|Residents||45,661 (December 31, 2019 )|
|Population density||4,633 inhabitants per km²|
|Art||Planned city , large housing estate|
Halle-Neustadt , also popularly known as Ha-Neu , was a city in the Halle district of the German Democratic Republic and today describes the Neustadt district of the city of Halle (Saale) with its four districts, Nördliche Neustadt , Südliche Neustadt , Westliche Neustadt and the Neustadt industrial area .
It was declared an independent and independent city on May 12, 1967 , after it had originally been built as a new district of Halle-West. The population was around 51,600 at the end of 1972 and peaked at 93,578 at the end of 1980. On May 6, 1990, Halle-Neustadt was incorporated into the city of Halle (Saale). The population has halved since then and fell to 45,661 by December 2019.
Halle-Neustadt is located on the western edge of the Saaleaue a few kilometers west of the old town of Halle (Saale). The residential area is dominated by eight residential complexes consisting mainly of prefabricated buildings . Each of these areas used to contain a school, doctors' offices and kindergartens, and now at least one supermarket. In the south of the district there is also the Südpark residential area, which corresponds to its own residential complex. Immediately on the north-western edge of Halle-Neustadt is the rural district of Nietleben . While this was allowed to remain with the construction of Halle-Neustadt, only a few smaller houses can be found in the village of Passendorf in the southern part of the Neustadt (see also Südliche Neustadt (Halle) ).
Halle-Neustadt is accessible by a large four-lane avenue called the "Magistrale". Rail disabled (on its own track body) in the middle of this road is a used by several lines Tramway the HAVAG once Halle-Neustadt therethrough. This connects it with the old town. Smaller access roads for the residential complexes branch off from the main road. From these, smaller streets branch off, where most of the apartment blocks are. There is an extensive network of footpaths and cycle paths throughout the area. The Federal Highway 80 runs from the east to the south than almost intersection-free expressway to Halle-Neustadt around the motorway junction reaches Halle-Neustadt the Federal Highway 143 at the western edge of Halle-Neustadt and leaves the area to the west in the direction of Eisleben .
In addition to the east-west tram connection on the main line, there is another one on the north-east edge of Halle-Neustadt. This connects the district with the northern districts of Heide-Süd and Kröllwitz . In addition, a section of the S-Bahn Central Germany runs from north to south in a tunnel through the middle of Halle-Neustadt.
The district center
The center of Halle-Neustadt is located immediately north of the main line. The Neustädter Passage pedestrian zone is located here on two floors with various shops, which received their current form during a comprehensive renovation in 2005 and 2006. The passage ends in the west at the Neustadt Centrum shopping center , which also houses a large cinema. The most dominant buildings in the center, however, are the so-called discs. All but one of these five long skyscrapers have been empty for many years. The city is trying to find investors for a redevelopment. The tunnel station of the S-Bahn line is located under the center of Halle-Neustadt . The State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation Saxony-Anhalt (LVermGeo) now has a branch in the building to the south-west of it, which was formerly a town hall .
Halle-Neustadt offers a variety of recreational opportunities. On the one hand, the apartment blocks are almost entirely embedded in green spaces. There are also larger parks such as the Südpark. This extends on both sides of an oxbow river of the Saale (see church pond ). To the southeast of the south park lies the Saale floodplain with an old shipping canal and a flooded, renatured gravel pit. A large part of the northern edge of Halle-Neustadt consists of an elongated landscape park. To the north of the center there is the Bruchsee in an old shell limestone quarry. An indoor swimming pool is open during winter and three outdoor pools are available in the immediate vicinity during summer. Various sports clubs maintain sports fields in and around Halle-Neustadt. Finally there is a temporary ice rink and a horse racing track.
In the southwest of Halle-Neustadt there is the Neustadt industrial park . The Coca-Cola Company operates a bottle factory and filling station here. In addition, a machine factory from Gollmannommissioniersysteme GmbH has been added in recent years. To the north of Halle-Neustadt, on the other side of the landscape park, there is the science, research and business location Weinberg Campus , where various institutes of the Martin Luther University and other research facilities are located.
The city of Halle (Saale) published key figures for the individual city districts in its 2015 district catalog.
The population of the Northern Neustadt had an average age of 48.1 years in 2015, three years above the Halle average. The proportion of foreigners of 8.1% was average for Halle, but below average in a national German comparison. The unemployment rate in Northern Neustadt was around 13.8% in 2015.
The average age of the southern Neustadt in 2015 was 43.1 years, below the Halle average. The proportion of foreigners of 20.1% was above average both in Halle and in Germany. The unemployment rate in southern Neustadt in 2015 was 17.4%, which is a comparatively high level by German and Halle standards.
In 2015, the West New Town had an even higher average age of 51.5 years. The proportion of foreigners of 5.1% was below average in comparison with Halle. The unemployment rate is slightly lower at 13.5%, but in the same order of magnitude as that of Nördliche Neustadt.
Earlier development considerations
Already at the turn of the 20th century there was a need to look for new areas for residential construction due to the rapidly growing population. The north-south expansion of the city of Halle - wedged between the Saale in the west and the railway tracks and industrial areas in the east - was one of the main problems. For this reason, considerations fell on areas west of the old town in the area of the Passendorf and the Saale. Because of the extremely difficult geological and, above all, hydrological conditions caused by groundwater and flooding, the development of this area into another residential location for the city of Halle was rejected. In the 1920s the idea was taken up again, but shelved again . A larger new housing development in this area therefore only came about northeast of the then still independent suburb of Nietleben , where a garden city was built based on the model of the Dresden suburb of Hellerau .
The GDR decides to build a chemical workers town
The actual history of the city began in 1958 with a conference of the Central Committee of the SED on the subject of the “Chemistry Program of the GDR”, at which the settlement of workers near the chemical sites of the Buna works in Schkopau and the Leunawerke in Leuna was decided. After extensive site investigations and planning in the Halle district, the SED Politburo decided on September 17, 1963 to build up the “chemical workers town”, which was built at a greater distance from the chemical plants. Richard Paulick was the chief architect of Halle-Neustadt ; his deputies and heads of design groups were Joachim Bach, Horst Siegel , Karl-Heinz Schlesier, Sigbert Fliegel and Harald Zaglmaier.
The new town was placed on the edge of the Saale meadow between the small town of Zscherben and the Halle districts of Passendorf and Nietleben, with Passendorf largely being demolished. Remnants of the village character of that settlement, including the former manor, have only been preserved along Kammstrasse and Teichstrasse. With the construction of the Südpark residential area, this street finally became a kind of village oasis in the cityscape, which is otherwise characterized by high-rise buildings.
Start of construction and first years
On February 1, 1964, the slab factory was opened, which produced the precast concrete parts for the large slab construction in the new town. On July 15, 1964, Horst Sindermann , first secretary of the SED district leadership in Halle, laid the foundation stone for the construction of the socialist residential town west of Halle on the premises of the “Erste POS ” school. In contrast to the following schools, which were named after personalities and functionaries, this school kept the name “Erste POS”. The architectural style of this school and the second POS "Ernst Thälmann" clearly stood out from the rest of the 28 schools. The other schools were equipped with "atomic-proof" bunkers, each of which had a ventilation system in the central basement and concrete elements that could be folded onto the window panes. One example of this is the connecting wing of the 15th POS “Hermann Matern” and the former 16th POS “Otto Grotewohl”.
On August 9, 1965 the first tenants moved to Halle-Neustadt. Even before the completion of the first residential complex in 1968, the new settlement was declared by the Halle-West district to be the city of Halle-Neustadt on May 12, 1967 , and the area was formally separated from the urban area of Halle. Liane Lang was mayor of the city from 1970 to 1990 . A separate Neustadt cemetery was built for the city .
The new city received the official nickname "Socialist City of Chemical Workers". Soviet soldiers of the 27th Guards Mot. Rifle divisions, which were housed in the nearby Heide-Süd barracks, were ordered to build up with numerous work assignments. A large number of apartment blocks in the northern part of the city were reserved for their families and were vacant after the troops withdrew at the beginning of the 1990s.
A special feature was the renouncement of street names; instead, all apartment blocks and entrances were numbered according to a principle that was hard to see through to outsiders. After the fall of 1989/90 , this system was abolished in favor of street names. The starting point for this was the “Magistrale / S-Bahn” intersection. Each residential complex had a digit or two for the hundreds, with the exception of the houses along the main line, which all had a leading '0' when the entrance to the main line was pointing. The tens position depended on how many streets were viewed from the central cross. The ones digit was the corresponding building - for example, the first residential complex had the '6' as the first digit. A typical address was, for example, block 107 house 2.
Early urban problems
Since essential central infrastructure facilities were only completed late or never - for example, there was never a hotel or a department store in the city during the GDR era - Halle-Neustadt remained little more than a dormitory for the chemical workers and their workers who lived in the shift rhythm of the chemical plants Familys. The development of the city remained unsatisfactory, despite the central “racetrack cross”, as the central tram line along the main line in the GDR was not built, officially due to insufficient tram power capacity. Buses and the S-Bahn carried the bulk of the local public transport. Via the tunnel station in the city center and the Zscherbener Strasse S-Bahn station , there was a direct commuter connection in the direction of Merseburg to the chemical combines Buna Schkopau and Leuna, matching their shift times. An existing tram line from the city center of Halle (Saale) from the direction of Heide only touched the eighth residential complex on the eastern edge, so only opened up a fraction of the city.
Art and culture in Halle-Neustadt
In the center of Halle-Neustadt, a cultural center was planned as a building of outstanding architectural and artistic value for the GDR. This should u. a. contain a large and a small hall. The building complex should also include a 100 m high-rise building. The plans were not implemented due to financial constraints. Instead, the Prisma cinema was opened in 1982 as the last new cinema building in the GDR, and it remained one of the few cultural institutions. In 1999 the cinema was torn down in favor of a shopping center with a multiplex cinema. The old town of Halle remained indispensable for culture and more sophisticated shopping.
In contrast to later large housing estates in the GDR, Halle-Neustadt was generously and planned with art in the building . In this sculpture , fountains and murals commissioned by the state as owner commissioned and made by artists. These include u. a. Josep Renau , Willi Sitte and Gerhard Lichtenfeld should be mentioned. Different themes were specified for the individual residential complexes and the city center, but these were not only used in the art that was built. In the first residential complex, the theme was friendship between peoples , although only a few works were created on this subject. In the second residential complex there was the role of the chemical industry in the scientific and technical progress of the GDR as a topic. In the third residential complex the theme was the labor movement and in the fourth the theme was science, art and literature . In residential complexes five and six, the common theme of the victory of the working class in the Halle district was set. Plans from the 1970s envisaged four monumental works of art in Halle-Neustadt: at the east, west and south entrance to the city as well as in the city center.
Realized architectural highlights are the five slab high-rise buildings in the city center and the 380-meter-long, eleven-storey block of flats “ Block 10 ” in the first residential complex, the largest residential building ever built in the GDR. So that this did not represent a locking bolt, which would have had to be laboriously circumnavigated, it was provided with passages for pedestrians in three places. Up to 2500 people lived in this block, more than at the time in Wörlitz , a comparison that was often used at the time. Part of this block was used by a nursing home.
Late period of the GDR: plans for the city center
The design of a city center was difficult because, according to the original concept, each of the five building complexes should have its own sub-center with a department store , outpatient clinic , pharmacy , post office and restaurant complex, plus schools, kindergartens and sports facilities. The center of the city was the Neustädter Passage on two levels with several department stores, specialist shops, the central polyclinic, the main post office and the House of Services . To the north were the "panes" built between 1970 and 1975, five 18-storey high-rise buildings with a central aisle structure, which were used on the one hand as student dormitories for the Martin Luther University , but also as workers' dormitories for the Buna and Leuna chemical combines. At the “Magistralenknie” the 100 meter high distinctive “House of Chemistry” was to be built, which was never realized for cost reasons. This was not least due to the fact that state and party leader Erich Honecker had little interest in the favorite project of his predecessor Walter Ulbricht and his chemical campaign and instead concentrated on the capital Berlin and the republic-wide housing program. For years there was a large excavation between the main post office and the Prisma cinema . The town hall of Halle-Neustadt was built in this area . However, the construction was controversial among the decision-makers at the time and was interrupted several times. It was not completed until 1990, so that it never served its actual purpose due to the incorporation into Halle.
The most recent residential complexes were later built much closer together, leaving significantly less space for green spaces. This was largely due to the GDR's housing program . However, the demand for living space could not be met until 1990, especially in Halle and Halle-Neustadt.
On the eastern edge of Halle-Neustadt, the mighty complex of the Halle district administration and the Halle-Neustadt district office of the MfS was housed, in which the tax office and the University of Halle have or had their headquarters after the fall of the Wall .
From 1990: post-reunification period and loss of population
After a vote on the occasion of the local elections on May 6, 1990, Halle-Neustadt was united with the city of Halle. Since then, the former urban area has encompassed most of the western district of the city of Halle, with the districts of Nördliche Neustadt , Südliche Neustadt , Westliche Neustadt and the Neustadt industrial park .
The population has fallen significantly since 1990 to 45,661 (as of the end of 2019). The generation of first-time tenants, now mostly retired, still enjoy living in this part of the city, which has long since developed into a social hot spot. The increasing vacancy rate has meant that the first apartment blocks are being demolished as part of the Urban Redevelopment East program . At the same time, however, the existing housing stock is also being renovated, which means that the now not very popular prefabricated building blocks receive a better quality of living. The expansion of the tram network on the main line between the current city district West and other city districts of the city of Halle and the construction of several supermarkets and shopping centers, of which the Neustadt-Centrum, which opened in 2000, is the most important, also served.
On the morning of September 11, 1996, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.6 on the Richter scale roused the residents of Halle-Neustadt from their sleep. There were reports of broken windows, displaced cabinets, and building damage. No personal injuries are known. The earthquake, which was perceived as far as Leipzig, was caused by a large rockfall in the Teutschenthal mine . The local mining of potash salts created large underground cavities. For several years now, these have been backfilled to prevent further earthquakes.
In 2001 at least 6,200 apartments in Halle-Neustadt were vacant due to the decline in population. The city of Halle therefore decided to dismantle it, which should mainly take place on the outskirts of the district. The larger eleven storeys, which had the most vacancy, were also in the focus for demolition.
In 2006 the Federal Cultural Foundation held an exhibition on so-called shrinking cities under the title “ Shrinking Cities ” in the former station building of Halle-Neustadt .
After a pedestrian bridge had been extensively renovated, a few years later it fell victim to the construction of the new tram line. Some pedestrian tunnels have been replaced by above-ground crossings with traffic lights, which are intended to calm vehicle traffic.
As part of the international building exhibition "Urban Redevelopment 2010" , the old and new towns of Halle form the theme of the balancing act of twin cities . Projects in the Neustadt area include the construction of a skater facility in the southeast of the district center and the redesign of the central square in the Am Tulpenbrunnen residential area and the so-called Green Gallery .
In June 2013, the eastern and southeastern parts of Halle-Neustadt were threatened by flooding when the Saale flooded. The dike at Gimritzer Damm threatened to collapse. The residents were strongly advised to leave the hazardous areas.
After the old ice rink from GDR times, which was damaged during the floods in 2013 , had to be demolished, a new, modern ice rink was built in 2014 in the northern Neustadt.
Development of the population
The population of Halle Neustadt quickly increased to over 90,000 during the construction of the city in the GDR. In the first years after the fall of the Wall until around 2010, the settlement lost half of its inhabitants. After a few years of stagnation in the number of inhabitants, growth has been evident again since around 2015, although this is significantly slower than in the early years. The following table and diagram show the development of the population of Halle-Neustadt without dormitory places.
coat of arms
The coat of arms was decided on July 15, 1984 by the Halle-Neustadt city council at a festive meeting on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone. This city coat of arms was valid until May 6, 1990, when the city was incorporated into Halle.
Blazon : “In red, three silver pigeons flying out of a golden-green bud that has broken open; Above it is a golden key, the lock sheet of which is designed in the form of a hexagonal benzene ring and the beard is covered with a six-pointed red star. "
The center of the coat of arms is a stylized group of pigeons as a symbol of peace. The doves are based on Pablo Picasso's peace doves . The city could and can only flourish in peace. The pigeon group rises from a bud bursting open, symbolizing joy, optimism and the future. The pigeon group already has its own symbolic tradition through the well-known pigeon fountain. The gold key in the coat of arms embodies the ten thousandfold key handover in the new city, which opened the way for a better quality of life and the future-oriented concept. In order to clarify the function of Halle-Neustadt as a chemical workers' town, the locking sheet of the key was implemented graphically in the form of a benzene ring . The coat of arms symbolizes the close relationship between Halle and Halle-Neustadt through the use and inclusion of a six-pointed star from the coat of arms of the city of Halle. The rotted shield is supposed to represent the reference to the labor movement .
- Isabel Fannrich and Rolf Lautenschläger: 50 years of Halle-Neustadt: The city from the construction kit . Published online at https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/ on July 3, 2014.
- Anja Jackes: Halle-Neustadt and the vision of art and life. An investigation into the function and planning strategy of architecture-related art . Dissertation, University of Paderborn 2015 ( online ).
- Wolfgang Kil and Tanja Scheffler: Neustädter Passage . In: Bauwelt , 40-41.2014 ( PDF; 1.9 MB ).
- Peer Pasternack: Between Halle-Novgorod and Halle-New Town. Halle-Neustadt's budget of ideas. In: Der Hallesche Graureiher 2/12, Institute for Sociology of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg ( PDF; 3.5 MB ).
- Peer Pasternack (among others): 50 years of dispute in Halle-Neustadt. Idea and experiment. Place of life and provocation. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2014, ISBN 978-3-95462-287-0 .
- https://www.halle.de - Official website of the city of Halle: Halle-Neustadt, Halle's largest district in transition .
- 50 years Halle-Neustadt - chronology, reports, events and pictures for the 50th anniversary of the chemical workers city of Halle-Neustadt. the Mitteldeutsche Zeitung .
- City of Halle (Saale), Department of Residential Affairs: Halle in Figures 2019 . Published online at https://halle.de ( pdf , 173 KB) in 2020.
- Peer Pasternack u. a .: 50 years of dispute in Halle-Neustadt. Idea and experiment. Place of residence and provocation (see literature)
- Michael Falgowski: Tramway Gigantic construction project opens up Neustadt. Published online at https://mz-web.de on August 12, 2013.
- State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation Saxony-Anhalt: Saxony-Anhalt Viewer. Can be found online at: https://lvermgeo.sachsen-anhalt.de , accessed on: May 22, 2019.
- Detlef Färber: Construction work in record time Soon, trains will be rolling again on Gimritzer Damm. Published online at https://mz-web.de on October 3, 2018.
- Website of the Neustadt Centrum Halle shopping center . Accessed May 22, 2019.
- MZ article on the discs from February 24, 2014
- Contact details on the website of the State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation, accessed on May 22, 2019.
- Other channels on the website of the Saale-Elster-Kanal Förderverein eV
- Website of the swimming pool at https://baden-in-halle.de , accessed on May 22, 2019.
- https://baden-in-halle.de , there the subchapters outdoor pool Saline and natural pool Angersdorfer Teiche . Accessed May 22, 2019.
- Enrico Seppelt: Heidebad in Halle starts the bathing season. Published online at https://dubisthalle.de on April 12, 2019.
- Dirk Skrzypczak: Four years after the flood, the provisional facility should become a real ice rink again. Published online at https://mz-web.de on October 2, 2017.
- Anne Schneemelcher: Coca-Cola filling station in Neustadt A sip of hall for everyone. Published online at https://mz-web.de on August 6, 2015.
- Enrico Seppelt: Pharmacy vending machine manufacturer Gollmann opens new plant in Halle-Neustadt. Published online at dubisthalle.de https://dubisthalle.de on April 12, 2018.
- City of Halle (Saale), Department of Residential Affairs: District Catalog 2015 (online) , p. 15f., Accessed on September 13, 2019.
- Mitteldeutsche Zeitung: 50 Years of Halle-Neustadt - Chronology, reports, events and pictures for the 50th anniversary of the chemical workers city of Halle-Neustadt. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- Jackes (2015), p. 226ff.
- Jackes (2015), p. 167.
- Jackes (2015), pp. 181f.
- Jackes (2015), p. 191.
- Jackes (2015), p. 264 f.
- Jackes (2015), p. 239ff.
- Federal Ministry of Family Affairs : Development and opportunities for young people in socially disadvantaged areas. (PDF file; 174 kB) accessed on November 25, 2014.
- German Youth Institute : Governance strategies and local social policy. ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 959 kB) accessed on November 25, 2014.
- Vengeance of the Mountain: A disused potash mine threatens the city of Halle. But security is too expensive for the public sector. Report in: Der Spiegel , issue 3/1997. Available online at: https://www.spiegel.de , accessed on November 22, 2019.
- City of Halle (Saale), Press Office: Reorganization Concept for Halle-Neustadt ( online ), published on May 16, 2001.
- Project Office Shrinking Cities: http://www.shrinkingcities.com/ , accessed on February 24, 2020.
- International Building Exhibition Urban Redevelopment Saxony-Anhalt: Halle (Saale): Balancing act double city. ( Memento of the original from May 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Hall spectrum: The crisis management team urgently recommends leaving hazardous areas. on June 5, 2013.
- halle.de : Sparkassen Eisdom. Information about the new ice rink. Accessed September 13, 2019.
- City of Halle (Saale), Department of Residential Affairs: Halle in Numbers . (online) from the years 2000 to 2018.