|City seal :
|State capital since:||January 6, 1946 declared
October 10, 1954
reunited July 2, 1976
|Region:||North Vietnam ( Bắc Bộ )|
|Region :||Red River Delta|
|Municipality :||Hà Nội|
|ISO 3166-2: VN :||VN-HN|
|Height :||19 m|
|City area:||3324.92 km²|
Red River ,
Hoan Kiem Lake ,
West Lake (Hồ Tây)
|City residents :||6,448,837 (August 1, 2009)|
|Population density :||1875 inhabitants per km²|
|Ethnic groups :||Kinh , Tày , Mường|
|Full name:||Thành Phố Hà Nội|
|Name meaning:||City between the rivers|
|Founding:||1010 as the capital of the kingdom of Đại Việt|
|Area code :||+84 (0) 4|
|Vehicle registration number :||29-33|
|Time zone :||UTC +7: 00|
|Chairman of the People's Council:||Nguyễn Thế Thảo|
|Chairman of the People's Committee:||Ngô Thị Doan Thanh|
Hanoi (English pronunciation [ haˈnɔ͜y , also ˈhanɔ͜y ], Vietnamese Hà Nội [ hàː nôjˀ ], Hán tự河內, literally: city between the rivers ) is the capital and the second largest city of Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City . After the reorganization of the administrative borders in 2008, when the entire province of Hà Tây and parts of other provinces were added to Hanoi, the city had around 6.45 million inhabitants at the end of 2009.
Hanoi is the oldest of the existing capital cities in Southeast Asia. It is documented in its founding year 1010 as the citadel Thăng Long .
The citadel of Cổ Loa , located just a few kilometers north of today's city center, has been inhabited since the Bronze Age and from which many relics from the Dong Son culture can be traced back to the seventh century BC. It was founded in 257 BC. Chr. Determined by Th Phc Phán to be the capital of the early Vietnamese kingdom of Âu Lạc founded by him .
In 866 the Chinese Tang dynasty built a citadel called Đại La on the west bank of the Red River to consolidate its occupation, which King Lý Thái Tổ , the founder of the Lý dynasty , chose to be his residence city in 1010 and "Thăng Long" ( Hán tự: 昇 龍, "rising dragon ").
Numerous sagas and legends surround Hanoi's history.
Over the centuries Hanoi has been repeatedly conquered by invaders, losing its status as the capital and has been renamed several times.
During the Ho Dynasty (1400–1407) the city was named Đông Đô (eastern capital), during the occupation by the Chinese Ming dynasty it was called Đông Quan (eastern gate). The Le kings renamed it again in 1430 in Đông Kinh (eastern capital); when the Dutch East India Company set up a trading post here in the 17th century, this name found its way into European literature as Tongking .
Since the dragon was to be reserved for the capital Huế as a symbol of imperial power, the city was renamed again. The Nguyen Emperor Minh Mạng (1820–1841) gave it its current name Hà Nội ( Hán Nôm : 河内) in 1831 - the "city within the rivers", which describes nothing more than a geographical location.
In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945 the city was the administrative center of the French Indochina colony . The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, laid out wide, perpendicular, tree-lined avenues with operas, churches, public buildings and luxury villas, but also destroyed large parts of the city, filled in lakes and canals or made them smaller; Imperial palaces and citadels also had to give way.
From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, like most of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese . On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam ( North Vietnam ) here. The Vietnamese National Assembly decided on January 6, 1946 to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Between 1946 and 1954, the city was the scene of fierce fighting between the French and the Việt Minh ( Indochina War ). During the Vietnam War , Hanoi was bombed by the Americans ; the first bombing raids took place in 1966, the last at the end of 1972. At Christmas in 1972 alone, 40,000 tons of explosives hit the city, 25 percent of which was destroyed.
Hanoi has been the capital of all of Vietnam since the country was reunified in 1976.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Hanoi
Hanoi is directly subordinate to the central government and administratively equal to a province .
On August 1st, 2008 Hanoi was expanded. The province of Hà Tây and the district of Mê Linh of the province of Vĩnh Phúc and the districts of Đông Xuân, Tiến Xuân, Yên Bình and Yên Trung of the provincial district of Lương Sơn ( Hòa Bình province ) were added to the Hanoi administrative area. This expansion tripled the area, making Hanoi one of the largest capitals in the world today.
The city is divided into the following 29 districts:
- 10 boroughs ( Quận ): Ba Đình , Cầu Giấy , Đống Đa , Hà Đông , Hai Bà Trưng , Hoàn Kiếm , Hoàng Mai , Long Biên , Tây Hồ and Thanh Xuân
- 1 market town ( Thị xã ): Sơn Tây
- 18 counties ( Huyện ): Ba Vi , Chương Mỹ , Đan Phuong , Đông Anh , Gia Lâm , Hoài Đức , Mê Linh , Mỹ Đức , Phú Xuyên , Phúc Tho , Quốc Oai , Sóc Sơn , Thach fact , Thanh Oai , Thanh Trì , Thường Tín , Từ Liêm and Ứng Hòa .
- Ankara ( Turkey ), since 1998
- Bangkok ( Thailand ), since 2004
- Beijing ( China ), since 1994
- Seoul ( South Korea ), since 1996
- Warsaw ( Poland ), since 2000
City partnerships of individual city districts
- City district Hoàng Mai with the Berlin district Marzahn-Hellersdorf , since 2013
- City district Hoàn Kiếm with the Berlin district Lichtenberg , since 2015
Cooperation and friendship agreements
From the main station (Ga Ha Noi) drive meterspurige trains to Lao Cai , Dong Đăng (border crossing to China , province Lang Son , before km through the 10 of the same provincial location), Hải Phòng and Ho Chi Minh City . There is a daily standard-gauge night train to Nanning (China) from Gia Lâm station .
- Ba-Đình-Platz , central square with a park
- Hoan Kiem Lake
- West Lake
- Jade Mount Temple
- Temple of Literature , the collection of the 82 steles in the Temple of Literature was on March 9, 2010 in the UNESCO - World Soundtrack Awards added.
- One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột)
- Ho Chi Minh Residence
- Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum
- Ho Chi Minh Museum
- Remains of the Thang Long Citadel ; the central area was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010 .
- Flag tower
- National Museum
- Perfume Pagoda
- Revolution Museum
- Vietnamese National University
- Thăng Long water puppet theater
- Ethnological Museum of Vietnam
sons and daughters of the town
- Nguyễn Văn Vĩnh (1882–1936), Francophone publicist
- Gaston Aumoitte (1884–1957), French croquet player
- Henri Laborit (1914–1995), French neurologist, doctor and chemist
- Vũ Văn Mẫu (1914–1998), politician
- Tô Hoài (1920–2014), writer and journalist
- Phạm Duy (1921–2013), composer, singer and author
- Lê Thành Khôi (* 1923), educational scientist
- Madame Nhu (1924-2011), first lady
- Bernard Moitessier (1925–1994), French sailor
- Mai Văn Hòa (1927–1971), table tennis player
- Madeleine Moreau (1928–1995), French diver
- Vũ Giáng Hương (1930–2011), silk painter
- Nguyễn Khải (1930–2008), writer
- François Xavier Nguyên Van Sang (1932–2017), Roman Catholic clergyman, Catholic bishop of Thái Bình
- Nguyễn Văn Hiệu (* 1938), physicist, nuclear physicist and university professor
- Perrette Pradier (1938-2013), French actress
- Bùi Tường Phong (1942–1975), computer graphics pioneer
- Hervé d'Encausse (* 1943), French pole vaulter
- Nguyễn Phú Trọng (* 1944), politician
- Phạm Gia Khiêm (* 1944), politician
- Trịnh Xuân Thuận (* 1948), astrophysicist
- Nguyễn Huy Thiệp (born 1950), writer
- Luy Gonzaga Nguyễn Hùng Vị (* 1952), Roman Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Kontum
- Trịnh Thị Minh Hà (* 1952), postcolonial difference theorist, composer and filmmaker
- Alphonse Nguyên Huu Long (* 1953), Roman Catholic Bishop of Vinh
- Joseph Dang Duc Ngan (* 1957), Roman Catholic Bishop of Đà Nẵng
- Dang Thai Son (* 1958), concert pianist
- Chu-Tan-Cuong (* 1963), martial artist and martial artist
- Mai-Phuong Kollath (* 1963), integration activist in Germany
- Hoàng Anh Tuấn (* 1965), diplomat
- Trịnh Xuân Thanh (* 1966), manager and politician (KPV)
- Thanh Lam (born 1969), singer
- Dam Thanh Son (* 1969), physicist
- Thanh Thanh Hiền (* 1969), singer
- Van H. Vu (* 1970), mathematician
- Ngô Bảo Châu (* 1972), mathematician
- Bằng Kiều (* 1973), singer
- The Duc Ngo (* 1974), cook
- Mỹ Linh (* 1975), singer
- Nguyen Xuan Huy (* 1976), painter
- Ngo The Chau (* 1977), cameraman
- Thu Minh (* 1977), singer
- Hoàng Thanh Trang (* 1980), chess player
- Trang Le Hong (born 1987), actress
- Chi Le (* 1987), actress
- Thao Vu (* 1987), actress
- Mai Phương Thúy (* 1988), model and Miss Vietnam 2006
- Đỗ Thị Ngân Thương (* 1989), gymnast
- Alice Svensson (* 1991), Swedish pop singer
- Bùi Thị Thu Thảo (* 1992), long jumper
- Chu Hoàng Diệu Linh (* 1994), Taekwondoin
- Nguyễn Thị Oanh (* 1996), track and field athlete
- Nguyễn Thị Hằng (* 1997), sprinter
Halle-Neustadt is popularly known as HaNeu in an ironic allusion to the Vietnamese capital .
The Huc Bridge on Hoan Kiem Lake
Reunification Park (formerly Lenin Park)
young women in the classic Áo dài
Main gate of the Temple of Literature
Hỏa Lò, the so-called Hanoi Hilton
- Georges Boudarel, Van Ky Nguyen: Hanoi 1936–1996 . Édition Autrement, Paris 1997, ISBN 2-86260-719-3 .
- Georges Boudarel, Van Ky Nguyen, Claire Duiker: Hanoi. City of the rising dragon . Rowan & Littlefield, Lanham 2002, ISBN 0-7425-1655-5 .
- Joerg Knieling, Guiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial and Settlement Development in Metropolitan Regions: Hanoi, in: Hans-Heinrich Bass, Christine Biehler and Ly Huy Tuan (eds.): On the way to sustainable urban transport systems . Rainer Hampp Verlag, Munich and Mering 2011, ISBN 978-3-86618-639-2 , pp. 128-149.
- William S. Logan: Hanoi - Biography of a City . University of Washington Press, Seattle 2000, ISBN 0-86840-443-8 .
- Mary McCarthy : Hanoi 1968. (Hanoi). Droemer Knaur, Munich 1968.
- Philippe Papin: Histoire d'Hanoi (French). Fayard, Paris 2001, ISBN 2-213-60671-4 .
- Heinz Schütte: Hanoi, a post-socialist modern age . regiospectra Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-940132-23-9 .
- Ulrich Brinkhoff: Nightmares on the Saigon River, South Vietnam 1965-1968. agenda Verlag, Münster 2014, ISBN 978-3-89688-516-6 , 243 pages with 120 illustrations. (with foreword by Walter Scheel)
- Official website of Hanoi
- Faces of a City: With Mr. Duong through Hanoi - Report (Augsburger Allgemeine)
- A city on two wheels - travel report (welt.de)
- Hanoi at Goruma
- Franz-Josef Krücker: Vietnam . Trescher Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-89794-185-4 , pp. 63, 189 .
- Xavier Monthéard: City of the Rising Dragon in Le Monde diplomatique ( Memento of April 7, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), April 9, 2010, accessed on March 20, 2011.
- ebeijing.gov.cn twin cities of Beijing
- City partnership - Lichtenberg maintains partnership with Hoàn Kiếm from Hanoi (Vietnam). August 26, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2018 .
- hanoimoi.com.vn: Friendship treaty with the Fukuoka Prefecture ( Memento of December 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- rainbowfia.or.jp: Friendship contract with Hanoi ( page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Hanoi Metro, Vietnam (railway-technology.com), accessed November 11, 2013
- UNESCO: First inscription from Macao on Memory of the World Register at MOWCAP 4. portal.unesco.org, 2010, archived from the original on March 14, 2015 ; accessed on August 24, 2019 .
- UNESCO World Heritage 1328. whc.unesco.org, 2010, accessed on August 6, 2010 (English).