# Acute

´
Diacritical marks
designation character
Acute, simple ◌́
Acute, double ◌̋
Breve, including ◌̮
Cedilla, including ◌̧
Gravis, simple ◌̀
Gravis, double ◌̏
hook ◌̉
Hatschek ◌̌
horn ◌̛
Comma below ◌̦
Coronis ◌̓
Kroužek, including ◌̥
Macron, underneath ◌̱
Ogonek ◌̨
Point below ◌̣
Dash ◌̶
diacritical
slash
◌̷
Alcohol asper ◌̔
Spiritus lenis ◌̕
Tilde, underneath ◌̰
Trema, including ◌̤
circumflex ◌̂
Áá Ćć Éé
Íí Ĺĺ Ńń
Óó Ŕŕ Śś
Úú Ýý Źź

The acute [ aˈkuːt ] ( Latin acutus : 'pointed', 'sharp') is a diacritical mark (an accent mark ) that is found in many modern written languages whose alphabets are based on the Latin , Cyrillic or Greek writing system .

It consists of a short line from the bottom left to the top right and stands above or in front of the letter and indicates a special pronunciation of the letter or the word stress .

The symmetrical counterpart to the acute is the grave accent .

## Meaning and function in different languages

The function of the acute varies in the different languages ​​and is only presented here as an example because of the great variety.

### Greek

Άά Έέ Ήή Ίί
Όό Ύύ Ώώ

Ancient Greek was the first European written language to use this form of accent since the 3rd century BC. BC , initially as a musical accent for the rising pitch, later as a stress accent . This accent was called προσῳδία ὀξεῖα prosōdía oxeía , 'sharp approach'. The Latin word acutus ('sharp') took over this additional loan meaning , and accentus acutus is the literal translation of προσῳδία ὀξεῖα .

With the Greek script reform of 1982 (see monotonic orthography ), the acute replaced the three polytonic accents acute, grave and circumflex . He is now usually no longer called ὀξεῖα , but τόνος ( Tonos ), with which the two thousand year old reference to the syllable has been weakened.

### Romance languages

In French , the accent aigu changes the pronunciation. The é is a closed e [⁠ e ⁠] , comparable to the e in German lake such as: thé [ te ], tea ', whereas a mere e normally for the schwa -According / ə / is (in French in Moved towards ö) such as: le [ ] 'der'.

In Italian , the accento acuto denotes a closed é and, more rarely, a ó in the stressed syllable. For example: nonché [ noŋ'ke ] 'as well as'.

In Spanish , the Acento agudo marks the stressed syllable when deviating from the general stress rule. For example: río [ 'ɾiɔ ]' river '(instead of about [ ɾjɔ ]) or Cádiz [ ' kadiθ ] (instead of about [ ka'diθ ]).

### Slavic languages

#### Polish

A special form of acute is the kreska (in English "line, dash") in Polish . It is inclined 25 degrees less than the acute acute (usually inclined by 40 degrees from the vertical) (i.e. only 15 degrees inclined from the vertical) and marks a palatal sound in each case . The letters { ć }, { ń }, { ś } and { ź } are affected . The grapheme { ó }, on the other hand, represents the sound [u] as in the German word "Mutter" and therefore does not differ from the Polish {u} in phonetic terms; it is explained by the linguistic development of the Polish vocal system. The kreska does not have its own Unicode character, so the distinction between acute and kreska threatens to disappear.

#### Czech

In Czech , the acute name is čárka and has been used since the 14th century to indicate the length of the vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, ý. For the long u there is also the spelling ů.

#### Slovak

In Slovak it is called dĺžeň and stands for long vowels (á, é, í, ó, ú, ý) or long syllabic consonants (ŕ, ĺ).

#### Macedonian

In the Cyrillic spelling of Macedonian there are the variants Ѓ and Ќ of the Cyrillic letters Г and К, which are provided with an acute accent and stand for a palatalization of the respective sound.

### Hungarian

Őő Űű

In Hungarian , the acute accent is placed over a long vowel, the pronunciation of which can also change (a, e, á, é). Hungarian also has a double acute : It modifies the short umlauts Ö, ö, Ü, ü (with umlaut dots) to long umlauts with "umlaut stripes": Ő, ő, Ű, ű .

### Germanic languages

In Old Icelandic / Old Norse, the acute was used to mark long vowels, as is known from the first grammatical treatise . - In modern Icelandic all vowel letters except <æ> and <ö> occur both with and without an acute accent, which is called broddur (sting) in Icelandic : <a, á, e, é, i, í, o, ó, u, ú, y, ý>. The old long vowels have changed qualitatively over the centuries. As in German, diphthongization (hūs: house) or palatalization occurred. As in New High German, the length of vowels in New Icelandic is no longer absolute, but is determined exclusively by the syllable structure. Each vowel and diphthong can be short or long in Icelandic. Today the acute acute does not denote a long sound, but a different one: <a> denotes short or long / a /, <á> on the other hand short or long / au /, <e> short or long / ɛ /, <é> the rising one Diphthong / jɛ /; <o> / o /, <ó> / ou /; <u> / ʏ /, <ú> / u /; <i> and the umlaut <y> dull / ɪ /, <í> and the umlaut <ý> light / i /. Since with the exception of <ei> and <ey> for / ɛi / all diphthongs are represented by single letters with an acute accent, there is always a syllable boundary between two vowel letters: <fáeineir> / fau | einɪr / (few), <óa> / ou | wa / (shudder).

In Danish you can see the é for certain words when the special emphasis is to be displayed in the sentence: en bil '(any) a car' versus én bil 'one car (and not several)' - also in Dutch : een auto versus één auto .

In Swedish , the acute only occurs in French loan words ( armé from French armée ), also in those that do not have an accent in French ( ateljé from French atelier ), and indicates the stress with a pressure accent (not to be confused with the two tonal accents of Swedish). As a result of a French fad that was rampant in the “better circles” in the 18th century, some genuinely Swedish family names ( Kastrén , Linné ) are still spelled with acute acute.

### Irish

In Irish , the acute ( síneadh fada : 'long stretching') is used to denote long vowels.

### Vietnamese

In the Vietnamese script , the acute acute ( dấu sắc ) is used to indicate a rising tone.

### Chinese

The phonetic transcription with Latin letters (Hanyu Pinyin ) developed for the Chinese language uses the acute to denote the second (rising) tone .

## Representation on the computer and use there

An enlarged acute

### Character sets

The acute acute does not appear in the ASCII character set .

The character sets of the ISO 8859 family contain the acute and some characters with acute, for example Áá Éé Íí Óó Úú Ýý in ISO 8859-1 .

Unicode contains other pre-composed characters with acute accents. The free standing acute has the code number U + 00B4. In addition, the acute acute can be combined as a combination sign with the code U + 0301 by adding other signs.

### Incorrect application

Frequently, an acute accent or a grave accent over a space is mistakenly used instead of the apostrophe . For example: “I'm fine” instead of “I'm fine”.

### TeX and LaTeX

TeX and LaTeX can represent any characters with an acute accent. There are two different commands for this

• in text mode for the typesetting produces `\'a`an á
• in math mode for the formula set generates `\acute a`the formula${\ displaystyle {\ acute {a}}}$