Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech , from 1982 Marqués de Púbol (born May 11, 1904 in Figueres , Catalonia ; † January 23, 1989 ibid), was a Spanish painter , graphic artist , writer , sculptor and set designer . As one of the main representatives of Surrealism, he is one of the most famous painters of the 20th century. By 1929, Dalí had found his personal style and genre, the world of the unconscious that appears in dreams. Melting clocks, crutches and flaming giraffes became recognizable features in Dalí's painting. His technical ability as a painter allowed him to paint his paintings in a style reminiscent of the old masters, reminiscent of later photorealism .
Dalí's most frequent themes, besides the world of dreams, are those of intoxication, fever and religion; his wife Gala is often shown in his paintings . Dalí's sympathy for the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco , his eccentric behavior and his late work have often led to controversies in the evaluation of his person and his works up to the present day.
Salvador Dalí was born at Carrer Monturiol 20 in Figueres (Catalonia) as the son of the respected notary Don Salvador Dalí y Cusí (1872–1952) and his wife Doña Felipa Domènech y Ferres (1874–1921) and received his name nine months earlier dead brother Salvador I (* October 21, 1901, † August 1, 1903). This awakened the will to prove to the world that he was the original and unique. As a child he is said to have feared his brother's grave.
The middle-class environment and the strict upbringing of his father created a strong need for security and a pronounced sense of order in Salvador, which was to determine his later life. His mother, whom he loved very much, made up for his father's strictness; she tolerated his early idiosyncrasies such as outbursts of anger, wetting, daydreams, and lies.
Dalí's sister Ana María was born in January 1908 and suffered from having to share the love of his parents. Little Salvador took possession of the attic of the house, the "washroom", to which the sister had no access; up there in his imagination he was the “ruler of the world” and painted pictures on the lids of hat boxes. In elementary school he was inattentive and lost in dreams. The family spent the summer holidays in their own house near Cadaqués . The six-year-old is said to have watched a neighbor, the hobby painter Juan Salleras, paint for hours. At this age he took his first picture.
In his autobiography The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí , he described his dreams for the future: “At the age of six I wanted to be a cook [sic]. When I was seven I wanted to be Napoleon . And my ambition has grown steadily since then. "
In 1927 he designed an “opera poem” entitled Être Dieu ( God to be ); the project was realized in 1974.
The impressionist painting of the Spanish painter and neighbor Ramon Pichot i Gironès inspired Dalí when he was ten years old. At the age of fourteen, “art pompier” , 19th century genre painting, became the model for his attempts at painting. After attending elementary school, he also attended the “Instituto de Figueres” from 1916 onwards at the Kolleg der Maristen, a private grammar school. Josep "Pepito" Pichot, a brother of Ramon Pichot, recognized his talent for painting, and at his suggestion, Dalí was allowed to take evening courses at the municipal drawing school. After just one year he received a “diploma de honor” there. His art teacher was the director of the institute, Juan Núñez Fernández, who promoted Dalí's enthusiasm for art. After the war ended in 1918, Dalí joined a group of anarchists and set out to develop a Marxist revolution. In 1921 he and friends founded the socialist group “Renovació Social”. In June 1922, Dalí finished school with a degree in Bachillerato (Abitur).
Following a successful group exhibition in the Dalmau Gallery in Barcelona in January 1922 , which contained eight paintings by Dalí, his father sent him to study at the “Academia San Fernando” for painting, sculpture and graphics in Madrid , which he started in October 1922 visited. He moved into a room in the student residence " Residencia de Estudiantes "; among the students were Luis Buñuel and Federico García Lorca , a close friend with whom he temporarily shared the room. A sexual relationship that Lorca wanted to have with Dalí, however, Dalí refused. In 1926 Lorca published his ode to Salvador Dalí in José Ortega y Gasset's magazine Revista de Occidente :
“O Salvador Dalí, olive-colored! / I do not praise your imperfect youthful brush, not your color, which circles around the color of your time, but I praise your longing for a limited eternity. [...] "
To emphasize his artistry, Dalí dressed eccentrically in a large black felt hat, velvet jacket and floor-length cloak, had shoulder-length hair, sideburns, a pipe in the corner of his mouth and carried a stick with a gilded knob.
Dalí devoted himself with Lorca and Buñuel to the writings of the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and called psychoanalysis one of the main discoveries of his life. After his first year-long expulsion from the academy in 1923, he was wrongly accused of being a riot leader in Catalonia and imprisoned from May 21 to June 11. The real reason for the imprisonment is believed to have been an action against Dalí's father, who filed a petition for election fraud following the Primo de Rivera coup . In 1924, Dalí returned to the academy. In April 1926 he traveled to Paris for the first time and met Pablo Picasso .
On October 20, 1926, he was finally expelled from the Academy by royal decree for improper conduct. He had refused to take the exam because he felt the teachers were incapable of assessing him.
After the early Impressionist phase, Dalí's painting style now showed cubist , pointillist and futuristic influences. In 1927 and 1928 he wrote art-critical texts that already dealt with a surrealist topic such as Saint Sebastian . In 1927, García Lorca's play Mariana Pineda was premiered in Dalí's stage set. In 1928 Dalí wrote the Yellow Manifesto together with Lluís Montañya and Sebastià Gasch.
Paris, wedding with gala
His first painting to be considered surrealist was Blood is Sweeter Than Honey from 1927. Ana María and Seated Young Girl from Behind were exhibited in 1928 at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh. After a first solo exhibition in 1925 in the “Galerie Dalmau” in Barcelona, which was positively rated by local art critics, a second one followed from December 31, 1926 to January 14, 1927. In 1928, Dalí traveled to Paris for the second time. There he worked with Luis Buñuel on the scripts for the surrealist films Un chien andalou ( An Andalusian Dog ) in 1929 and on L'Âge d'Or ( The Golden Age ) a year later. The performance of L'Âge d'Or led to a scandal, which was followed by a performance ban, and destroyed friendship with Buñuel. The film was financed by Marie-Laure de Noailles , an eccentric art collector and patron, together with her husband, the Viscount de Noailles, and had its world premiere in the Villa Noailles . The performance ban was only lifted in 1981.
At the suggestion of Joan Miró , Dalí joined the group of surrealists in Paris in 1929 and met, for example, Hans Arp , André Breton , Max Ernst , Yves Tanguy , René Magritte , Man Ray , Tristan Tzara and Paul Éluard and his wife, the Russian Immigrant Helena, called Gala . Dalí fell in love with Gala, she gave in to the courtship of the ten years younger man and became his partner, which led to the break with Dalí's father, who would not tolerate an illegitimate relationship. Although Dalí claimed to be completely impotent and sexually inexperienced, he was tied to Gala in lustful addiction throughout his life. Dalí's sexual obsessions are reflected in his paintings, for example in The Adaptation of Desires from the same year that shows the desires in the form of lions' heads. The couple married after Galas divorced from Éluard in 1934, but Dalí was not married in church until 1958, six years after Éluard's death.
Gala became his muse , she replaced his family, organized his exhibitions and conducted sales talks as his manager. She changed the direction of his life, brought Narcissus Salvador out of his visions and conveyed reality to him. Dalí signed his pictures with "Gala Dalí" for a while, showing his attachment to her. She always inspired him to create new pictures in different thematic areas, modeled him as Venus or Madonna, and he portrayed or depicted them as nudes .
They spent the years 1930 to 1932 in Paris together. With the increasing sales of his pictures, they expanded their house in Portlligat , a combination of several former fishermen's cottages in a small bay near Cadaqués, which they had bought in 1930. It was thanks to Gala that Dalí became financially the most successful artist of his time. Thanks to a loan granted by Picasso, which was never repaid, Dalí and Gala were able to travel to the USA for the first time in 1934.
Dalí and the surrealist group
In 1931 Dalí painted one of his most famous works, The Persistence of Memory , also known as Soft Watches or Melting Clocks . It shows four dissolving pocket watches arranged in the Catalan countryside in front of the craggy cliffs of Cap de Creus . In 1954, Dalí took up the motif again and processed the clock theme by dissolving the persistence of memory .
Breton valued Dalí's early surrealist paintings such as The Great Masturbator from 1929 and wrote the introduction to Dalí's first solo exhibition at the Goemans Gallery in Paris. In his autobiography The Secret Life , Dalí confessed to being a compulsive masturbator - a major taboo break at the time - and described how closely his enthusiasm for art was linked to sexuality.
In 1933, he published the famous article On the gruesome and edible beauty, on Art Nouveau architecture , in the surrealist magazine Minotaure , which was editorially supervised by Breton, thus renewing interest in the art of the turn of the century. The essay ended with the statement: "Beauty will be edible or not at all."
In 1934 tensions arose between the communist -oriented surrealist group and Dalí; the dispute escalated because of Dalí's picture The Riddle of Wilhelm Tell , which shows a kneeling Lenin without trousers with a greatly enlarged worker's cap and a monstrous right buttock. According to Wilhelm Tell, he also portrays Dalí's father as a cannibal and depicts his disturbed relationship with him: The small child in his arm is Salvador, the nut at Tell's feet contains the tiny child that Gala represents and is threatened with trampling.
In a letter dated January 23, 1934, André Breton accused Dalí of the following five points: anti-humanism, defense of the new and irrational in the Hitler phenomenon , his plea for academic painting to the detriment of modernity , the late defense of fatherly authority and family values and, with regard to the picture, ultra-conscious painting and striving for success.
Dalí responded in an eight-page letter, probably dated January 25, denying the allegations made against him. With regard to the main charge, the fascism charge , Dalí stated with reference to his pictures: "So I am neither actually nor by inclination a Hitler supporter."
Finally, Dalí was expelled from the group meetings of the Surrealists around Breton, who did not want to let the group's claim to leadership be deprived of him. A surrealist “general assembly” that Breton had called in his apartment on February 5, 1934, decided: “Dalí has repeatedly been guilty of counter-revolutionary actions that tend to glorify Hitler's fascism . Therefore, despite his declaration of January 25th, the signatories propose to exclude him as a fascist element from the circle of surrealism and to fight it with all means. ”The resolution was signed by nine members: Victor Brauner , André Breton, Max Ernst , Herold, Hugnet , Meret Oppenheim , Peret, Yves Tanguy and Caillos. Only Pierre Yoyotte gave his understanding of Dalí's point of view on record.
However, Dalí continued to successfully participate in the group's exhibitions and Breton knew that they could not do without the crowd puller. In his autobiography, Dalí commented on the allegations that he was a supporter of fascism and Adolf Hitler :
“They asked [...] of me that I should finally decide whether to become a Stalinist or a Hitlerist. No! [...] I would always be who I was until death, Dalí and only Dalí! I believed neither in the communist revolution nor in the National Socialist revolution. "
On January 11, 1935, he gave a lecture in French at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) on surrealist paintings and paranoid images . He also wrote essays such as The Ghostly Surrealism of the Eternal Feminine in Pre-Raphaelite Art and The Conquest of the Irrational , in which he described his "paranoid-critical method" as irrational knowledge based on a "delirium" of interpretation. It represents his new and unique way of world view for the surrealist, which takes up expressions such as paranoia and delirium to underline the irrational, unconscious of this art.
During the International Surrealist Exhibition organized by Roland Penrose from June 11 to July 4, 1936 in the New Burlington Galleries in London, Dalí presented his "paranoid-critical" method in a speech on July 1. To emphasize the concept of the subconscious He gave the lecture, accompanied by two borzoi , in a deep-sea diving suit with a car radiator over it. He was holding a billiard stick in his hand. During the speech, Dalí suddenly got breathlessness in the heavy suit and threatened to suffocate. He was saved at the last moment by David Gascoyne , a young surrealist poet whom Dalí sponsored. Gascoyne cut the wetsuit and freed the panting Dalí from the helmet. The audience applauded this supposed show performance, believing it was a perfect staging of the self-promoter.
At that time, Dalí and Gala were living in London in 1936 with Edward James , a multimillionaire, art collector and patron of Dalí. The result was Dalí's wooden panel The anthropomorphic cabinet . The small-format work shows a woman filling the entire picture space; in the background a street scene, a brightly lit row of houses with people. Six drawers have been pulled out of the woman's erect torso. A cloth falls out of the middle drawer.
"The drawer contains the secret that only psychoanalysis can unravel, and Dalí is referring directly to Sigmund Freud with this idea, whom he received with admiration."
Spanish Civil War
Because of the Spanish Civil War , the Dalís left Portlligat in 1936 and traveled across Europe. For a while they lived in fascist Italy . The influence of the Renaissance paintings in the museums of Florence and Rome shaped his future works. Dalí's pictures Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (also called Premonition of the Civil War ), Burning Giraffe and The Invention of the Monsters, which were created at this time, reflect his observant but apolitical attitude. He saw the war as a natural history phenomenon, while Picasso's Guernica shows it as a political event. In London, Dalí received the news of the devious murder of his friend Federico García Lorca in August 1936 by Franquist Falangists in Spain, which left him in a deep depression.
On a second trip to America, the American press and the public gave Dalí a triumphant reception as "Mister Surrealism". Dalí's likeness, a photograph by Man Ray, graced the front page of Time Magazine in December 1936 . In February 1937, Dalí met the Marx Brothers in Hollywood and painted a portrait of Harpo Marx , decorated with a harp with spoons and strings made of barbed wire. A joint film, the script of which he wrote, did not materialize.
Surrealist exhibition in Paris
In January 1938, Dalí took part in the Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme in the Galerie des Beaux-Arts by Georges Wildenstein , Paris, where his art object Taxi pluvieux ( rain taxi ) was shown. In the back of an old automobile covered in ivy, sat a female mannequin in evening gown with a sewing machine on the next seat. The chauffeur was a jointed doll whose eyes were covered by dark glasses and whose head was framed by a bony shark's mouth. The interior was continuously sprinkled with water, so that the evening toilet of the "lady" was soiled and the blonde wig hung down in felty strands, while Roman snails left their slimy traces.
Visit to Sigmund Freud
Through the mediation of Edward James and Stefan Zweig , the long-desired meeting with Sigmund Freud took place on July 19, 1938 in his London house, where he had been living in exile for a short time . Dalí explained Freud on the basis of the painting Metamorphosis of Narcissus , for which he had written a poem with the same title, how surrealist painting visualizes the unconscious and painted the portrait Sigmund Freud . Immediately after this meeting on July 20, 1938, Sigmund Freud wrote to Stefan Zweig:
“Really, I would like to thank you for the goodwill that yesterday's visitors brought to me. Because until then I was inclined to mistake the surrealists, who apparently chose me as their patron saint, for absolute (let's say ninety-five percent as with alcohol) fools. The young Spaniard with his loyal, fanatical eyes and his undeniable technical mastery suggested a different assessment to me. "
Final break with the surrealist group
With the second surrealist manifesto (1930), André Breton expanded the basic ideas of this group of artists to include the same socio-critical aspect that characterized Dadaism . In 1939 there was a final break with the surrealist group. Dalí had meanwhile finally reduced all theoretical approaches of surrealism to what he called "paranoid inspiration".
In his article Recent Trends in Surrealist Painting , Breton wrote: “In February 1939, Dalí [...] said that all current unrest in the world is of racial origin and the best solution would be to reach an agreement of all white races to force the dark ones into slavery ... From now on I see no way how his message could be taken seriously in circles of independent spirits. ”Around 1942 Breton created the vicious anagram “ Avida Dollars ”(German:“ hungry for dollars ”) from Dalí's name . Dalí seemed unmoved by Breton's ridicule and signed some of his pictures under that name. In 1965 he painted The Apotheosis of the Dollar, alluding to the anagram .
Exile in the United States
In 1939 the Dalís returned from the United States and lived for a short time in Arcachon , southern France, where many artists and intellectuals such as Marcel Duchamp and Leonor Fini had fled from Hitler's troops. When France was occupied by German troops in WWII in 1940, Dalí left Europe with his wife; they traveled again to the United States and were recorded there with other guests such as Henry Miller at the Caresse Crosby estate in Bowling Green, Virginia, where Dalí wrote his autobiography. Dalí stayed in the United States with Gala until 1948, living in New York and Pebble Beach , California.
Dalí's “classical period” began, in which he took up motifs from the great classical masters such as Raffael , Velásquez or Ingres . Dalí commented on his change of style with the words: "To remain a surrealist forever is like painting eyes and noses all your life."
On November 18, 1941, the Museum of Modern Art in New York opened a large retrospective of the Spanish surrealists Dalí and Miró, in which Dalí was represented with over 40 paintings and 17 drawings. In the form of a traveling exhibition, the pictures were shown in eight cities, for example in Los Angeles , Chicago and San Francisco . He also painted numerous portraits of female American high society; Among other things, he created portraits of Mona von Bismarck and Helena Rubinstein , which he exhibited in the Knoedler Galleries in New York in 1943.
The acquaintance with the writer Maurice-Yves Sandoz earned the artist the commission to illustrate his books. He also worked for Walt Disney , especially in 1945/46 in nine months with John Hench on the script and storyboard for the surrealist short film Destino . The project failed, it was only completed in 2003 and received an Oscar nomination in 2004 .
1942 appeared under the title The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí ( The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí ) Dalí's 400-page autobiography in which he describes the time from his childhood until his departure to the United States 1940th His first work painted in the USA was Spider in the Evening - Hope . Other projects included designs for jewelry and vases, stage sets, collaboration with well-known magazines such as Vogue and Harper's Bazaar, and the development of perfumes and fashion accessories for Elsa Schiaparelli . Even a novel he wrote in a short time, Hidden Faces ( Hidden Faces ), of 1944, Dial Press, New York, appeared. In the same year, Alfred Hitchcock engaged Dalí to work on his film Spellbound ( I fight for you ), for which he designed dream sequences with sharp contours. Spellbound was one of the first Hollywood films to deal with Freud's psychoanalysis.
Dalí was shocked when the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; he processed the terrible event in works such as Melancholic Atomic and Uranium Idyll , The Apotheosis of Homer and The Three Sphynes of Bikini . His “nuclear” or “atomic painting” culminated in the 1949 Leda Atomica . In 1948 he wrote his Fifty Magical Secrets , which is a treatise on his painting and creativity techniques.
Return to Spain
Salvador and Gala Dalí had been living in their house in Portlligat on the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1948 . Spain remained under the dictatorship of General Franco . Dalí distanced himself from atheism and turned back to the Catholic faith; on November 23, 1949 he was by Pope Pius XII. received in a private audience. The result was The Madonna of Portlligat , which introduced a whole series of paintings with religious themes.
In the same year he painted the Leda Atomica , which, like the Madonna , represents his wife Gala. Dalí commented on the picture: “The Leda Atomica is the key image of our life. Everything is hung in the room without anything touching anything else. Death itself rises above the earth. ”And:“ In an ingenious overflow of ideas I decided to go to the visual solution of quantum theory , and I invented quantum realism in order to master gravity . I started with the painting Leda Atomica, a glorification of Gala, the goddess of my metaphysics, and I managed to create the floating space. "
Dalí's sister Ana María Dalí published a book about her brother in Barcelona in 1949: Dalí As Seen By His Sister ( Salvador Dalí from his sister's point of view ), in which she portrays him as an ungrateful son who did not save with blasphemy and married a divorced woman have. Dalí reacted indignantly with a public “correction”: “In 1930 my family threw me out without a penny. I owe my worldwide triumph only to God's help [...] and the heroic daily sacrifice of an incomparable woman, my wife Gala. "
Since 1950, Dalí has spent at least one month a year in the luxury hotel Hôtel Le Meurice on Rue de Rivoli , Paris, where he always occupied a suite on the first floor. He irritated guests and staff by ordering a flock of sheep into his suite and having flies caught in the park. The hotel, already appreciated by Queen Victoria , was made even more famous by Dalí. The designer Philippe Starck refurbished the hotel “Le Meurice” in 2008 in the “Dalí style”.
The Mystic Manifesto , in which he shows the principles of formation of form, was written by Dalí in 1951. His main keywords were quantum physics and morphology . The surrealist art of design relies on a kind of self-regulation that finds and develops its own principle in the dynamics of a work that is being created, with deliberate control being excluded. With his “ corpuscular period” during this time, under the impression of atomic physics, he presented picture elements in three-dimensional fragments.
Also in 1951, Dalí began to illustrate Dante's Divine Comedy with watercolors. The Italian government wanted to honor the 700th birthday of the Italian poet with this commission. But when it became known in Italy in 1954 that a Spaniard had won the contract, the project was abandoned under public pressure. It was only later that different editions appeared in several publishers, for example the edition published by Joseph Foret in Paris in 1961 . Starting in 1956, Dalí created illustrations in lithography to Cervantes Don Quixote , where he is a special kind of Tachism created. The "fight against the windmill wings" from the cycle arose when Dalí filled two rhinoceros horns with lithographic ink and drew with them. Dalí developed another technique with shots from an arquebus (rifle from the 15th / 16th century) from a pontoon bridge in Paris over the Seine :
“Where, surrounded by a hundred sheep, I fired a lead ball dipped in lithographic ink at the stone, creating a wonderful splash stain. I instantly recognized an angel wing of perfect dynamism, which was the peak of perfection. This is how I invented 'Bouletism'. "
In contrast to the Persistence of Memory from 1931, Dalí integrated the developments of our time into the work in the painting The Dissolution of Persistence of Memory, created in 1954 . It shows the world changed by the atomic age. The blocks represent the atomic power source. The dissolving something is a large rock near Cap de Creus , which Dalí called "the great masturbator". The re-appearing rocks over the Bay of Cullero and the abandoned olive tree connect the scene with his earlier paintings of Cap de Creus. In doing so, he takes up an important fact from the life of the twentieth century: discoveries of nuclear research have stirred the serenity of Portlligat and the whole world.
With Robert Descharnes , photographer and filmmaker, whom Dalí met on a trip to the USA in 1950, he made the 1954 film The Unusual Tale of the Lace Maker and the Rhinoceros , Dalí's theory of the logarithmic spiral that mathematically regenerates itself Had content. Jan Vermeer's lace maker fascinated Dalí at an early age and inspired her to paint Paranoiac-Critical Painting of the Lace Maker by Vermeer . In the film, he explodes the painting in the form of rhinoceros horns. Descharnes later became a close confidante and collaborator of the painter and is one of his most famous biographers.
At a happening on May 12, 1958, Dalí presented a 15-meter-long bread in the Theâtre de l'Étoile in Paris. Bread is depicted in several of his works, for example in the paintings The Bread Basket from 1926 and 1945, Anthropomorphic Bread from 1932, and a bread adorns the head of the retrospective female bust from 1933.
Relation to Amanda Lear
In the 1960s, Gala and Salvador Dalí began to go their separate ways. Dalí gathered a “court” of young people around him, while Gala had many affairs with younger men. In 1965, Dalí made the acquaintance of the then young Amanda Lear . She performed as a model and pop singer in night clubs. Lear was Dalí's model, helped in the studio and took painting lessons from him. Gala's initial jealousy quickly turned into acceptance of Dalí's new muse, who also accompanied him at social appearances for a long time. Lear published her book Le Dalí d'Amanda ( 15 years with Salvador Dalí ) authorized by Dalí in 1984 . For Gala, Dalí acquired an old castle in Púbol in 1969, which he restored and furnished with his new “kitsch art”. In Púbol he was only allowed in if Gala allowed it.
Dalí's history painting and stereoscopic works
Since 1958, the small-format paintings of earlier years have given way to pompous works with historical themes such as The Battle of Tetuán from 1962, which has a format of 308 × 406 cm. The picture describes the Spanish conquest of Tétouan in Morocco in 1860. Dalí painted one monumental painting each year, the best known being The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus from 1959. Masterpieces of the last period are The Tuna Fishing (1966/67) and Hallucinogenic Torero , painted between 1968 and 1970.
Dalí's income allowed him and Gala to live a life of luxury. From 1960 they hired a managing director for Dalí's merchandising company, John Peter Moore , who made it a multi-millionaire in this position. He received a ten percent commission on all of the orders he negotiated. His successor, Enrique Sabater, summed up: "I earned more at Dalí than the President of the United States." The lavish life ensured that Dalí's bank account was badly looted at the time of his death, just as his father had predicted.
From 1966 to 1973, Dalí designed illustrations for a luxury edition of Alice in Wonderland for Random House . In 1969 Dalí painted his first ceiling painting with a diameter of three meters; a year later the second one he gave to Gala followed. From 1970 he dealt with stereoscopic images and created holographic works (supported by Selwyn Lissack ) . His best-known stereoscopic painting from 1972/73 is Dalí from behind, Gala from behind, immortalized by six virtual corneas, temporarily reflected in six real mirrors , painted on two panels.
The Teatre-Museu in Figueres
To represent his work, Dalí wanted to build his own temple, and his choice fell on the destroyed city theater of Figueres. The reason why he chose this building is simple: in 1918, when Dalí was 14 years old, his first exhibition took place there. After the theater, built by Roca i Bros in around 1850, was destroyed by fire at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939, Figueres' mayor Ramon Guardiola proposed to Dalí in 1961 to build a museum there. In June 1970 the Spanish cabinet decided to provide funds for the renovation. Dalí envisaged a glass dome in the style of the American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller as the roof . The Spanish architect Emilio Pérez Piñero constructed the dome according to Dalí's ideas; with its unusual shape it has become Figueres' symbol. Dalí himself designed the details of the museum as a total work of art, from the monumental eggs on the roof of the building to the toilets. The architect was Joaquin de Ros y de Ramis, who, however, was only allowed to work in accordance with the “divine”, as Dalí now called himself. Construction began on October 13, 1970; Just one year later, Dalí began working on the ceiling fresco for the Teatre-Museu.
On September 28, 1974, the redesign of the Figueres theater as the Dalí Museum was opened with a thousand invited guests in the presence of friends Ernst Fuchs and Arno Breker . A year later, both founded the artist friendship "Golden Triangle" together with Dalí; Dalí stated: “Breker Dalí fox. You can turn us around as you want, we are always on top. ”In 1975 Dalí paid homage to his friend, the German sculptor and architect Breker, on his 75th birthday , while Breker created a realistic bronze bust of the surrealist. There were three versions; Dalí didn't spare his praise: "Breker has captured my soul."
Dalí's works are scattered throughout the building; the visitor finds paintings, stereoscopic photographs, a flexible metal crucifix , the rain taxi from the Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme with Fuchs' large sculpture Esther on the roof, a Mae West room as an environment in which Dalí his Mae West painting from 1934 until 1935 reproduced in three dimensions, as well as works by other artists such as Breker, Fuchs, Wolf Vostell and Marcel Duchamp. One room is dedicated to Dalí's friend, the Catalan painter Antoni Pichot , Ramon Pichot's nephew. Antoni Pichot became director of the museum after Dalí's death. The ceiling and wall paintings, made in the classic manner, complement the interior. Art, kitsch and caricature are linked in a confusingly pompous harmony throughout the museum.
In 1975 he met with contempt and enmity in his home country after the previous appreciations. Head of State Franco had five suspected terrorists executed shortly before his death on September 27, 1975 , and Dalí advocated this in an interview with Agence France-Presse with regard to Spain's future, “where there will be no more terrorism in a few months because assassins would be exterminated like rats. We need three times more executions. But for the moment they are enough. ”After attacks on his house and threatening letters, Dalí feared for his safety and fled to the USA for a short time.
In 1979, a large Dalí retrospective was opened at the Center Georges Pompidou in Paris , which showed 169 paintings and 219 drawings, graphics and objects by the artist. A special attraction was the Heroische Kirmes environment , which filled the lower floor: a Citroën hung under the ceiling with Catalan botifarra , a sausage specialty, including a 32-meter spoon into which water flowed from the cooler. In the 1980s, artist friend Wolf Vostell , whom Dalí met in 1978 , suggested a joint project. This was one of Dalí's last projects in 1988, shortly before his death. Vostell carried out a work by Dalí that Dalí had already conceived in the 1920s. El fin de Parzival consists of 20 motorcycles of the Guardia Civil from the time of the Franco regime , five of which are mounted on top of each other and are backed by the music of Richard Wagner's opera Parzival . Dalí originally intended bicycles. This addition was made by Vostell. In return, Wolf Vostell realized the sculpture TV Obelisk (1979) in the Teatre-Museu in Figueres with 14 TV sets and Dalí completed the sculpture with a woman's head on the tip, which he designed. In the woman's head there is a video camera that records images of the sky, which are transmitted to the TV sets.
Sickness and death
From 1981 Dalí suffered from Parkinson's disease with severe tremor . As a consolation, King Juan Carlos I of Spain awarded him the title of " Marqués de Dalí de Púbol" in July 1982 . Dalí had already depicted the king in 1973/74 in the painting The Prince of Sleep . After the painful loss of his beloved wife Gala († 1982), he lived alone and withdrawn in Púbol from 1983, where he created his last painting The Swallowtail in May 1983 . He reacted to the death of his wife by refusing to eat; Due to the dehydration that followed, Dalí could no longer swallow and had to be fed through a nasogastric tube until the end of his life. His voice failed, he could only communicate in a whisper.
In 1984, Dalí was badly burned in a fire caused by a short circuit in the doorbell system in his bedroom. After a stay in a clinic in Barcelona, he moved into a building next to his Teatre-Museu, which he had redesigned in 1985 as " Torre Galatea ". The tower was named after Galatea, the statue that was brought to life by Aphrodite in response to Pygmalion's prayers, because for Dalí, Gala had become the Gala-tea that had entered his life.
After this incident, his health did not allow him any more artistic activities. Salvador Dalí died of heart failure in 1989 at the age of 84. At his own request he was buried in the crypt under the glass dome of his theater-museum, the "Teatre-Museu Dalí", in Figueres, not next to Galas in the crypt of Púbol Castle. His body was embalmed to last for at least 300 years; he is wrapped in a tunic adorned with the crown of a marquès and adorned with a border representing the double helix . Today the museum is a top tourist attraction and fascinates visitors from all over the world.
Dalí officially died childless in 1989. He set up the Spanish state as heir to the magnificent houses and many paintings. However, following a paternity suit brought by the fortune teller Pilar Abel Martínez, born in 1956, a court order in June 2017 to exhume Dalí's remains for a paternity test . Dalí's grave was then opened in camera on July 20, 2017 in the Figueres Theater-Museum. At the beginning of September 2017, the Dalí Foundation announced that the test was negative and that the fortune teller was not Dalí's daughter. The body was reburied on March 16, 2018.
Early period (1917–1927 / 28)
“My parents named me Salvador: And as the name suggests, I am destined for nothing less than to save painting from the emptiness of modern art, and this in a time of catastrophe, in this mechanical and mediocre universe in which to live we have the misfortune and the honor. "
The first exhibition of Dalí's pictures took place in 1917 in his parents' house. Influenced by Ramon Pichot , painter and brother of Josep Pichot, the young Dalí developed an impressionist style of painting, one example is his painting View of Cadaqués with the shadow of Mount Pani (1917). During his training at the Academy of San Fernando, he painted his first Cubist , Pointillist and Divisionist pictures, influenced by Juan Gris and the Italian Futurists . With a few exceptions, he only used the colors black, white, sienna and olive green, in contrast to the colors of the pictures from previous years. In 1923 he created his cubist self-portrait , which is shown in the Teatre-Museu in Figueres.
In his works from 1925 to 1928, Dalí confessed to the teachings of the “Metaphysical School” (“ Scuola Metafisica ”), painting led by Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà . Pablo Picasso's massive body sculptures from the early 1920s influenced him in the paintings Venus and a Sailor (1925), Figure Between the Rocks and Sleeping Women on the Beach (1926). In addition, realistic pictures were created, such as the portrait of my father and girl at the window painted in 1925 , the latter shows Ana María Dalí.
Surrealist period (1929-1940)
"[...] the only difference between me and a crazy person is that I'm not crazy!"
"The fact that I do not recognize the meaning of my pictures even at the moment when I paint does not mean that they have no meaning."
A distinction is often made between two currents of surrealism
- “ veristic ” or “paranoid-critical” surrealism: unification of things that do not belong together, twisted perspectives, as can be seen in Salvador Dalí, and
- the “abstract” or “absolute” surrealism: the same principle as mentioned above, only without any realism, as for example in pictures of Joan Miró .
Dalí wanted to make the puzzling, the incomprehensible visible; For him, surrealism is “a revolution of life and morals”. He used the techniques he had mastered in his surrealistic pictures and painted “ trompe l'œil photographs”. He was 25 years ahead of the art of the hyperrealists . Examples are Unsatisfied Desire (1928), The Great Masturbator (1929) and The Persistence of Memory (1931), his best-known work in which Dalí used symbolist motifs. Dissolving, soft clocks illustrate the uncertainty about time, which before Einstein was assumed to flow equally quickly for everyone under all circumstances and which is still experienced today in everyday human life, but which in Einstein's theory of relativity does not flow equally quickly under all circumstances. According to Dalí, the idea of painting these clocks came when he saw a soft camembert . Breton was horrified by his strong tendency to use scatological elements, as Dalí reports in his diary of a genius : “I came across the same prohibitions here as my family did. The blood was allowed to me. I was allowed to put a little poop on it. But there was no shit alone. I was allowed to portray gender, but no anal fantasies. ”One example is the painting The Sinister Game , also known as the ominous game , from 1929, which shows underpants so luxuriously realistic that his friends wondered whether he had coprophage be or not. According to Dalí's testimony in his autobiography, he detested this aberration and described the scatological as an element of shock like blood and his phobia of locusts.
Between 1929 and 1939 Dalí created around 700 oil paintings, mostly in small format; this corresponds to about half of his complete works. These are his best-known pictures with the motifs “fried fried eggs”, “soft watches”, “burning giraffe”, “Venus with drawers” and “long-legged elephants”. His flat application of paint, which he adopted from the “ old masters ”, and the methods of repetition, stretching, stretching, inversion, hollowing out and rotation are characteristic of him.
The works from Dalí's classic surrealist phase are valued by art historians, critics and art lovers alike. In the anthologies of 20th century art mainly his works from this period appear. The viewer experiences the experience of infinite space and stopped time. You “see”, as it were, the paradox of the infinite moment.
Classical period (1941–1983)
In the exhibition catalog for the solo exhibition in the Julien Levy Gallery , New York, from April 22 to May 23, 1941, the envelope of which is decorated with Dalí's self-portrait with fried bacon , the artist declared that he was “inviting to his last scandal, the beginning his classical painting ”. This rethinking with a shift in emphasis was not immediately apparent in the new works. According to Dalí, the political situation of the onset of chaos called for stability and orientation, a return to the values of the medieval era: “In this imminent Middle Ages, I wanted to be the first to be able to fully understand the laws of life and death of aesthetics would be to pronounce the word ' Renaissance '. ”In the aesthetic of the Italian Renaissance he painted religious works such as The Madonna of Portlligat or Leda Atomica ; in it he processed the proportions of the golden section .
In the 1960s he turned to history painting of the 19th century in the style of the Catalan Marià Fortuny and the French Ernest Meissonier . His huge painting The Battle of Tetuan from 1962, based on the work of the same name by Fortuny, was called kitsch by his opponents , he himself called it Dalís Pop Art . In his historical paintings, up to three by four meters in size (he painted a total of 18 pictures in this size) and in the design of the ceilings and walls of his houses, he reached the boundary between kitsch and art, so the tenor of the repeated discussions about it.
In the painting Galacidalacidesoxiribunucleicacid from 1963, Dalí focused on the religious theme of "resurrection" and combined it with his interest in modern science and his awareness of contemporary events. The title of the work refers to the discovery of the DNA molecule by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1953 and is dedicated to both scientists. The DNA molecule with its spiral shape is the basic form of life. Dalí often spoke of the connection between spirals and life in the early 1950s, even before the DNA molecule was discovered.
With the large-format painting Der Tunfischfang (1966/67), Dalí combined his various styles such as surrealism, “over-refined Pompierism”, pointillism, action painting, tachism , geometric abstraction, pop art, op art and psychedelic art . In Dalí's opinion, it should reflect the revival of representational painting that was neglected in avant-garde art .
- Stereoscopic and holographic works
In the 1970s, stereoscopic images by Gerard Dou , a contemporary of Vermeer van Delft , aroused Dalí's interest, in whose paintings he believed he could see a double image. Equipped with a Fresnel lens , he created various stereoscopic works. A well-known example is Dalí from behind, Gala from behind, that of six virtual corneas, temporarily reflected in six real mirrors, immortalized from 1972/73, shown on two panels.
Holos! Holos! Velásquez! Gabor! , a hologram from 1972/73, is Dalí's first three-dimensional collage , created in collaboration with the New York holograph Selwyn Lissack . It forms a connection between Velásquez Las Meninas and an advertising image with card players for a beer brand. For the artist, this technique was linked to the hope of realizing the threefold aspect of total vision. Cubism is interpreted as the first attempt in this direction.
Dalí's interest in sculpture began with a model of the Venus de Milo , which he imitated as a child from a picture on a pencil case. He began his plastic work as a surrealist artist in the 1930s and continued it throughout his life. Dalí also depicted the unconscious, dreams and feelings in his sculptural works and, like Marcel Duchamp, used unusual materials with his ready-mades . For example, he created objects with a symbolic function, such as the retrospective Frauenbüste from 1933, which consisted of a painted porcelain model of a hat maker, a baguette and other scrap materials, but later chose more traditional techniques. So he made the desired irrational shape of his inspiration from soft wax and then cast it in bronze using the lost wax technique . The sculptures form an essential part of Dalí's surrealist work and show his interest in three-dimensionality .
In the area of printmaking, Dalí's lithographs , serigraphs , etchings and woodcuts are among the best-selling objects on the international art market. All graphics were preceded by extensive preparatory work. Graphic cycles for book illustrations were created, for example for Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy 1963, Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland 1969, Giovanni Boccaccio's Das Dekameron 1972, Pedro Calderón de la Barcas Das Leben ein Traum 1975, Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea 1974, John Milton's Paradise Lost 1974 and Francisco de Goya's Les Caprices 1977. On the forgery problem of Dalí's graphics, a statement is made under “Reception”.
Dalí differs from many other artists who have used various service providers such as lithographers or etchers to have their works implemented in the respective technology. He mastered almost every technique himself to perfection. In his first series of lithographs, Don Quichotte de la mancha (1956/57), for example, he shot arquebuses (muskets) at the litho stones, made frogs jump over the stones and eggs fall on the stones or moved them Stones in rotation. In drypoint etching , he worked on the copper plate with a needle, roulette or other objects to create his work. Examples of this are the drypoint etchings for Faust / Walpurgis Night (1968) or the color coldpoint etchings from the Tristan and Isolde series (1970). In his series 10 Recipes for Immortality ( Dix Recettes d'immortalité , 1973) he created the first stereoscopic graphic in art history. “Stereoscopy perpetuates and legitimizes geometry, because thanks to it we have the third dimension of the sphere,” wrote Dalí in the text accompanying the work.
Examples of art theory and autobiographical writings
"Do not be afraid of perfection: you will never achieve it!"
The art theoretical work The Yellow Manifesto was written by Dalí in 1928 together with the art critics Lluis Montañya and Sebastià Gasch. This proclamation became the most important action of the Catalan and Spanish avant-garde movements against the classical and academic culture and promoted a new modernity.
Dalí was particularly fascinated by the systematic, constructive aspect of paranoia . He calls it the “paranoid-critical method”, which tends to subjugate all areas of reality to its delusional system of interpretation. A process geared towards this would therefore have to be suitable “to contribute to the ruin of reality”, he wrote in 1930 in his first surrealist program publication Der Eselskadaver . The rationally ordered world of modernity , equipped with technical devices and obeying the reality principle , is contrasted by Dalí with a different one, a vegetal rampant one in which the pleasure principle applies and even clocks are soft structures. Therefore, he advocates the Art Nouveau and the “paranoid” architecture of Antoni Gaudí .
Dalí, who called himself an ex-surrealist in his classical period, but remained a surrealist more than ever, provided a treatise on painting technique with his work Fifty Magical Secrets from 1948. In it he stated that although today we know how to build an atomic bomb, nobody knows “today the composition of the mysterious juice, the painting medium in which the van Eyck brothers and Vermeer van Delft dipped their brushes”. He dealt with the material in his own recipes: five different brushes that correspond to five types of movement. The painter should not only "see", but " see metaphysically ".
In his “system” of guided dreams the advice is: “When you paint, always think of something else.” He underpins his advice with technical tricks that he had taken from the writings of his predecessors, such as Cennino Cenninis , whose Libro dell ' arte as the 14th century that was manual of painting, as well as Luca Pacioli and the Italian Renaissance master.
In 1942 Dalí's first autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí , was published by Dial Press, New York, in which he presents his experiences, memories and feelings up to the late 1930s. The sequel Diary of a Genius ( Diario de un Genio ) was published in 1964. This self-portrait tells the reader the intentions of the artist and every now leads to an understanding of his works. 1970 appeared on Harry. N. Abrams Inc., New York, Dalí by Dalí ( How to become Dalí ) with illustrations that the artist grouped together into different groups: the “planetary”, the “molecular”, the “monarchical”, the “hallucinogenic” and the “Futuristic” Dalí, provided with Dalí's texts on the individual subjects.
Film, theater and ballet
Dalí's best-known films in collaboration with Luis Buñuel can be found in the main articles Un chien andalou ( An Andalusian Dog ) and L'Âge d'Or ( The Golden Age ). A selection of other films as well as participations in the theater and ballet sector are listed under “Selected Works”.
Dalí and photography
Dalí worked with well-known photographers such as Man Ray , Brassaï , Cecil Beaton and Philippe Halsman . Some works from 1933 with Man Ray, the photographer of the surrealist group, as well as works by Brassaï have been published in Minotaure magazine. Dalí met Philippe Halsman in 1941 and worked with him until his death in 1979. The first photo from 1942 shows Dalí as an embryo in an egg. Halsmann explained the fascination that photographic work exerted on Dalí, whose surrealism was taken to extremes: “He wants even the smallest of his actions to surprise and shock.” Halsman's 1948 photo, Dalí Atomicus , shows a flying chair, three flying cats , a surge of water and the flying Salvador Dalí. The title of the photo refers to Dalí's painting Leda Atomica , which can be seen in the background on the right. As a result of their collaboration, Halsman and Dalí published the book Dali's Mustache in 1954 , which shows 28 different photos of his mustache.
Dalí's signature in fashion and practical art
At the end of the 1930s, Dalí designed fabric designs, dresses and hats for the fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli . Further practical art was, among other things, the design of the cover for Jackie Gleason's record title Lonesome Echo in the 1950s . In the 1960s he founded his own merchandise company and, after John Peter Moore and Enrique Sabater , hired Robert Descharnes as managing director of the company that went by the name Demart in 1982. The items manufactured under his name included ties, the Conde de Osborne Dalí brandy bottle for the traditional Osborne company , calendars, tapestries and pieces of jewelry. Even today, companies offer Dalí-style goods such as posters, calendars, candlesticks, cups and plates with surrealistic accents.
The Dalí perfume, which is still available today, has been available since 1983 in surrealist bottles with the shape of a nose and mouth and since 1987 as a men's perfume in the shape of a pronounced chin with a plug in the shape of a mouth. These commercial items made the artistic genius Dalí even better known, as the general public could now afford a "Dalí".
Examples of symbols in Dalí's work
Dalí used various symbols extensively in his work. The famous melting clocks represent the omnipresence of time and its rule over humanity. They represent a metaphysical picture of time devouring itself and everything else.
Crutches were one of Dalí's most important pictorial content and appear in many of his works, for example in the painting Riddle of William Tell . They are first and foremost symbols of reality and represent the mental and physical support for coping with the shortcomings in life.
According to Freud's interpretation, the drawers embody the hidden sexuality of women. Dalí painted many of the drawers slightly open, an indication that their secrets are known and there is nothing to fear anymore. Examples are shown in the paintings Burning Giraffe and The Anthropomorphic Cabinet .
Dalí's elephants are usually depicted with long, almost invisible legs; they carry objects on their backs that are also symbolic. These elephants represent the future and are also a symbol of strength. Their burden often consists of obelisks , symbols of power and domination that have phallic references. Examples can be found in the paintings Dream Caused by a Bee Flying Around a Pomegranate One Second Before Waking Up and The Temptation of Saint Anthony .
The egg is another popular motif of Dalí because of the duality of its hard shell and soft interior. It is associated with prenatal images and the intra-uterine universe , so it is a symbol of both hope and love. The roof of his museum in Figueres is decorated with huge eggs.
The swarming ants as in The Riddle of Desire - My Mother, My Mother are references to death and decay and are reminiscent of human mortality. In addition, they are designed to express overwhelming sexual desires.
In Dalí's work, locusts appear as symbols of destruction, waste and fear. He makes them terrifying, tall, and intimidating; their act of eating often forms the main theme of the corresponding work. For example, a large grasshopper can be seen in his famous painting The Large Masturbator . Food plays a special role in Dalí's work. The bread is often found in his works as a very long baguette , but not as helpful bread, but as "anti-human", as Dalí describes it in his book Das Geheime Leben . It was not intended as a contribution to the maintenance of large families, but was intended to show how the luxury of the imagination took revenge on the usefulness of the world of practical reason. A voluminous bread adorns the retrospective female bust . Further examples are the painting Anthropomorphic Bread and the bread on its museum roof, the Teatre-Museu Dalí in Figueres.
Testimonies from contemporaries
“ Picasso was a painter and only a painter. Dalí went far beyond that. Certain aspects of his character are abhorrent, his mania for self-promotion, exhibitionism , [...] nevertheless he is an authentic genius, a writer, a chat-maker, a thinker beyond compare. We have been close friends for a long time, and our work together on the script for the 'Andalusian Dog' left me with a wonderful memory of a perfect match of tendencies. "
André Breton wrote enthusiastically in 1929 on the occasion of the exhibition of Dalí's works in the Galerie Goemans:
“The appearance of Dalí is perhaps the first time that the windows of the spirit have been opened wide. Dalí's art, arguably the most hallucinatory to date, poses a real threat. Absolutely new and visibly malicious beings come into play. We see with sinister joy how they are let through unhindered. "
The break in the mid-1930s drastically changed the way Breton saw it; Dalí became hostile to the Surrealists. After the publication of Dalí's essay The Mystical Manifesto in 1951 and the corresponding subject matter of his works, Breton wrote in the new edition of his anthology of black humor in 1953:
“It goes without saying that these remarks refer only to the early Dalí, who disappeared around 1935 to make way for the figure better known by the name of Avida Dollars , the one recently in the bosom of the Catholic Church and the Portrait painter who returned to the 'artistic ideal of the Renaissance', who today appeals to letters of congratulations and encouragement from the Pope. "
Gala Dalí's influence on Salvador Dalí
On the occasion of Dalí's 100th birthday in 2004, Ruth Kastner quotes Claire Goll , who emphasizes the strong influence Gala Éluard Dalís had on her husband, who turned him from a shy young man with rebellious features to a cynical clown:
“The then 25-year-old Salvador was exactly the man Gala was looking for; Gala systematically built up his personality, forced him to confirm himself and to surpass himself. 'She simplified his world by reducing all possible choices to one formula: stepping or being kicked.' "
Dalí's relationship with the dictator Franco
At the same event, the NDR broadcast facts and assumptions about Dalí's attitude towards the dictator General Franco and discussed whether he had actually been a blind follower of the fascist regime . Dalí was expelled from the Surrealist movement in 1938 because of “sympathy for National Socialism ” and in 1975 he sent the decrepit dictator a telegram congratulating on the execution of five ETA terrorists . In between, the "court jester Franco" flattered the fascist leader at every opportunity. On the other hand, according to the NDR, the architect Òscar Tusquets interprets these facts in his book Dalí y otros amigos as irony and believes that the enthusiastic praise of Franco was so exaggerated that Dalí could not have meant it seriously and he practically resented himself surrealistic way of making fun of the dictator. Dalí also had a full-fledged spirit of contradiction and only wanted to provoke with his political statements, according to his quote: "I'm not only a provocateur by profession, but also out of disposition."
Criticism of Dalí's late work
The literary scholar Peter Bürger named - also on his 100th birthday - the reasons for Dalí's controversial reputation among art critics and historians in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit . He emphasized that the first documenta in Kassel, which wanted to set up a canon of modern art in 1955, showed works by the surrealist painters André Masson , Joan Miró and Max Ernst , but not by Salvador Dalí.
After he moved to the USA in 1940, he turned more and more to " design ": designed advertising names for haute couture models , covers for Vogue magazine, as well as patterns for ties and jewelry, and portrayed members of high society . His obsession with Hitler and the polemics against the aesthetics of modernity are also a cause for criticism. The Art Nouveau was played off by him against the functionalist building spirit of the modern age, which he described as "architecture of self-punishment". However, since the 1950s and early 1960s, a change has occurred, as Pop Art dissolved the boundaries between high and trivial art. In Italy, for example, Achille Bonito Oliva challenged the aesthetics of modernity with the concept of the transavant-garde for a return to traditional painting styles.
“Dalí's recourse to academism and salon painting of the 19th century suddenly acquired an unexpected topicality. So there has been an occasion for some time to reconsider the verdict that was imposed on him . The impetus for this came from the surrealism retrospective in Paris and Düsseldorf two years ago, where some important pictures from Dalí's surrealist phase could be seen. […] Dalí, who died in 1989, has not yet found a place in 20th century art. "
Dalí's fake prints
Dalí's prints are among the frontrunners of counterfeit works of art . In her book about Dalí 2007, Christiane Weidemann describes the problems with forged graphics by the artist, which have unsettled the art market to the present day. Around 1965, Dalí had started to blankly sign tens of thousands of sheets of paper:
“In 1981 there was an international scandal when the suspicion arose that he was involved in the forgeries or at least had not prevented them. For Dalí, the supposed originals mean excellent business that is rewarded with an additional 40 dollars per sheet. This is the beginning of the chaos surrounding real and false works by the artist, which continues to this day. "
Dalí's opera poem Être Dieu (to be God)
Salvador Dalí is the only painter who has written a libretto for a surreal operatic poem, Être Dieu , a reflection on God's nature. He wrote it in 1927 together with Federico García Lorca . In 1974 Dalí had the opera recorded on vinyl in Paris. Igor Wakhevitch wrote the music, and the Spanish writer Manuel Vázquez Montalbán put the text on paper in accordance with the artist. During the recording, however, Dalí refused to follow Montalban's wording and improvised: "Salvador Dalí never repeats himself".
honors and awards
- 1964: Orden de Isabel la Católica (Grand Cross of Queen Isabella of Spain) for his services to art
- 1967: Awarded an honorary doctorate from the Académie de la Fourrure
- 1973: Appointment as a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes di San Fernando, Madrid
- 1978: Appointment as a foreign honorary member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts , Paris (admission and inaugural speech on May 9, 1979)
- 1981: Grand Cross of Charles III
- 1982: Appointment as " Marqués de Púbol" by the King of Spain Juan Carlos I.
- 1982: Gold Medal from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia
- The asteroid of the main outer belt (2919) Dali is named after him.
- 1917: View of Cadaqués with the shadow of Mount Pani ( Dalí Museum , St. Petersburg, Florida)
- 1924: Portrait of Luis Buñuel ( Museo Reina Sofía , Madrid) ( ill. )
- 1925: Portrait of my father ( Museu d'Art Modern , Barcelona) ( ill. )
- 1925: Girl at the Window (Museo Español de Arte, Madrid) (Fig.)
- 1927: Blood is sweeter than honey (private property) ( Fig. )
- 1927: Apparatus and hand (E. and A. Reynolds Morse collection, loan to the Salvador Dalí Museum) (ill.)
- 1928: Unsatisfied desire , also called dialogue on the beach (private property)
- 1929: The large masturbator (gift from Dalí to the Spanish state) (Fig.)
- 1929: The riddle of desire - my mother, my mother, my mother ( Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich) (Fig.)
- 1929: The Sinister Game or Malign Game , Le Jeu lugubre (private property) (Fig.)
- 1929: The first days of spring , Les premiers jours du printemps (private property) ( Fig. )
- 1931: The Persistence of Memory ( Museum of Modern Art , New York ) (Fig.)
- 1932: The birth of liquid desires ( Guggenheim Collection , Venice )
- 1933: Portrait of Gala with two lamb chops in balance on the shoulder (Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres) Fig.
- 1933: The riddle of Wilhelm Tell ( Moderna Museet , Stockholm) (ill.)
- 1933/34: Atavism of Twilight ( Kunstmuseum Bern )
- 1934: Enigmatic elements of a landscape , Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres ( fig. )
- 1934/35: Face of Mae West (can be used as a surrealistic lip sofa) . Gouache on newsprint ( Art Institute of Chicago ) (Fig.)
- 1935: The Angelus by Gala (Museum of Modern Art, New York) (Fig.)
- 1935: Specter du soir sur la plage ( fig. )
- 1936: The Burning Giraffe ( Kunstmuseum Basel ) (Fig.)
- 1936: The anthropomorphic cabinet
- 1936: Soft construction with boiled beans (The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia) (Fig.)
- 1936: Morphological Echo (Dalí Museum, Cleveland, Ohio)
- 1936: The Ampurias pharmacist looking for absolutely nothing ( Museum Folkwang , Essen) (Fig.)
- 1937: The Metamorphosis of Narcissus ( Tate Gallery , London) (Fig.)
- 1937: Hitler's riddle (gift from Dalí to the Spanish state) ( Fig. ( Memento from August 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ))
- 1937: The Invention of the Monsters (Art Institute of Chicago) (Fig.) ( Memento from November 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- 1937: Swans mirror elephants (Cavalieri Holding Co. Inc., Geneva) (Fig.)
- 1938: Strand with Telephone (Tate Gallery, London) (Fig.) ( Memento from January 13, 2003 in the Internet Archive )
- 1939: Shirley Temple, the youngest sacred monster of contemporary cinema (Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam) (Fig.)
- 1940: Slave market with Voltaire's invisible bust (ill.)
- 1941: Soft self-portrait with fried bacon (private property) (ill.)
- 1941: Honey is sweeter than blood (Le miel est plus doux que le sang) ( Santa Barbara Museum of Art , Santa Barbara) (Fig.)
- 1944: Dream caused by the flight of a bee around a pomegranate one second before waking up ( Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza , Madrid) (Fig.)
- 1944/45: Galarina (Teatre-Museu Dalí, Figueres)
- 1944-45: The Apotheosis of Homer (Bavarian State Collection of Paintings, National Gallery of Modern Art, Munich ) (Fig.)
- 1946: The Temptation of Saint Anthony ( Royal Museums of Fine Arts , Brussels ) (Fig.)
- 1948: The Elephants ( ill. )
- 1949: Leda Atomica (Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres) (Fig.) ( Memento from May 4, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- 1950: Madonna of Portlligat (Minami Museum, Tokyo) (Fig.)
- 1951: The Christ of St John of the Cross ( Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum , Glasgow )
- 1954: The Dissolution of Persistence of Memory (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida) (Fig.)
- 1954: Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) ( Link )
- 1954/55: Paranoid-critical painting of the lace maker by Vermeer (The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York) (ill.)
- 1955: The Last Supper (The National Gallery of Art, Washington)
- 1958: The meditative rose ( Link )
- 1958: woman with drawers
- 1959: The discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida) (Fig.) ( Memento from July 6, 2001 in the Internet Archive )
- 1960: The Ecumenical Council (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida)
- 1962: Twist in Velasquez's studio
- 1962: The Battle of Tetuán (Minami Museum, Tokyo) (Fig.)
- 1963: Galacidalacidesoxiribunucleicacid (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida)
- 1965: Perpignan's train station ( Museum Ludwig , Cologne )
- 1966/67: Tuna fishing (Paul Ricard Foundation, Île de Bendor, France) (Fig.)
- 1969: Odysseus and Telemachus
- 1968–1970: The hallucinogenic torero (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida) (Fig.)
- 1972: La Toile Daligram
- 1972/73: Dalí from behind, Gala from behind, immortalized by six virtual corneas that are temporarily reflected in six real mirrors (Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres) (Fig.) ( Memento from October 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- 1976: Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea which at Twenty Meters becomes a Portrait of Abraham Lincoln (Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida)
- 1978: Cybernetic Odalisque (Teatre-Museu Dalí, Figueres)
- 1983: The swallowtail (gift from Dalí to the Spanish state)
Sculptures, objects, environments
- 1933: Gala at the window , sculpture by Dalí in Marbella
- 1933: (1970 reconstructed) retrospective female bust (private collection)
- 1936: Hummer or Aphrodisiac Telephone , ( Museum for Communication Frankfurt ), Fig.
- 1936: Venus with drawers (Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam)
- 1936/37: Mae West lip sofa, executed by Green and Abbott, London
- 1938: Rain taxi (now in the Dalí Museum, Figueres)
- 1954: The Angel's Cross (Minami Museum, Tokyo)
- 1956: The rhinoceros , sculpture by Dalí in Marbella
- Around 1970: Gala Gradiva , sculpture by Dalí in Marbella
- 1974: Mae-West-Saal , Environment in the Teatre-Museu in Figueres
- 1979: Heroic fair , environment in the Center Georges Pompidou
- 1985: Homage à Newton , 1985, UOB Plaza, Singapore
- 1988: El fin de Parzival , sculpture realized by Wolf Vostell in the Museo Vostell Malpartida
- The Yellow Manifesto (1928; with Lluis Montañya and Sebastià Gasch)
- La femme visible . Edition Surréalistes, Paris, 1930
- L'amour et la mémoire . Editions Surréalistes, Paris, 1931
- La conquête de l'irrationnel . Editions Surréalistes and Julien Levy, Paris and New York, 1935
- Métamorphose de Narcisse . Editions Surréalistes and Julien Levy, Paris and New York, 1937
- Les Cocus du vieil art moderne (Dalí on Modern Art) . Fasquelle éditeurs, Collection Libellés, Pari, 1956
- Le Mythe Tragique de l'Angélus de Millet . Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Paris, 1963
- Les Dîners de Gala . Draeger, Paris, 1973
- Declaration of independence of the imagination and declaration of the rights of man to his madness (contained therein The donkey carcass ). Verlag Rogner and Bernhard, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-8077-0079-X (original edition 1939)
- Les Vins de Gala . Draeger, Paris, 1977
- The secret life of Salvador Dalí . Autobiography, transl. And Nachw. By Ralf Schiebler, Schirmer / Mosel Verlag 1984, ISBN 3-88814-137-0 ; 1990, ISBN 3-88814-896-0 , anniversary edition 2004, ISBN 3-8296-0133-6 (original edition 1942 Dial Press, New York)
- Diario De Un Genio. 1952-1964 . Tusquets, Barcelona 2002, ISBN 84-7223-974-8 (original edition 1964)
- Salvador Dali and Philippe Halsman: Dali's Mustache . A Photographic Interview , 1st edition Simon & Schuster , New York (1954); renewed 1982 Salvador Dali, Yvonne Halsman, Jane Halsman Bello and Irène Halsman; French 1985 Les Éditions Arthaud, Paris; 1994 Éditions Flammarion, Paris; ISBN 2-08-012433-1 .
- Salvador Dalí, André Parinaud: How to become a Dalí (memoir). Moewig Verlag 1981, ISBN 3-8118-4107-6 (original edition Dalí by Dalí 1970)
- Hidden faces . S. Fischer Verlag 1983, ISBN 3-596-25382-9 (original edition Hidden Faces 1944)
- 50 Secrets of Magic Craftsmanship . Dover Publications, 1992, ISBN 0-486-27132-3 (original edition 1948) Dt. Fifty magical secrets , DuMont Reiseverlag, Ostfildern 1986, ISBN 3-7701-1982-7
- Notes of a genius-to-be. Diaries 1919–1920. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag 2001, ISBN 3-88814-325-X
Films, sets and ballet by Dalí
- 1928: An Andalusian dog , film. Co-writer and performer; Director: Luis Buñuel
- 1930: The Golden Age , film. Co-author; Director: Luis Buñuel
- 1932: Babaouo , film script, not made into a film at the time; planned as the last film of the trilogy An Andalusian Dog and The Golden Age . Michel Cussó-Ferrer made a film under this title in 2000, which on the one hand reports documentary on Dalí's films and on the other shows an adaptation of the original script.
- 1939: Bacchanal , ballet. Libretto and stage design by Dalí, choreography by Léonide Massine
- 1944: Sentimental Colloquie , ballet. Stage design, costumes
- 1945: Spellbound / I fight for you . Movie. Artistic design of the dream sequence; Director: Alfred Hitchcock
- 1946/2003: Destino
- 1948: William Shakespeare : Rosalinda o Come vi Piace / As You Like It (play). Stage design, costumes; Director: Luchino Visconti ; Premiere: November 26th 1948, Teatro Eliseo, Rome
- 1949: Richard Strauss : Salome . Opera. Stage design; Director: Peter Brook
- 1950: father of the bride . Movie. Stage design for the dream sequence; Director: Vincente Minnelli
- 1952: José Zorrilla : Don Juan Tenorio . Drama. Costumes and sets; Director: Alejandro Perla
- 1954: Film together with Robert Descharnes : The unusual story of the lace maker and the rhinoceros
- 1961: Le Ballet de Gala : Idea, set design and costumes by Dalí, choreography by Maurice Béjart , music by Alessandro Scarlatti
- 1975: Impressions from Inner Mongolia , film, staged by Dalí
Works of literature illustrated by Dalí
- 1934: Comte de Lautréamont : Les Chants de Maldoror (The Songs of Maldoror) . Albert Skira, Paris
- 1934: Georges Hugnet : Onan . Éditions Surréalistes, Paris
- 1938: Paul Éluard : Cours Naturel . Sagittaire, Paris
- 1944: Maurice Sandoz : Fantastic Memories . Doubleday, New York
- 1945: Maurice Sandoz: The Maze . Doubleday, New York
- 1946: Miguel de Cervantes : The Life and Achievements of the Renowned Don Quixote de la Mancha . Random House, New York
- 1947: Michel de Montaigne : Essays . Doubleday, New York
- 1948: Billy Rose : Wine, Women and Words . Simon and Schuster, New York
- 1948: Benvenuto Cellini : The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini . Doubleday, New York
- 1948: Maurice Sandoz: The house without windows . Morgarten, Zurich
- 1950: Maurice Sandoz: On the Verge . Doubleday, New York
- 1950–1952: Dante Alighieri: Commedia 102 watercolors
- 1951: Maurice Sandoz: La Limite . La Table Ronde, Paris
- 1954: Eugenio d'Ors: La verdadera historia de Lydia de Cadaqués . José Janés Editor, Barcelona
- 1957: Miguel de Cervantes: Don Quixote . Joseph Foret, Paris
- 1959: Pedro Antonio de Alarcon: Il Sombrero de tres picos ( The Tricorn ). Editions du Rocher, Monaco
- 1960: L'Apocalypse de Saint Jean . Joseph Foret, Paris
- 1963: Dante Alighieri : La Divine Comédie ( The Divine Comedy ) . Les Heures claires, Paris (notes)
- 1963–1967: The Bible . Otus Verlag, ISBN 3-907194-31-4
- 1966: H. Chr. Andersen: Märchen Gerschmann, Sweden
- 1967: Dalí illustrious Casanova
- 1967: Apollinaire: Poèmes secrets
- 1968: Pierre de Ronsard: Les Amours de Cassandre P. Argillet, Paris
- 1969: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe : Faust (Fig.)
- 1969: Lewis Carroll : Alice in Wonderland ( Alice's Adventures in Wonderland ). Maecenas Press, Random House, New York (Fig.)
- 1970: André Mary: Tristan et Iseut . Michèle Broutta and others
- 1970: Leopold von Sacher-Masoch : Venus in fur - La Vénus aux Fourrures . Pierre Argillet, Paris
- 1970: Prosper Merimée: Carmen
- 1972: Giovanni Boccaccio : The Decameron (Fig.)
- 1973: André Malraux: Roi, je t'attends à Babylone Skira, Geneva
- 1974: Ernest Hemingway : The Old Man and the Sea
- 1974: Le Bestiaire de La Fontaine Les Maîtres Contemporains, Paris
- 1974: EJ Tristan de Corbière: Les Amours Jaunes Pierre Belfond and others
- 1974: John Milton : Paradise Lost
- 1975: Sigmund Freud: The Man Moses and Monotheism (French translation) Art et Valeur, Paris
Alongside Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí is an artist for whom there were already two museums during his lifetime that were exclusively dedicated to his works. The first museum, the Dalí Museum , was founded by Dalí collectors A. Reynolds Morse and Eleanor Morse and opened personally by Dalí on March 7, 1971. The couple had built up an extensive collection over decades and exhibited it in a building near their residence in Cleveland (Beachwood), Ohio . At the end of 1980 the works were brought to Saint Petersburg , Florida , where a new museum was opened at the port in 1982. It houses 96 oil paintings by Dalí, over 100 watercolors and drawings, 1,300 graphics, photographs, sculptures, jewelery and an extensive archive. A new hurricane-proof building for the museum was completed in 22 months by the architects Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum and opened in January 2011.
The second museum, the Teatre-Museu Dalí in his hometown Figueres in Spain, was the former theater of the small community. From 1970, Dalí had it converted into a museum of its own in order to honor itself and to make Figueres an attraction again. It opened in 1974.
There have been two more museums in Spain since the mid-1990s. It is the Castell de Púbol, which has been his wife's residence since 1970 - Dalí Gala had already promised to build a castle for her in 1930. After her death in 1982, this castle was Dalí's residence for two years until he left it after a fire in the bedroom in 1984. The house in Portlligat in the municipality of Cadaqués is also open to the public as a museum.
Since February 5, 2009, the Dalí Museum - The Exhibition at Potsdamer Platz on Leipziger Platz in Berlin has been showing over 450 works by the Spanish artist. The exhibits - graphics, illustrations, artist books as well as workbooks and other documents - are all originals that were made available by private collectors.
- Robert Descharnes , Gilles Néret: Salvador Dalí. 1904-1989. Original edition Taschen, Cologne 1989. Edition 2006 by Taschen under ISBN 3-8228-5005-5 (quotations from this edition).
- Meredith Etherington-Smith: Dalí, a biography. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-596-12880-3
- Wolfgang Everling: Salvador Dalí as author, reader and illustrator. Relationship between texts and images. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8260-3640-8
- Herbert Genzmer : Dalí and Gala. The painter and the muse. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 1998, ISBN 3-87134-338-2
- Ian Gibson: Salvador Dalí. The biography. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-421-05133-X
- Carlton Lake : In Quest of Dali . Putnam, New York 1969; New edition Paragon House 1990, ISBN 1-55778-386-1
- Amanda Lear : Dalí - 15 years with Salvador Dalí. Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-442-06805-3
- Detlef Lehmann: The divine fragrances - Salvador Dalí and his perfumes (catalog for the museum exhibition The divine Fragrances ), Ed. John G. Bodenstein, EKS-Verlag Europäische Kultur Stiftung / Marco Verlag, Bonn-Paris-New York 2004, ISBN 978 -3-921754-39-9
- Wolfgang Maier-Preusker : Dalí as an illustrator. 100 selected illustrations 1944–1948. Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-900208-27-1
- Wolfgang Maier-Preusker: Documentation of the status prints for Dalí's wood engraving “Lucifer” from the suite: Dante-The Divine Comedy from 1960–1963. Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-900208-25-5
- Wolfgang Maier-Preusker: Salvador Dalí. The color wood engraving illustrations for the Dante cycle 'The Divine Comedy' in the Maecenas Collection . Museum publication. Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-900208-19-0
- George Orwell : Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dalí , German To Benefit and Pious of the Clergy: Some Notes on Savador Dalí. In: Ders .: Rache ist sauer , Essays, Diogenes Verlag, Zurich 1975, ISBN 3-257-20250-4 , pp. 39–52
- Torsten Otte: Salvador Dalí - A biography with self-testimonies of the artist. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2006, ISBN 3-8260-3306-X
- Lisa Puyplat (Ed.): Salvador Dalí. Facets of an artist of the century , Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3021-4
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 2004, ISBN 3-499-50579-7
- Ralf Schiebler: Dalí - the reality of dreams. Prestel Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7913-2979-0
- Wieland Schmied : Salvador Dalí - The riddle of desire. Series piper Galerie, Piper, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-492-11206-4
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí. Prestel Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3815-6 (LIVING ART series)
- Volker Zotz : André Breton. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 1990, ISBN 3-499-50374-3
- Albert Field: The Official Catalog of the Graphic Works of Salvador Dalí , Salvador Dalí Archives Ltd., New York 1996, ISBN 0-9653611-0-1
- Ralf Michler and Lutz W. Löpsinger: Salvador Dalí. The graphic work I: Oeuvre catalog of etchings and mixed media graphics 1924–1980 . Prestel Verlag, Munich 2nd edition 1995, ISBN 3-7913-1285-5 and
- Ralf Michler and Lutz W. Löpsinger: Salvador Dalí. The graphic work II: lithographs and woodcuts 1956–1980. Prestel Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7913-1492-0
Films about Dalí
- 1965: Dalí in New York , documentary film, director: Jack Bond
- 1967: L'autoportrait mou de Salvador Dalí , directed by Jean-Christophe Averty
- 1970: The Soft Self Portrait of Salvador Dali , speaker Orson Welles
- 1992: The Secret Collection of Salvador Dalí , fictional documentation. Script and direction: Otto Kelmer
- 2009 Little Ashes , a film about Dalí's early years, especially his relationship with Lorca and Buñuel. Leading roles: Robert Pattinson , Javier Beltrán, Matthew McNulty and Arly Jover .
- 2014: Dalí & I. The Surreal Story . Directed by Andrew Niccol , starring: Cillian Murphy and Al Pacino . The film tells the life story of the Spanish painter based on the book of the same name by Stan Lauryssens .
- Salvador Dalí at Google Arts & Culture
- Literature by and about Salvador Dalí in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Salvador Dalí in the German Digital Library
- Link catalog on the topic of Salvador Dalí at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Espace Dalí - Museum in Paris
- The Dalí Museum , St. Petersburg, Florida
- Museums in Púbol and Portlligat
- Gala Salvador Dalí Foundation
- Salvador Dalí on kunstaspekte.de
- Materials by and about Salvador Dalì in the documenta archive
- Dalí - The exhibition at Potsdamer Platz (Berlin)
- Andrea Kath: May 11, 1904 - birthday of the painter Salvador Dalí . WDR ZeitZeichen (podcast).
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 12
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , pp. 10-17
- Salvador Dalí: The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí . Schirmer Mosel, Munich 1990, p. 11. (In the 1984 edition there was still "Koch".)
- Dalí's dreamed opera. Centennial Magazine, July 10, 2004, archived from the original on September 5, 2011 ; Retrieved January 23, 2009 .
- Robert Descharnes / Gilles Néret: Salvador Dalí , p.7
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 18 f.
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 42
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 34
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 37
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , S. 222nd
- Descharnes / Néret: Dalí , pp. 26–43
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 58
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p 76
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí , p. 38
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 66 f.
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 53
- Elizabeth Puyplat, Adrian Lasalvia, Herbert Heinzelmann: Salvador Dalí. Facets of an artist of the century , Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, pp. 132–136
- Elizabeth Puyplat, Adrian Lasalvia, Herbert Heinzelmann: Salvador Dalí. Facets of an artist of the century, 2005, pp. 132–136
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , 1993, p. 240 f. and edition 2006, p. 106
- Salvador Dalí: The secret life of Salvador Dalí , p. 444 f.
- Emanuel Amhof: Salvador Dalí. July 9, 1999, accessed April 5, 2008 .
- Candida Ridler: Transcription of British Library podcast. (PDF; 105 kB) In: Breaking the Rules: The Printed Face of the European Avant Garde 1900–1937. British Library, accessed April 9, 2008 .
- Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (Ed.): Insights. The 20th Century in the North Rhine-Westphalia Art Collection, Düsseldorf , Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern-Ruit 2000, p. 411
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 114
- TIME Magazine Cover: Salvador Dalí. TIME Magazine, December 14, 1936, accessed April 5, 2008 .
- Niels Werber, Ruhr University Bochum (ed.): Lecture series Avant-garde of art and literature: Surrealism, artificial bodies, photography. December 1, 1999 (as of April 5, 2008).
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 73
- Surrealist art should represent a means of expression, an instrument of self-discovery, but not be created for the purpose of enjoyment. quoted from William S. Rubin : Dada, Surrealism and Their heritage , MoMA: New York 1984, ISBN 978-0-87070-284-6
- Rathsmann-Sponsel / Sponsel: Declaration of independence of the imagination and declaration of the rights of man to his madness . Internet publication for general and integrative psychotherapy, accessed on January 23, 2009 .
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí , p. 47 f.
- Salvador Dalí. Artelino, quoted from Frank Weyers: Salvador Dalí . Könemann, ISBN 3-8290-2934-9 , archived from the original on April 5, 2002 ; Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- Martin Schieder: Surrealistic Socialite. Dalí's Exhibition at the Knoedler Galleries in 1943 , in: Julia Drost, Fabrice Flahutez, Anne Helmreich and Martin Schieder (eds.): Networking Surrealism in the USA. Agents, Artists, and the Market, Paris and Heidelberg 2019 (Passages online, Volume 3), URL: https://books.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/arthistoricum/catalog/book/485 ), pp. 194–219 .
- Beings between humans and animals
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p 141
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , pp. 94, 147
- Anne Fader, Anna Reiter, Julia Bertrams: Salvador Dalí. Archived from the original on December 8, 2004 ; Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 95
- Frank Sistenich: Dalí is alive. Spiegel Online, March 28, 2008, accessed January 23, 2009 .
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 95 f.
- Salvador Dalí - The Divine Comedy. artelino - art auctions, 1996, archived from the original on October 22, 2002 ; Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 102
- Reiner Klatt: Dalí Museum. usatipps.de, accessed on April 5, 2008 .
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 176
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 111 f.
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , pp. 115, 121
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí , p. 23
- Herbert Genzmer: Dalí and Gala , p. 141
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 125 f.
- Arno Breker Biography. In: PROMETHEUS, Internet Bulletin for Art, Politics and Science. No. 85 Museum of European Art, 2002, accessed April 5, 2008 .
- Salvador Dalí gets new make-up. In: PROMETHEUS, Internet Bulletin for Art, News, Politics and Science. No. 104 Museum of European Art, February 2006, accessed April 5, 2008 .
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 127 ff.
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí , p. 79
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 134
- María del Mar Lozano Bartolozzi: Wolf Vostell: (1932-1998) . Editorial NEREA, 2000, ISBN 978-84-89569-38-6 ( google.de [accessed June 15, 2020]).
- Wolf Vostell, Works with TV / Video, 1958-1998 (selection): Wolf Vostell, TV Obelisk, 1979, Museo Dali, Figueras. In: Wolf Vostell, Works with TV / Video, 1958 - 1998 (selection). Retrieved June 15, 2020 .
- Lisa Puyplat, Adrian La Salvia, Herbert Heinzelmann: Salvador Dalí: Facets of an artist of the century . Königshausen & Neumann, 2005, ISBN 978-3-8260-3021-5 ( google.de [accessed June 15, 2020]).
- Herbert Genzmer: Dalí and Gala : p. 71
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 207
- Result of the exhumation. Fortune teller loses paternity dispute over Salvador Dalí In: spiegel.de, September 6, 2017, accessed on September 7, 2017
- Deceased painter Dalí back to resting place after paternity complaint. Retrieved March 18, 2018 (German).
- Salvador Dalí. Retrospective 1920–1980 . See in front of ill.no.175
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 12 ff.
- Salvador Dalí: The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí , p. 430
- Dalí: La Conquète de l'Irrationel , Paris 1935, Ger . The conquest of the irrational . Frankfurt, 1973 p. 12
- Salvador Dalí: Declaration of Independence of the Imagination and Declaration of the Rights of Man to His Madness . Collected Writings. Munich 1974 p. 74
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí . P. 34
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 95
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 36 f.
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí . P. 73 ff.
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí . P. 83 ff.
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí . P. 113.
- Reiner Klatt: Dalí Museum III. In: usatipps.de. Retrieved April 5, 2008 .
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , S. 187th
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 125.
- Dalí coincidences. In: Robert Descharnes / Gilles Néret in Salvador Dalí, 1904–1989, The painterly work, part 1, Taschen, 2002, pp. 661–689. multilayer.twoday.net, archived from the original on June 19, 2007 ; Retrieved April 5, 2008 .
- Dalí Sculptor. Espace Dalí, Paris, archived from the original on May 14, 2011 ; Retrieved January 23, 2009 .
- Quoted from the catalog and short guide of the Dalí permanent exhibition at Potsdamer Platz in Berlin
- From Dalí's “10 Rules for the Budding Painter” in 50 Magical Secrets . Cologne: DuMont 1986
- Peter Bürger: Damned to paint. www.zeit.de from May 6, 2004, accessed on January 18, 2009 .
- This refers to Jan van Eyck and Hubert van Eyck , who is no longer regarded as Jan van Eyck's brother today.
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 158
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 140
- Dalí's album cover for Jackie Gleasons Lonesome Echo . Tom McMahon, accessed January 23, 2009 .
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 109
- Salvador Dalí , parfumo.de, accessed on October 6, 2012
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 206
- Detlef Lehmann: Les Parfums de Dalí. European Art Museum, Nörvenich Castle, accessed on January 23, 2009 .
- Salvador Dalì's Symbolism ( Memento from September 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 66
- Linde Salber: Salvador Dalí , p. 151
- ie dark, ominous
- Mark Polizzotti : Revolution of the Mind. The life of André Breton , p. 482 f.
- Descharnes / Néret: Salvador Dalí , p. 164
- Ruth Kastner: Dalí - and his license to forge. Hamburger Abendblatt, May 11, 2004, accessed April 5, 2008 .
- Dalí turns 100. NDR television, May 10, 2004, archived from the original on October 8, 2008 ; Retrieved April 5, 2008 .
- Christiane Weidemann: Salvador Dalí , p. 117
- Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on September 22, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1981 EX 18 . Discovered 1981 Mar. 2 by SJ Bus at Siding Spring. "
- Lisa Puyplat, Adrian La Salvia, Herbert Heinzelmann: Salvador Dalí: Facets of a century artist . Königshausen & Neumann, 2005, ISBN 978-3-8260-3021-5 ( google.de [accessed June 15, 2020]).
- The spelling Dali ("i" without acute ) is used consistently in the book .
- Dalí & Film: Babaouo . Tate Modern, archived from the original on October 14, 2008 ; Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- About the Museum. Salvador Dalí Museum, Saint Petersburg, Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- Nadine M. Post: Salvador Dalí Museum by HOK Opens This Month in Florida. Architectural Record, January 5, 2011, accessed May 14, 2011 .
- Berlin now has a Dalí Museum. Berliner Morgenpost , January 22, 2009, accessed on February 4, 2009 .
- The essay was written in 1944, but not initially published.
- The Soft Self Portrait of Salvador Dali , imdb.com
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Dalí, Salvador Felipe Jacinto; Marqués de Púbol, Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí y Domènech|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Spanish painter, printmaker, writer, sculptor and set designer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 11, 1904|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Figueres , Catalonia|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 23, 1989|
|Place of death||Figueres , Catalonia|