|Chữ Quốc Ngữ|
|inventor||Alexandre de Rhodes et al.|
|Usage time||officially 1910/1945 until today|
|Officially in||Socialist Republic of Vietnam|
→ Greek alphabet
→ Etruscan alphabet
→ Latin alphabet
→ Portuguese alphabet
→ Chữ Quốc Ngữ
|Unicode block||Basic Latin + Latin-1 Supplement + Latin Extended-A + Latin Extended-B + Latin Extended Additional|
The Vietnamese alphabet or Chữ Quốc Ngu ( Han-Nom : ?國語 , literally writing the national language ) is since 1945 official state and Traffic signature of Vietnam . The Vietnamese language (vietn .: tiếng Việt , Hán Nôm: 㗂 越 ) is a tonal language that, unlike Mandarin, knows six tones. Their precise and legible representation is difficult. Chữ Quốc Ngu is a phonetic writing ( phonetic spelling ), the pronunciation can be derived very precisely from its spelling.
Quốc Ngữ (國語 "national language") is next to Việt Ngữ (越 語) an archaic name for the Vietnamese language, which is known today as tiếng Việt (㗂 越). Chữ (?) means "writing (characters)". Chữ Quốc Ngữ (? 國語) literally means "script of the national language".
Chữ Quốc Ngữ was developed from the middle of the 17th century as a Latin alphabet with special characters and diacritics for tonal identification and revised and standardized several times. It is the only common script for notating a tonal language based on the Latin alphabet. Altogether, the modern Chữ Quốc Ng kennt knows besides Latin letters 134 combinations of basic letters and diacritical marks, which give the script its typical appearance. The spelling corresponds to the monosyllabic character of the Vietnamese language, hyphens are only used in foreign-language words. Since the script is not strictly standardized, inconsistent spellings occur in cases where there are no ambiguities in pronunciation.
There are some special scripts for the languages of the minority peoples in Vietnam, such as the Tai-Viet script for the languages of the Tai Dam and Tai Dón .
The Vietnamese language was or is written in three writing systems :
- the writing system chữ Nho ( ? 儒 ) for the Chinese and the Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary with the Chinese characters chữ Hán ( ? 漢 , also: Hán tự , 漢字 )
- the writing system Hán Nôm ( 漢 喃 ) with the Hán tự / chữ Hán characters and the chữ Nôm ( ? 喃 , also: Quốc âm , 國 音 ) for the Vietnamese vocabulary based on Chinese characters
- chữ Quốc Ngữ ( ? 國語 ), a Latin script with diacritical marks , the current writing system in Vietnam
Archeology has not yet been able to clarify whether the Vietnamese had their own script before they came into contact with Chinese culture .
Chữ Nho and Hán Tự
The Vietnamese language, like the Korean and Japanese languages , has been heavily influenced by the Chinese language . During the millennial Chinese rule (111 BC to 938), Chinese was the official and educational language . The Chinese brought their literature, philosophy and history with them to Vietnam with their language, but above all for the Confucian official examinations for the mandarinate , the term for civil officials of the state administration, a profound knowledge of the Chinese language and script was essential. This led to the adoption of numerous Chinese loanwords in the Vietnamese language. The logographic writing system of classical Chinese is called chữ Nho in Vietnamese (? 儒, pronunciation: cɨ̌ ɲɔ ), literally: writing of the Confucian scholars . It differs from Chinese mainly in pronunciation. For a long time, chữ Nho was the only available way to write the Vietnamese language, an art that was practiced almost exclusively by Vietnamese elites with a Chinese education. Sharply separated from this educational literature, folk literature with its fables, humoresques, folk songs and proverbs was passed on exclusively orally.
Hán tự ( 漢字 , Pronunciation hǎːn tɨˀ ), also chữ Hán ( ?漢 , literally writing the Hán ), the Vietnamese term for Chinese characters in chữ Nho and developed from vietnamisierten writing system Han-Nom ( 漢喃 ). They served the transcript of classical Chinese and Sino-Vietnamese Hán Việt -Vokabulars ( 漢越 ) in the Vietnamese language, as opposed to the character of chữ NOM ( ?喃 even ?喃 , literally marble font ), with those in Hán Nôm the native vocabulary of the Vietnamese language could be noted.
Hán Nôm and Chữ Nôm
After the Vietnamese independence from China in 939 and probably at the time when the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation had become established, i.e. from the 11th century at the earliest, but certainly from the 13th century, Vietnamese scholars began to modify the Chinese script. This initially began with the standardization of the spelling of Vietnamese words, such as proper names. Later, special characters were introduced to better express words that were common in Vietnamese. A separate Vietnamese script emerged, the chữ Nôm or simply Nôm. Since the characters were not determined according to the origin of the word , which was unknown to the various authors who developed chữ Nôm, the script ultimately became illegible for the Chinese.
Ancient inscriptions in chữ Nôm are found on bells in temples and carved in stone. The oldest surviving document is an inscription from the year 1209 on a wooden support of the B Âo Ân pagoda ( 保 恩 ) in Yên Lãng, province of Vhnh Phúc . The year of origin 1076 of the chữ Nôm inscription on a bronze tube at the Vân Bản pagoda ( 雲 岅 ) in Đồ Sơn ( 徒 山 ) near Hải Phòng is disputed . The first known historical work in Nôm is Đại Việt Sử Ký ( 大越 史記, literally: The story of Đại Việt ) by Lê Văn Hưu , published in 1272. Nguyễn Trãi (1380–1442) wrote his work Bình Ngô đại cáo in chữ Hán, but Quốc âm thi tập and more than 200 poems he wrote in Nôm.
In the 18th century, many well-known Vietnamese authors wrote their works in chữ Nôm, according to the poet Hồ Xuân Hương ( 胡春香 ). The best-known work to be mentioned here has the short name Truyện Kiều ( 傳 翹 , literally: The story of the Kiều ). This verse novel by the aristocratic writer Nguyễn Du ( 阮 攸 , 1765–1820) with the original title Đoạn Trường Tân Thanh ( 斷腸 新 聲 ) is one of the classics of Vietnamese literature with its 3254 verses in the verse form Lục bát and is considered a national epic , and is Standard reading material in schools. It is based on the novel Jin Yun Qiao zhuan ( 金 雲 翹 傳 , Vietnamese Kim Vân Kiều ) by Qingxin Cairen ( 青 心 才 人 , Vietnamese Thanh Tâm Tài Nhân ), written in 1875 by Trương Vĩnh Ký in Chữ Quốc Ngữ was transferred. A German translation by Truyện Kiều from 1964 is entitled Das Mädchen Kiêu .
It was not until the Tây Sơn dynasty (1788–1802) that all administrative documents were written in Nôm. In 1867 Nguyễn Trường Tộ ( 阮長祚 ) intended to standardize chữ Nôm, but the new system Quốc âm Hán tự ( 國 音 漢字 ) was rejected by Emperor Tự Đức ( 嗣 德 ). Since chữ Nôm had never been officially standardized up to this point in time, there are sometimes different characters for a Vietnamese word. Authors in Nôm therefore always had to make a selection for which certain rules had developed.
The widespread use of the chữ Nôm in the population stood in the way of its difficult learning, so that the scripts chữ Hán and chữ Nôm were used in parallel until the end of the 19th century. Only a small number of scholars can actually read and write chữ Nôm. Some Buddhist monks and the Jing or Gin ( 京 , Chinese 京 族 , Pinyin Jīngzú - "Gin people"), the Vietnamese living in China, are also proficient in it to a certain extent. For the majority of the more than 80 million Vietnamese speakers, much of Vietnam's written history threatens to become inaccessible. There are efforts by the Vietnamese government and the Nôm Preservation Foundation to revive Hán Nôm and to include it in the education system.
Chữ Quốc Ngữ
The Portuguese adventurers who invaded the country in 1516 were followed by Dominican missionaries in 1527 . Soon, Catholic priests from Italy , France and Spain began their missionary work in Vietnam. In order to learn the native language, they needed a transcription of the Vietnamese pronunciation in Latin letters. At the same time, they hoped that knowing the Latin alphabet would make it easier for the Vietnamese to learn the respective European language. Some of these priests had an excellent linguistic training and developed a transcription system that led to the script chữ Quốc Ngữ .
The pioneers here are Christofora Borri , Francisco de Pina and Francisco de Buzomi , who, with the help of local believers and clergy, transcribed Vietnamese terms, which were still inconsistent, into the Latin alphabet. The missionaries Gaspar d'Amaral (1592–1645), Antoine de Barbosa (1594–1647) and Alexandre de Rhodes (1591 or 1593–1660) subsequently created dictionaries of the Vietnamese language independently of one another, D'Amaral the Dictionarium Annamaticum - Lusitanum and Barbosa the Dictionarium Lusitanum - Annamiticum , both originals have been lost. Only the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitinum et Latinum by Alexandre de Rhodes was released for printing in Rome in 1651, which is generally considered to be the birth of Chữ Quốc Ngữ.
Until the middle of the 18th century, Chữ Quốc Ngữ was mainly used by Catholic believers. Meanwhile, French Jesuits , some of whom had been expelled from Japan, gained more and more influence in Vietnam, including on the modernization phase of Chữ Quốc Ngữ, which was initiated by the work of Pierre-Joseph-Georges Pigneau de Béhaine (Vietnamese Bá Đa Lộc ) has been. However, he died in 1799 before he could publish his encyclopedia Việt - La Tinh (Dictionarium Annamatica - Latinum). Only 35 years later did the missionary JL Tabert continue the work of Pigneau de Béhaine in Saigon. What was special about his work was that, together with his believers, he transcribed many well-known poems and proverbs from Chữ Nôm to Chữ Quốc Ngữ. In 1838 his dictionary Nam Việt Dương Hiệp Từ Vựng (Dictionarium Annamatico - Latium) was printed. A major revision of the spelling, the intensive use of additional characters and a standardization for their numerous usage rules have made the font more compact, elegant and easier to use. Under the pretext of protecting French missionaries from anti-Western attacks, France intervened in Vietnam in 1858 and annexed all of Indochina by 1885 . The protectorate was also established by replacing ch bis Hán and chữ Nôm in high schools and administration by the French language and in the rest of the literature by Chữ Quốc Ngữ. In 1918, the imperial court in Hu ein stopped the literary examination, which was a prerequisite for the civil service career, the mandarinate, and the knowledge of chữ Hán required.
The establishment of Chữ Quốc Ngữ in colonial education alongside the French language led to the Vietnamese elite mastering a written language for the first time, which the masses of the population should also learn. The young intellectuals of the 20th century used Chữ Quốc Ngữ to disseminate new ideas, especially to formulate anti-colonial Vietnamese nationalism and communism. In addition, however, the new script meant that the old Chinese scripts could no longer be read easily. Chữ Quốc Ngữ also made it difficult to communicate with other East Asian peoples who retained their Chinese-born scripts. In the years 1933–1945, the literary movement Tự Lực Văn Đoàn, with its leading figure Nhất Linh, tried to create a clear, simple Quốc Ng chinesische without Chinese loanwords, thereby initiating a modernization in the literature of Vietnam . In September 1945, called Việt Minh , the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and made Chữ Quốc NGU, which was easier to learn for the rural population as chữ NOM, the official state and traffic magazine. The literacy rate rose from 5% at that time to 90% now.
|Vietnamese in Chữ Quốc Ngữ||in Hán Nôm||IPA (Hanoi)||German|
|Tất cả mọi người sinh ra đều được tự do và bình đẳng về nhân phẩm và quyền. Mọi con người đều được tạo hoá ban cho lý trí và lương tâm và cần phải đối xử với nhau trong tình bằng hữu.||
? 哿 每 ? 生 ? 調 得 自由 吧 平等 ? 人品 吧 權.
每 ? ? 調 得 造化 班 朱 理智 吧 吧 良心 吧 懃 沛 對 處 ? ? ? 情 朋友.
|tɜt̚ kɐː mɔj ŋɨɜj siŋ za ɗew ɗɨɜk̚ tɨɰ zɔ vɐː ɓiŋ ɗɐŋ vej ɲɜn fɜm vɐː kwiːɜn. mɔj kɔn ŋɨɜj ɗeu ɗɨɜk̚ tɐːw hɔɜ ɓɐːn cɔ lij cij vɐː lɨɜŋ tɜm vɐː kɜn fɐːj ɗoj sɨ vɜj ɲɐw cɜwŋ tiŋ ɓɐŋ hɨw.||All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights )
Thư Pháp - Vietnamese calligraphy
Calligraphy (Vietnamese: Thư Pháp , 書法 ), the art of beautiful writing, has a more recent tradition in Vietnam than in China or Japan . While the calligraphy of the writing systems chữ Hán and chữ Nôm was closely based on Chinese calligraphy ( Vietnamese : Thư pháp Á Đông , 書法 亞東 ), a Vietnamese form developed in the 1930s under the influence of the poet movement Phong trào Thơ Mới for the script Chữ Quốc Ngữ.
After interest in calligraphy had declined sharply after 1945, a renaissance of Thư Pháp developed through masters such as Lê Xuân Hòa , Trụ Vũ , Nguyễn Thanh Sơn , Song Nguyên , Chính Văn and Nguyễn Đình . In Huế, for example, the communal temple ( Đình ) and monks of the pagodas Châu Lâm and Huyền Không run a small garden of calligraphy . The lovers have organized themselves in the UNESCO Việt Nam Calligraphy Club .
The Vietnamese alphabet
The alphabet Chữ Quốc Ngu includes the 29 letters ⟨ a ⟩, ⟨ ă ⟩, ⟨ â ⟩, ⟨ b ⟩, ⟨ c ⟩, ⟨ d ⟩, ⟨ ¹ ⟩, ⟨ e ⟩, ⟨ ê ⟩, ⟨ g ⟩, ⟨ h ⟩, ⟨ i ⟩, ⟨ k ⟩, ⟨ l ⟩, ⟨ m ⟩, ⟨ n ⟩, ⟨ o ⟩, ⟨ ô ⟩, ⟨ O ⟩, ⟨ p ⟩, ⟨ q ⟩, ⟨ r ⟩, ⟨ s ⟩ , ⟨ t ⟩, ⟨ u ⟩, ⟨ U ⟩, ⟨ v ⟩, ⟨ x ⟩ and ⟨ y ⟩. Typical features of the font are:
- The modified consonant ⟨ ¹ ⟩ that for a voiced plosive (voiced alveolar implosive ) stands.
- The two modified letter ⟨ Ø ⟩ and ⟨ U ⟩ mark vowels that are unknown in Western languages moans, so called.
- Nine diphthongs and one triphthong represent ten speech sounds that can be described phonologically as vowels followed by a consonant [j] or [w].
- The letters ⟨ f ⟩, ⟨ j ⟩, ⟨ w ⟩ and ⟨ for ⟩ serve only the spelling of foreign language words.
- The diacritic ⟨ ̆ ⟩ to designate the shortness of the pronunciation [a].
- The diacritic ⟨ ⟩ representing the closeness of [a], [e], and [o].
- Five diacritics that mark the six syllable tones of the Vietnamese language above or below vowels .
Since the vowel letters ⟨ a ⟩, ⟨ e ⟩ and ⟨ o ⟩ priori the diacritics ⟨ ⟩ or ⟨ ̆ may have⟩, vowels are not uncommon with two diacritics.
A written syllable consists of a maximum of four parts:
- an optional consonant at the beginning,
- an optional transitional semi-vowel ,
- as a syllable core one of the vowels a, ă, â, e, ê, i, o, ô, ơ, u, ư and y as well as the possibly associated tone symbol, or a non-syllable half vowel as well
- optionally one of the consonants or diphthongs c, ch, m, n, ng, nh, p, or t as the end of the syllable.
The tones of Vietnamese differ in pitch and course ("melody"), tone length, intensity and glottalization . They are referred to as Thanh or Dấu ("tone sign"). Not every syllable exists in every pitch; some syllables only make sense in one or two of the six possible tones.
The Chinese linguist Yuen Ren Chao (also: Zhao Yuanren) has developed a practical system for notating the tones of tonal language. It divides the pitch into five levels, with 5 being the highest and 1 being the lowest. The tone change can be represented by a chain of numbers. An evenly medium tone would be notated as / 33 / etc. This sequence of numbers is called a tone shape.
|Thanh không or ngang||Thanh sắc
|Normal tone, high (or medium) and even (33)||high (or medium) rising (35)||deep and falling (21)||deep, falling and creaky (32 or 31)||(low) falling and rising (313)||interrupted and increasing (35)|
Pronunciation of the letters
|b-||similar to the b in B ett.|
|ch-||like ch (formed in the back of the mouth)|
|d-||North Vietnam: as in Saat
South Vietnam: like j in young
|đ-||similar to the d in d u|
|g- ( before hard vowels )
gh- ( before soft vowels )
|"rough" consonant between g and r , similar to r in R at|
|gi- ( before hard vowels )
g- ( before soft vowels )
North Vietnam : like s in S aat
South Vietnam : like English "j" in J ack
|H-||similar to the h in h olen|
|c- ( before hard vowels )
k- ( before soft vowels )
|non-aspirated k , similar to g|
|kh-||Oh-loud as in la ch en|
|l-||similar to the l in l aufen|
|m-||similar to the m in w it|
|n-||similar to n in n layer|
|ng- ( before hard vowels )
ngh- ( before soft vowels )
|as ng in si ng en|
|nh-||like Portuguese nh in Pira nh a or Spanish ñ ( nj )|
|ph-||like the German f in F isch|
|qu-||not aspirated, as pronounced gu|
|r-||similar to s in S ingen|
|s-||pronounced like s in Bi ss in the north, less rounded than the German sch in the south , similar to the English sh in sh ow|
|t-||not aspirated "t"|
|tr-||as in Ku tsch e (formed in the front of the mouth)|
|v-||like the v in V ase|
|x-||voiceless s as in S ex|
Soft vowels: e , ê and i
|-ng||as ng in si ng en|
|-nh||nasal n , corresponds to IPA ɲ|
|a||open and elongate a as in B ah nhof|
|ă||similar to a as in A ss|
|â||in German unknown|
|e||half-open e , similar w e tter (like ä )|
|i, y||similar to the German i|
|O||closed o , as in T o n|
|O||similar to u in English for u r|
|ư||u with wide lips, in German unknown; like Turkish ı and Russian ы|
Table of the alphabet
|Thanh không or ngang||Thanh sắc
|Thanh không or ngang||Thanh sắc
|Normal tone, high (or medium) and even (33)||high (or medium) rising (35)||deep and falling (21)||(low) falling and rising (313)||interrupted and increasing (35)||deep, falling and creaky (32 or 31)|
|a||aː , some dialects: æ||A.||Á||À||Ả||Ã||Ạ||a||á||à||ả||ã||ạ|
|A.||& Aacute;||& Agrave;||& # 7842;||& Atilde;||& # 7840;||a||& aacute;||& agrave;||& # 7843;||& atilde;||& # 7841;|
|& # 258;||& # 7854;||& # 7856;||& # 7858;||& # 7860;||& # 7862;||& # 259;||& # 7855;||& # 7857;||& # 7859;||& # 7861;||& # 7863;|
|& Acirc;||& # 7844;||& # 7846;||& # 7848;||& # 7850;||& # 7852;||& acirc;||& # 7845;||& # 7847;||& # 7849;||& # 7851;||& # 7853;|
|bê, bờ||ɓ , ʔb||B.||b|
|dê, dờ||north: z , south: j||D.||d|
|đê, đờ||ɗ , ʔd||Đ||đ|
|& # 272;||& # 273;|
|E.||& Eacute;||& Egrave;||& # 7866;||& # 7868;||& # 7864;||e||& eacute;||& egrave;||& # 7867;||& # 7869;||& # 7865;|
|& Ecirc;||& # 7870;||& # 7872;||& # 7874;||& # 7876;||& # 7878;||& ecirc;||& # 7871;||& # 7873;||& # 7875;||& # 7877;||& # 7879;|
|giê, gờ||ɣ , before i, ê and e: z||G||G|
|I.||& Iacute;||& Igrave;||& # 7880;||& # 296;||& # 7882;||i||& iacute;||& igrave;||& # 7881;||& # 297;||& # 7883;|
|O||& Oacute;||& Ograve;||& # 7886;||& Otilde;||& # 7884;||O||& oacute;||& ograve;||& # 7887;||& otilde;||& # 7885;|
|& Ocirc;||& # 7888;||& # 7890;||& # 7892;||& # 7894;||& # 7896;||& ocirc;||& # 7889;||& # 7891;||& # 7893;||& # 7895;||& # 7897;|
|& # 416;||& # 7898;||& # 7900;||& # 7902;||& # 7904;||& # 7906;||& # 417;||& # 7899;||& # 7901;||& # 7903;||& # 7905;||& # 7907;|
|e-rờ||north: z , south: ʐ , ɹ||R.||r|
|ét-sì, sờ||s , south and center: ʂ||S.||s|
|U||& Uacute;||& Ugrave;||& # 7910;||& # 360;||& # 7908;||u||& uacute;||& ugrave;||& # 7911;||& # 361;||& # 7909;|
|& # 431;||& # 7912;||& # 7914;||& # 7916;||& # 7918;||& # 7920;||& # 432;||& # 7913;||& # 7915;||& # 7917;||& # 7919;||& # 7921;|
|vê, vờ||v , south: j||V||v|
|vê kép, vê-đúp||(W)||(w)|
|i dài, i-cờ-rét||as a vowel: i||Y||Ý||Ỳ||Ỷ||Ỹ||Ỵ||y||ý||ỳ||ỷ||ỹ||ỵ|
|Y||& Yacute;||& # 7922;||& # 7926;||& # 7928;||& # 7924;||y||& yacute;||& # 7923;||& # 7927;||& # 7929;||& # 7925;|
Classification and coding
Since there were initially no standards for entering and displaying Chữ Quốc Ngữ on the computer, more than 30 codings were developed by various national and international manufacturers. Starting in 1991, the Vietnamese Standards and Quality Directorate TCVN (Tiêu chuẩn Việt Nam), an agency of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), designed the 8-bit coding Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange (VSCII). This was established in 1993 in TCVN 5712: 1993 as the VSCII-1 standard and revised in TCVN 5712: 1999.
The three most common 8-bit code sets are VSCII or TCVN, VISCII and VNCII (VPS). VSCII is the official standard, but VISCII is the most common. Since Chữ Quốc Ngữ knows 134 combinations of basic letters and diacritical characters and ASCII uses 128 characters, there are six redundant code points with 256 8-bit representable code points. All three code sets have placed these six characters in the ASCII range 0–31 for control codes, VSCII even twelve characters, as it also assigns code positions to the isolated diacritical characters. With TCVN 6909: 2001 there is also a 16-bit coding for Chữ Quốc Ngữ.
The universal character set Unicode offers full support for the Vietnamese script. However, there is no separate segment for Chữ Quốc Ngữ, but the characters are divided into the segments Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, Latin Extended-B and Latin Extended Additional. Unicode allows the user to choose between precombined characters and the combination of basic letters and diacritical marks when entering data. Since freely combinable characters have not been implemented as standard in various operating systems (see Verdana font), the pre-combined variant is usually used.
A selection of codes and character sets for Chữ Quốc Ngữ:
- Language code ISO 639–1 : vi , ISO 639–2 / B: vie
- Font code ISO 15924 : not classified, Latin alphabet: No. 215 Latn
- VIQR (Vietnamese Quoted-Readable), 7-bit input method of the Vietnamese Standardization Group , is based on ASCII, described in RFC 1456 , 1992
- VNI Encoding, character encoding from VNI Software Company ,
- VISCII (Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange), 8-bit coding of the Vietnamese Standardization Group , ISO 8859 , described in RFC 1456 , 1992
- VNCII (VPS), 8-bit character encoding from the Vietnamese Professionals Society , 1993
- VSCII-1 (also TCVN-1 or ABC-1), 8-bit coding of the TCVN, now STAMEQ, described in TCVN 5712: 1993, 1993
- Windows character encoding: code page 1258 , 1996
- IBM character encoding: CP 01129, MCCSID 1129, Character set GCSGID 01336, 1997
- VSCII-2 or TCVN-2, 8-bit coding described in TCVN 5712: 1999, ISO 2022 -compatible, 1999
- TCVN 6909: 2001, 16-bit encoding, 2001
- Unicode : UTF-8 , an 8-bit transformation format ( Unicode Transformation Format ) of the Universal Coded Character Set , ISO 10646 , described in RFC 3629 , currently valid.
|Surname||introduction||bit||Code points||displayable characters||Norms||first use|
|ASCII||1963||7th||128||95||ANSI X3.4-1968||Teletype ASR33 teleprinter|
|VISCII||1992||8th||122 + 134 = 256||95 + 134 = 229||ISO 8859||Chữ Quốc Ngữ|
|VSCII-1||1993||8th||116 + 140 = 256||95 + 140 = 235||TCVN 5712: 1993||Chữ Quốc Ngữ|
|VSCII-2||1999||8th||256||ISO 2022 compatible||Chữ Quốc Ngữ|
|Unicode||1991||21st||1,114,112||currently 100,000 (Unicode 5.1)||ISO 10646||Xerox, Apple|
Since most keyboards do not allow direct entry of diacritical marks, various free utilities have been developed that act as keyboard drivers. They support the most popular input methods, including Telex , VIQR and Variants, and the VNI input method.
In the course of the revival of Hán nôm, the Chữ nôm have been increasingly digitized and encoded in Unicode in recent years. The 16-bit code sets TCVN 5773: 1993 for Chữ Hán and Chữ Nôm and TCVN 6056: 1995 only for Chữ Hán were presented as early as the 1990s. As of Windows Vista , the characters are included in Microsoft Windows . Using certain input programs, Hán Nôm texts can be typed into Chữ Quốc Ngữ.
See also: Han Unification , Unicode Block Unified CJK Ideograms , Unicode Block Unified CJK Ideograms, Extension B
Pitch and change of standard Chinese according to Yuen Ren Chao
International Phonetic Alphabet , List of Latin Alphabets ,
- Literature on the subject of Vietnamese writing in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature on the subject of Quốc Ngữ in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature on the subject of Chữ Nôm in the catalog of the German National Library
- nomfoundation.org Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation (English)
- omniglot.com information about Chữ Nôm (English)
- purl.pt Scanned version of the dictionary by Alexandre de Rhodes
- tcvn.gov.vn Directorate for Standards and Quality (English)
- Layout of the Vietnamese keyboard compared to the keyboard layouts of other countries
- ^ Huỳnh Sanh Thông: Introduction . In: The Tale of Kiều by Nguyễn Du . Yale UP, New Haven 1983.
- ↑ Our Plans . ( Memento of the original from June 17, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Nôm Preservation Foundation (English)
- ^ Roland Jacques: Portuguese pioneers of Vietnamese linguistics prior to 1650 . Orchid Press, 2002, ISBN 974-8304-77-9 . .
- ↑ Đào Duy Huy: Design and implementation of a prototypical management system for the online lexicon "German – Vietnamese" . Diploma thesis, 2004. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- ↑ Christopher E. Goscha : Vietnam - A New History. New York, 2016, pp. 343-345
- ^ Mark W. McLeod, Thị Diệu Nguyễn: Culture and Customs of Vietnam . Ed .: Greenwood. 2001, ISBN 978-0-313-30485-9 , pp. 79 (English).
- ↑ English-language dissertation comparing the learning efficiency of chữ Nôm and Chữ Quốc Ngữ .
- ^ Việt Nam Calligraphy . culturalprofiles.net (English)
- ↑ Viet Nam (STAMEQ) iso.org (English)
- ^ Sarmad Hussain, Nadir Durrani, Sana Gul: Survey of Language Computing in Asia . 2005, ISBN 969-8961-00-3 (English)
- ↑ Ken Lunde: CJKV Information Processing . 2nd Ed. O'Reilly Media, 2008, ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1 (English)