there is now in Spain is dead. Either the theater is radically changed or it is dying out. There is no other solution. ”He was referring to his surrealist drama Así que pasen cinco años . On October 29th, he witnessed the historic stock market crash on Wall Street , which he addressed in Poeta en Nueva York .

In the spring of 1930 Lorca traveled to Cuba, where he was invited by the Institución Hispano-Cubana de Cultura to spend three months. He was enthusiastically received in Havana and celebrated as the author of the Romancero gitano . He wrote to his family: “Don't forget that in America a poet is more than a prince in Europe.” He gave several lectures in the Teatro Principal de la Comedia in Havana on Spanish children's songs ( Canciones de cuna españolas ), on the baroque poet Luis de Góngora and on the Andalusian cante jondo , he also worked on two plays Así que pasen cinco años and El Público , as well as on the Oda a Walt Whitman , which are stylistically part of the New York poetry cycle.

Lorca was homosexual but struggled with it and hid his sexual orientation from his family. During this time, especially in Cuba, he began to live out his homosexuality more openly.

In the spring of 1930 Lorca prepared to return to Spain, where an explosive political situation prevailed after the overthrow of the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera on January 18, 1930. “I read the reports on the situation in Spain with great interest every day. It's a volcano, ”he wrote to the family in the spring.

The years of success (1931-1935)

Huerta de San Vicente , García Lorca's summer house in Granada

When Lorca arrived in Granada on July 1, 1930, the political situation in the country had changed a lot. The monarchy of Alfonso XIII. , under whose mark the childhood and youth of the poet had stood, wavered. The local elections on April 12 of the following year 1931, which brought the republican parties a large majority, were followed on April 14 by the abdication of the king and the proclamation of the republic . Liberal-minded by nature, his stay in the Residencia de Estudiantes made him believe in liberal ideas and social justice, Lorca, like many Spaniards, welcomed the republic and stood up for its democratic goals.

He immediately took over the management of the La Barraca touring theater founded by Madrid students at the end of 1931 , which was supposed to bring the theater to the villages. As a director, actor, set designer, musician or stage worker, he traveled through the country with the Barraca and performed the works of Cervantes , Lope de Vega , Tirso de Molina and Calderón on improvised stages to an astonished and attentive audience . In the summer of 1932 he completed his own piece Bodas de sangre (Blood Wedding), which he had been working on since the summer of 1931. The premiere took place on March 8, 1933 in Madrid's Teatro Beatriz and was both a social event and a great success for the author. In the ascendant of this success, Lorca traveled to Argentina and Uruguay in September 1933 . In Buenos Aires , where he was received effusively, he met Victoria Ocampo , editor of the literary magazine Sur , and the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda , who became a good friend. On October 25th, the American premiere of Bodas de sangre took place in Buenos Aires . The actress Lola Membrives, who played the role of mother in this play, and her ensemble subsequently performed La zapatera prodigiosa (December 1, 1933) and Mariana Pineda (January 12, 1934).

On his return to Spain in the spring of 1934, Lorca found a troubled political situation. The general election of November 1933 had brought a conservative government to power. Social tensions erupted in the Revolution of Asturias in October 1934, "from which both the right and the left emerged with a revolutionary attitude," as the historian Vicens Vives writes. Lorca wrote one of his most famous poems at this time, Llanto a Ignacio Sánchez Mejías , in honor of his bullfighter friend Sánchez Mejías, who was killed by a bull during a corrida in the summer . In his memoirs, the then Chilean ambassador Carlos Morla Lynch describes the deep impression that the poet made on his friends when he read the poem on November 4th. At the end of 1934, the premiere of Yerma , Lorca's new play, took place in Madrid's Teatro Español. The performance with Margarita Xirgu , the “grande dame” of the Spanish theater at the time, in the lead role was a great success, despite initial attempts by right-wing extremists.

Lorca's breakthrough in 1935 was unprecedented. Not only in the field of theater, where Yerma competed in the Teatro Español with Bodas de sangre and La zapatera prodigiosa in the performance of Lola Membrives in the Teatro Coliseum, the Romancero gitano was also "the best-selling volume of poetry of the century" with six editions. In September Lorca accompanied the Xirgu to Barcelona , where she presented Yerma and Bodas de sangre . Then on December 12th, the world premiere of Doña Rosita la soltera , the author's youngest play, took place in the Teatre Principal .

The fateful year 1936

Olive tree near Víznar

Lorca had to accompany the end of 1935 before, Margarita Xirgu at its Mexico tour, but remained in Madrid and witnessed the parliamentary elections of February 1936, a coalition of liberal and left-wing parties, that a Popular Front government , led by Manuel Azana who, at Brought power. The radicalization of the extreme wings of both right and left parties on the political spectrum, which led to street battles and retaliatory acts, was secondary to the army's preparations for a coup. In June-July Lorca was still in summery Madrid. He had finished his latest play, La casa de Bernarda Alba (Bernarda Alba's House), and before his friends left for the summer retreat, he read them his work. He too wanted to spend the summer away from Madrid with his parents in Granada, but kept postponing his departure, which was certainly precipitated by events on the evening of July 13th. In Granada, Lorca went to the Huerta de San Vicente , a simple country house near the city, where the family used to spend the summer. On July 18, the feared coup took place across the country, which was led by officers of the garrison in Morocco under the leadership of General Franco . The military uprising did not catch on in all of Spain, and the country fell into two opposing parts: The Spanish Civil War had begun. Like Seville or Córdoba, Granada was one of the Andalusian cities in which the coup plotters were victorious.

The Hispanist Ian Gibson compiled and published the data on these events for the first time in his groundbreaking study Lareprión nacionalista en Granada en 1936 y la muerte de García Lorca . According to Gibson's account, which he underpinned with other publications - Granada 1936. El asesinato de García Lorca and the three-volume Lorca biography from 1987 - the poet left the country house when the terror unleashed by the coup plotters against all supporters of the Popular Front promised bad things of his parents and sought refuge in the city with the Rosales family, friends. Although their sons were leaders in the local Falange , the fascist organization involved in the military coup, they could not prevent their friend Lorca from being arrested from their house on August 16 with a large police effort. Under the command of former CEDA MP Ramón Ruiz Alonso, he was taken to the Gobierno Civil , the headquarters of the insurgent military, where he was detained for a few days. From there he was transported in the night to Víznar in the vicinity of Granada and at dawn on the road to Alfacar together with three other Republicans (Dióscoro Galindo González, Joaquín Arcollas and Francisco Galadí) probably on August 18 or 19 by the landowner Juan Luis Trescastro shot. He was buried right on the roadside. "Death as a result of war-related injuries" was noted on the death certificate. General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano gave his blessing to the Falangist civil governor José Valdés Guzmán by telephone for this act . The murder of Federico García Lorca was a social taboo in Spain until 1975 .

As part of the “Law on Historical Remembrance” ( Ley de Memoria Histórica ) passed by the Rodríguez Zapatero government in 2007, public and private funds were used to search for the suspected grave of García Lorca in 2009 in Víznar. In 2014, a second attempt to locate the grave followed, which also failed. The poet's family has repeatedly spoken out against these exhumation attempts. In 2015, a previously unknown police report from Granada appeared on July 9, 1965, in which the Francoist authorities admitted Lorca's murder. The report contains various new details about the course of the crime, including an inaccurate description of the grave site. Apart from general accusations as a “socialist”, “freemason” and “practicing homosexual”, there was “nothing concrete” against the poet and he had made a “confession” of unspecified content before his shooting.


Lorca statue in Plaza de Santa Ana in Madrid
Bust of Federico García Lorca in Santoña, Cantabria


  • Impresiones y paisajes (1918)
  • Libro de poemas (1921)
  • Canciones (1927)
  • Romancero gitano (1928)
  • Poeta en Nueva York (1929)
  • Poema del cante jondo (1931)
  • Canciones populares españolas (1931)
  • Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (1935)
  • Seis poemas gallegos (1935)
  • Primeras canciones (1936)
  • Diván del Tamarit (started in 1934, published posthumously in 1940 )


  • El maleficio de la mariposa (1920)
  • Tragicomedia de Don Cristóbal y la señá Rosita (1922)
  • Mariana Pineda (1927)
  • La zapatera prodigiosa (1930)
  • El Público (1930)
  • Retablillo de Don Cristóbal (1931)
  • Así que pasen cinco años (1931)
  • Bodas de sangre (1933)
  • Yerma (1934)
  • Doña Rosita la soltera (1935)
  • La comedia sin título (1935), unfinished; 2018 added by Alberto Conejero
  • La Casa de Bernarda Alba (1936)

Work editions

  • Obras completas , 8 vol., Ed. Guillermo de Torre, Losada, Buenos Aires 1938
  • Obras completas , 1 vol., Ed. Arturo del Hoyo, Aguilar, Madrid 1954
  • Obras completas , 12 vol., Published by Mario Hernández, Alianza, Madrid 1981 (paperback edition)
  • Obras completas , 3 vol., Edited by Arturo del Hoyo, Aguilar, Madrid 1986
  • Œuvres complètes , 2 vol., Edited by André Belamich, La Pléiade, Gallimard, Paris 1981 and 1990

Translations into German

The translations of the Lorca texts into German have long been controversial. Long-time translator Enrique Beck had received exclusive rights to translations into German from the heirs. These translations were repeatedly the target of criticism, in particular by Harald Weinrich , Hans Magnus Enzensberger and Gustav Siebenmann. Meanwhile, Lorca's works have been retransmitted by various translators.


  • sorpresa, unexpectedly. Selected poems 1918–1921 , German by José FA Oliver, Berlin 2015
  • The poems. Spanish-German . Edited by Ernst Rudin and José Manuel Lopez. Selected and transferred by Enrique Beck, Göttingen 2008
  • The pieces , German by Thomas Brovot, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Susanne Lange, Rudolf Wittkopf, Frankfurt Main, 2007
  • Poet in New York , German by Martin v. Koppenfels, Frankfurt Main, 2005
  • Gypsy romances , German by Martin Koppenfels, Frankfurt Main, 2002.
  • The audience / untitled comedy, two pieces from the estate , in German by Rudolf Wittkopf, Frankfurt Main, 1998
  • Dona Rosita stays single or The Language of Flowers , German by Enrique Beck, Berlin
  • Blood wedding , German by Enrique Beck, Wiesbaden 1952.


  • José Luis Cano: García Lorca. Una biografía ilustrada , Barcelona 1962.
  • Angel del Río: Vida y obras de Federico García Lorca , Zaragoza 1952.
  • Francisco García Lorca: Federico y su mundo , Madrid 1980.
  • Isabel García Lorca: Recuerdos míos , Barcelona 2002.
  • Karen Genschow: Federico García Lorca. Life, work, effect , Berlin 2011.
  • Ian Gibson: La Nahrungsmittel nacionalista en Granada en 1936 y la muerte de Federico García Lorca , Paris 1971.
  • Ian Gibson: Granada 1936. El asesinato de García Lorca , Barcelona 1979.
  • Ian Gibson: Federico García Lorca. I De Fuentevaqueros a Nueva York 1898-1929 , Barcelona 1985 and Federico García Lorca. II. De Nueva York a Fuente Grande 1929–1936 , Barcelona 1987, (German translation: Federico García Lorca. A biography , Frankfurt 1994).
  • Jorge Guillén: Federico en persona , Buenos Aires 1959 (German translation: Federico García Lorca: Letters to Jorge Guillén , Wiesbaden 1976).
  • Gerhard Katschnig: Art as Resistance - Lorcas Andalusia. In: Michael Fischer (Ed.): Art as a brand of European identity (Vol. 3) , Frankfurt am Main 2013.
  • Carlos Morla Lynch: En España con Federico García Lorca , Madrid 1957.
  • Antonina Rodrigo: Lorca-Dalí. Una amistad traicionada , Barcelona 1981.
  • Ernst Rudin: Translation and reception of García Lorcas in the German-speaking area. Lectures at the Casteler Colloquium , Kassel 1997.
  • Ernst Rudin: The poet and his executioner? Lorca's poetry and theater in German translation, 1938–1998 , Kassel 2000.

Settings of Lorca works

In Spanish music

Works by Federico García Lorca found and are used in many ways in Spanish music. Especially in flamenco , his themes recur frequently. Some examples are:

  • La Argentinitas interpretation of his Canciones populares españolas , published in 1932 by La voz de su amo . In the original recording, Federico García Lorca himself accompanied Argentinita's singing on the piano. Rosario and Antonio later interpreted some of the songs from the cycle in dance several times. In the 1950s La voz de su alma put on a new recording of four of the songs with different interpreters. In 1994 Audivis released a new recording of the entire cycle, sung by Carmen Linares .
  • His poem Diálogo del Amargo was taken up several times. José Granero picked it up in his choreography El Amargo in the early 1980s . El Güito brought his choreography and dance to Diálogos del Amargo in 1982 first prize at the Sitges Theater Festival . José Antonio Ruiz choreographed it for the Ballet Español de Madrid and danced the role of the horse Jinete .
  • Belén Maya , Isabel Bayón and Rafaela Carrasco danced in 1997 in Los flamencos cantan y bailan a Lorca to the choreography by Mario Maya .
  • Matilde Coral as choreographer and El Farruco as dancer brought the choreography Preciosa y el aire to verses by Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti and Miguel Hernández on stage in the early 1970s .
  • María Pagés staged De la luna al viento with her company in 1994 as a contribution to the Seville Biennale in 1994 . The piece offered a musical and dance portrait of Andalusia to verses by Federico García Lorca.
  • Romance sonámbulo was arranged in different versions as a vocal piece. An interpretation as a dance song can be found in Carlos Saura's film Flamenco from 1995. Another well-known interpretation wassungby Ana Belén and Manzanita .
  • For the 2002 Biennale, Javier Barón brought Dime to the stage, a homage to Federico García Lorca.
  • Belén Maya took up themes of the poet again in 2004 with the Compañía Andaluza de Danza in Los caminos de Lorca .


  • Francis Poulenc , Trois chansons de Federico García Lorca , composition for voice and piano, 1947
  • Henri Tomasi , Concerto pour guitare á la memoire d'un poète assassiné Federico García Lorca , 1966
  • Dmitri Shostakovich , Symphony No. 14 Op. 135 , 1969. The first two movements are settings of the poems De profundis and Malagueña (1921)
  • George Crumb , Ancient Voices of Children , for soprano, boy soprano, oboe, mandolin, harp, electric piano and drums, 1970
  • Hans Werner Henze , El rey de Harlem , chamber opera, world premiere at the Witten Days for New Chamber Music, 1980
  • Leonard Cohen , Take this Waltz , Lied in: I'm your Man (CD), 1988
  • Flavio Testi , Mariana Pineda , Opera in three acts, world premiere in Erfurt, 2007
  • Roland Schmidt, La sombra de mi alma , song cycle for soprano and percussion quartet, 2012

Web links

Commons : Federico García Lorca  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Routledge Modern and Contemporary Dramatists .
  2. ^ Ian Gibson, Federico García Lorca. I De Fuentevaqueros a Nueva York, Grijalbo, Barcelona, ​​p. 38.
  3. ^ Gibson, pp. 43 and 46.
  4. ^ Gibson, p. 78.
  5. ^ Gibson, p. 99.
  6. ^ Gibson, p. 102.
  7. José Luis Cano, García Lorca. Biografía ilustrada, Destino, Barcelona 1962, p. 24.
  8. Literary Lexicon 20th Century, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1971, p. 286.
  9. Gibson, pp. 231-232.
  10. Gibson, pp. 368-371.
  11. Gibson, pp. 362-365.
  12. ^ Gibson, pp. 401 and 493.
  13. ^ Francisco García Lorca: Federico y su mundo. Alianza, Madrid 1980, pp. 262-266.
  14. ^ Gibson I., p. 391.
  15. ^ Gibson I., p. 479.
  16. ^ Antonina Rodrigo: Lorca-Dalí. Una amistad traicionada. Planeta, Barcelona 1981, p. 210.
  17. ^ Gibson I., p. 589.
  18. Rodrigo, p. 210.
  19. Angel del Río: Vida y obras de García Lorca. Estudios literarios, Zaragoza, 1952, p. 36.
  20. Federico García Lorca escribe a su familia desde Nueva York y La Habana, 1929–1930. In Poesía / Nº 23–24, Madrid 1985.
  21. Poesía / Nº 23-24, p. 87.
  22. Poesía / 23-24, p. 78.
  23. Poesía / Nº 23–24. P. 81.
  24. Poesía / 23-24. P. 90.
  25. ^ Gibson II, p. 88.
  26. ^ Gibson II., P. 115.
  27. ^ Karen Genschow: Federico García Lorca. Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2011, p. 25, p. 39.
  28. Christopher Maurer: Federico García Lorca. Epistolario. Volume II, Alianza, Madrid 1983, p. 138.
  29. ^ Atlas Histórico Mundial, II., Istmo, Madrid 1971, p. 177.
  30. Gibson II, p. 153 ff.
  31. Gibson II., P. 159ff.
  32. ^ Gibson II., P. 199.
  33. Gibson II., P. 228ff.
  34. Gibson II, pp. 288 and 291.
  35. Atlas histórico II., P. 197.
  36. Jaime Vicens Vives: History of Spain. Urban books, W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1969, p. 131.
  37. ^ Carlos Morla Lynch: En España con Federico García Lorca. Aguilar, Madrid 1957, pp. 422-423.
  38. Gibson II., P. 333ff.
  39. Gibson II, pp. 349-350.
  40. ^ Gibson II, p. 369.
  41. Gibson II, p. 402.
  42. ^ Atlas histórico mundial, p. 197 and p. 219.
  43. Gibson, II., Pp. 449-450.
  44. ^ Ruedo Ibérico, Paris 1971.
  45. ^ Grijalbo, Barcelona 1979.
  46. ^ A b c Antony Beevor (traduit par Jean-François Sené): La Guerre d'Espagne . 3. Edition. Éditions Calmann-Lévy, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-253-12092-6 , pp. 177, 779 .
  47. ^ Karen Genschow: Federico García Lorca. Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2011, p. 123.
  48. El País , Madrid, December 18, 2009.
  49. El País , Madrid, October 29, 2015.
  50. ^ Asesinato de Lorca. Salen a la luz nuevos documentos que confirman la implicación de los golpistas. In: La aventura de la historia , ISSN  1579-427X , 17th year (2015), issue 200, p. 8.
  51. Rocío García: La 'Comedia sin título' de Lorca ya tiene su final . In: El País . February 14, 2018, ISSN  1134-6582 ( elpais.com [accessed April 20, 2019]).
  52. Defoliation of a rose , in Der Spiegel 34/1950.
  53. Lorca in a sham. The Wallstein publishing house with a questionable poetry edition. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . September 2, 2008.
  54. ^ Albrecht Buschmann : Three tongues for Federico. Poetry and Theater García Lorcas, newly translated. ( Memento from June 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: The literary world. March 24, 2001.
  55. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume II.Signatura Ediciones de Andalucía, Sevilla 2010, ISBN 978-84-96210-71-4 , pp. 131 .
  56. Federico García Lorca, La Argentinita: Colección de Canciones Populares Antiguas. Original music. In: Youtube. Tamerlan Music Traducciones, accessed February 7, 2019 (Spanish).
  57. Pedro Vaquero: Las verdaderes letras de las cancones populares de Federico García Lorca. In: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Retrieved February 7, 2019 (Spanish).
  58. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume II, p. 229 .
  59. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume II, p. 232 .
  60. a b José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume II, p. 133 .
  61. ^ Antonio Ramon: Diálogo del Amargo. In: Poetas Andaluzes. Retrieved April 20, 2019 (Spanish).
  62. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume III. Signatura Ediciones de Andalucía, Sevilla 2010, ISBN 978-84-96210-72-1 , p. 106 .
  63. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume III, p. 255 .
  64. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume III, p. 160 .
  65. a b José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume IV, p. 196 .
  66. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . tape IV , p. 154 .
  67. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume V. Signatura Ediciones de Andalucía, Sevilla 2010, ISBN 978-84-96210-88-2 , p. 85 .
  68. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume III, p. 196 .
  69. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume IV.Signatura Ediciones de Andalucía, Sevilla 2010, ISBN 978-84-96210-73-8 , pp. 106-107 .
  70. ^ Carlos Saura: Flamenco. (Video) In: YouTube. March 9, 2013, accessed on January 28, 2016 (Spanish, Romance sonámbulo from 1:29:30).
  71. ^ Ana Belén and Manzanita: Romance sonámbulo. (Video) directo. In: YouTube. November 8, 2008, Retrieved January 28, 2016 (Spanish).
  72. José Luis Navarro García: Historia del Baile Flamenco . Volume IV, p. 76 .