Pablo Ruiz Picasso (born October 25, 1881 in Málaga , Spain , † April 8, 1973 in Mougins , France , full name Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso ) was a Spanish Painter , graphic artist and sculptor . His extensive oeuvre includes paintings , drawings , graphics , collages , sculptures and ceramics, the total of which is estimated at 50,000. It is characterized by a great variety of artistic forms of expression and techniques. The works from his Blue and Pink Periods and the founding of Cubism together with Georges Braque mark the beginning of his extraordinary artistic career.
One of Picasso's best-known works is the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). It advanced to become the key image of classical modernism . With the exception of the monumental painting Guernica (1937), an artistic rendering of the horrors of the Spanish Civil War , no other work of art of the 20th century has challenged research as much as the Demoiselles . The motif of the dove on the poster, which he designed for the Paris World Peace Congress in 1949 , has become a symbol of peace around the world .
Comprehensive collections by Picasso are shown in museums in Paris, Barcelona and Madrid. He is prominently represented with works in many of the world's major art museums exhibiting 20th century art. The Museu Picasso in Barcelona and the Musée Picasso in Antibes were created during his lifetime.
Childhood and Education (1881–1900)
Pablo Ruiz Picasso was the first child of José Ruiz Blasco (1838-1913) and María Picasso y López (1855-1938). Following the traditional naming in Málaga, when he was born in 1881 he received a large number of first names: Pablo, Diego, José, Francisco de Paula, Juan Nepomuceno, María de los Remedios, Crispiniano de la Santísima Trinidad, of which only Pablo (a reverence to Blascos' older brother who died shortly before the original wedding date).
The father was a freelance painter and teacher at the "Escuela de San Telmo", a school of arts and crafts, which stood in the tradition of academic painting of the 19th century, as well as the curator of a small museum. His sister Dolores (Lola) was born in 1884 and his sister Concepción (Conchita) in 1887.
Picasso described his father's artistic abilities: “My father painted pictures for dining rooms; Partridges or pigeons, pigeons and rabbits: fur and feathers could be seen on them, birds and flowers his specialty. Especially pigeons and lilacs. ”At the age of seven he began to paint under the guidance of his father. In 1890 he completed the oil painting Picador, begun in 1889 , which shows a bullfighter in the arena and which is considered to be his first known oil painting.
In 1891 the family moved to A Coruña in Galicia , where Picasso's father had accepted a position as an art teacher at the Instituto da Guarda. Picasso was accepted there at the age of ten at the School of Fine Arts. From 1894 he began to keep diaries, which he called La Coruña and Azul y Blanco ("blue and white") and illustrated with portraits and caricatures. In the same year he began his works with “P. Ruiz ”.
After the death of sister Conchita, who died of diphtheria in January 1895 , the family moved to Barcelona , where Picasso easily passed the entrance examination at the art academy “ La Llotja ” in just one day at the age of 14 - his father got a job there as a teacher offered - so that he could skip the first two classes. A year later, his father set up his first studio near his parents' apartment, which Picasso shared with his friend Manuel Pallarès, a Catalan painter.
In 1897 Picasso studied for a short time at the prestigious Royal Academy of San Fernando in the capital Madrid , which he left again because he did not like the teaching methods there. In his self-portrait from 1897/98 he changed the signature “Ruiz” for the first time to “P. Picasso “- a symbol for the inner detachment from the parental home. In Madrid, Picasso visited the museums, especially the Prado - as he did on a visit in 1895 - and the artists' bars.
First solo exhibition at "Els Quatre Gats"
After suffering from scarlet fever, which forced him to convalescence in Horta de Sant Joan (Catalonia), he returned to Barcelona in 1898. Here he frequented avant-garde artistic circles of Catalan modernism , including Ramon Casas , Carlos Casagemas , Isidre Nonell , Ramon Pichot i Gironès and Santiago Rusiñol , who met in the café and artist center Els Quatre Gats .
From June 1898 he spent eight months with his painter friend Manuel Pallarès (1876–1974) in his hometown of Horta de Sant Joan . In 1899 he met the poet Jaime Sabartés , who was to become his close friend and in 1935 his secretary.
In February 1900, Picasso's first solo exhibition was shown in “Els Quatre Gats”, which, however, was critically reviewed and only led to moderate sales success. In the same year, on the occasion of the world exhibition , Picasso took his first trip to the art metropolis Paris with his friend Casagemas, where he was impressed by the impressionist works of Paul Cézanne , Edgar Degas and Pierre Bonnard . In October he temporarily shared a studio in Montmartre at 49 Rue Gabrielle with Casagemas , which Nonell had given up. It was at this time that he became acquainted with the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , which inspired him to create colorful depictions of metropolitan life.
Paris - Madrid - Barcelona - Paris (1901–1907)
Casagema's death - beginning of the Blue Period
In January 1901 Picasso returned to Madrid. He received a message that shook him deeply: his friend Carlos Casagemas had shot himself on February 17th out of disappointed love for the dancer Germaine Gargallo in Paris.
Picasso tried a new career in Madrid: from March of that year the first of five issues of the art magazine Arte Joven ( Young Art ) appeared, edited by the Catalan writer Francisco de Assis Soler , which Picasso provided with illustrations as co-editor. His signature changed again, he only signed with "Picasso". However, the magazine had to be discontinued after a short time for financial reasons. Picasso left Madrid after hiring Arte Joven and returned to Barcelona. Two years later he created a portrait of the writer.
In May, the aspiring artist again visited Paris . His first art dealer Pere Mañach , with whom he stayed, the gallery owner Berthe Weill and above all the art dealer and publisher Ambroise Vollard tried to find the promising young artist. From June 24, 1901, Vollard showed Picasso's works for the first time in a Paris exhibition in his gallery, 6 Rue Laffite, and became his patron during Picasso's Blue and Pink Period. He was not so positive about the following Cubist work. Picasso's Cubist portrait of Vollard was created in 1910.
In 1901 Picasso dedicated the picture Evocation - The Burial of Casagemas to his friend Casagemas . It is considered to be the first painting of the Blue Period. Casagemas' portrait is also depicted in the male figure in the melancholy painting from 1903, La Vie ( Life ). The works from this period earned the artist more approval from gallery owners and critics than his earlier pictures. A friend of Gauguin's, the poet Charles Morice, saw the “sterile sadness” in a review, but still attested Picasso a “true talent”.
In October 1902 Picasso returned to Paris for the third time and first lived in hotels, then with the poet Max Jacob , who had to work as an assistant in a fashion store. In winter, the friends heated the room with Picasso's drawings because there was no money for heating material, for the same reason Picasso used kerosene instead of oil for painting and saved on binding agents .
Picasso's studio in the Bateau-Lavoir
In 1903 Picasso worked very productively in Barcelona, but returned to Paris, where he lived in the Bateau-Lavoir from April 1904 to October 1909 . This was a dilapidated house with numerous artist studios on Montmartre. The Spanish sculptor Paco Durrio, who was friends with Picasso, and the painter Kees van Dongen had already found accommodation there. Later, Max Jacob and Juan Gris , among others, were added.
He became friends with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire and met Fernande Olivier in 1904 , who was his companion and muse from 1905 to 1912 . Fernande was a divorced woman from a middle-class background who was enthusiastic about Impressionist painting . She reports on her encounter with Picasso in her memoirs Picasso et ses amis , published in 1933:
“There was nothing seductive about him if you didn't know him. However, his strangely haunted gaze forced attention [...] this inner fire that was felt in him gave him a kind of magnetism that I couldn't resist. And when he wanted to get to know me, so did I. "
He depicted Fernande Olivier in the oil painting La Toilette in 1906 or cast in bronze in 1909 as Tête de femme . The accommodation in the Bateau-Lavoir was meager. Picasso's art dealer Kahnweiler remembers the ice-cold and draughty studio in winter and reports that in summer, "when it was too hot, Picasso worked completely naked in the corridor with only a cloth around his loins with the doors open."
Acquaintance with Gertrude and Leo Stein as well as with Matisse
Clovis Sagot , a former circus clown, had set up a gallery in a former pharmacy on Rue Laffitte. It was there that the American art collector Leo Stein , who lives in Paris , and the brother of the poet and art collector Gertrude Stein , discovered Picasso's painting in 1905. The artist's first picture, which Leo Stein bought, Young Girl with a Basket of Flowers , did not please his sister. When Picasso got to know the siblings at Sagot, he invited them into his studio and was able to sell them pictures for 800 francs, which also aroused Gertrude Stein's interest.
The Steins regularly gave societies on Saturdays in their salon near the Jardin du Luxembourg at 27 Rue de Fleurus, where avant-garde artists met, including Picasso, who met and became friends with Henri Matisse there in 1906 . In the Salon d'Automne , the Fauves , to which Matisse belonged, attracted attention with their first group exhibition the previous year.
The gallery owner Vollard soon bought works from Picasso for 2,000 francs, which significantly improved his financial situation. His portrait of Gertrude Stein was created in 1906, for which the writer is said to have sat as a model up to ninety times. In the spring, Picasso broke off the portrait sessions with Gertrude Stein. He met Derain through the mediation of Alice Princet. In the summer of the same year he stayed with Fernande Olivier in Gósol. When he returned to Paris, Picasso completed the portrait of Gertrude Stein from memory and reduced the facial features to the simplicity of Iberian masks.
Beginning of the Pink Period and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
From 1905, pink tones began to predominate in Picasso's works. The painting Boy with a Pipe from 1905 marks the transition from the Blue to the Pink Period. Compared to the Blue Period, there is little melancholy in the works of this period. The blue fades into the background. Especially jugglers, tightrope walkers and harlequins, sad jokers from the Commedia dell'arte , are among his motifs.
Since the winter of 1906, Picasso prepared numerous studies and variations for the large painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , which he finished in July 1907. With the Demoiselles he laid the foundation for Cubist thought and initiated the period known as the "période nègre".
The first reactions when meeting the Demoiselles in Picasso's studio were mostly negative. The picture was largely viewed as immoral and heavily criticized by many, even Picasso's close friends. In addition to Wilhelm Uhde , only Leo Stein had initially shown understanding for the Demoiselles , but no longer bought his new works. The artists of Fauvism , Matisse and Derain , expressed their displeasure. Gertrude Stein continued to promote Picasso and approached Cubism in her literary expression. In 1938 she wrote a brochure about Picasso.
Wilhelm Uhde drew the attention of the young German gallery owner Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler , who had opened his first gallery at 28 Rue Vignon, to Picasso. Kahnweiler became his most important sponsor and exhibited Picasso's works in the same year. Picasso had attended the major retrospective of Paul Cézanne's works in 1907 at the Paris Salon d'Automne , which was held a year after the artist's death. Through Apollinaire, Picasso met the Fauvist painter Georges Braque of the same age towards the end of the year; the friendship with Braque was to have a major impact on the course of modern art history.
Picasso founded Cubism with Braque (1908–1914)
Collaboration with Braque
Picasso spent the summer of 1908 with Fernande Olivier in La Rue-des-Bois north of Paris. In the autumn of the same year, Braque and Picasso compared their summer pictures - Braque in L'Estaque and Picasso in La Rue-des-Bois. They were strangely similar. In contrast to Picasso, Braque exhibited his works in the Kahnweiler gallery in November of that year. In the discussion about the exhibition of Braque's paintings, the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles coined the term “cubes” for the first time in the art magazine Gil Blas . Vauxcelles made particular reference to the painting Braque's Houses in L'Estaque .
Between September 1908 and May 1909, Picasso and Braque saw each other almost every day; Kahnweiler was the third in the league and mediated between the very different artists, the level-headed, systematically working Braque and the spirited Picasso. Their working group was so intense that the artists compared themselves to the Wright brothers , the flight pioneers, and dressed themselves like mechanics.
Also in 1908 the Spanish painter Juan Gris moved to the Bateau-Lavoir, where he became Picasso's studio neighbor. After he began to grapple with Cubism in 1911, he created the Cubist portrait Hommage à Picasso von Gris in 1912 .
The banquet for Rousseau
In November 1908, Picasso gave a big party in his studio in the Bateau-Lavoir in honor of Henri Rousseau , from whom he had acquired the life-size portrait of a former friend of Rousseau's, the so-called Yadwigha , and which he would keep for the rest of his life. Raynal reported as an eyewitness about the art-historical banquet for Rousseau , in which the young painter Marie Laurencin took part alongside many other artists, Apollinaire, Jacob, Salmon , Uhde and the Stein siblings : “It was a real barn. […] On the walls, which had been freed from their usual jewelry, hung only a few beautiful Negro masks, a coin table and on the place of honor the large portrait of Yadwigha, painted by Rousseau ”. Not long after the banquet, Picasso left the Bateau-Lavoir in 1909 and lived in a studio apartment at 130 Boulevard de Clichy until 1912.
Distancing itself from the parlor cubists
Fernand Léger and Robert Delaunay got to know the work of Picasso and Braque through the mediation of Kahnweiler. From now on, the influences of Picasso and Braque made themselves felt in the works of many painters. In 1911 a group of painters was formed who were called Salon Cubists . In addition to Léger and Delaunay, they include the artists Albert Gleizes , Jean Metzinger and Henri Le Fauconnier . Picasso and Braque distanced themselves from the Salon Cubists.
The robbery of the Mona Lisa
In the summer of 1911, friends Apollinaire and Picasso were suspected of being involved in the theft of the Louvre's most famous painting , the Mona Lisa . She disappeared without a trace on August 21, 1911, and both were targeted by the police for their possession of Iberian stone masks that had been acquired through Géry Pieret, a Belgian adventurer and temporarily employed by Apollinaire. After a house search, Apollinaire was arrested on September 8 for harboring a criminal and custody of stolen property; he betrayed Picasso's involvement after two days. He was interrogated, but not arrested. Apollinaire was released a few days later and the trial against him dropped in January 1912 for lack of evidence. The Mona Lisa did not reappear in Florence until December 13, 1913 and returned to the Louvre on January 1, 1914. The thief was Vincenzo Peruggia , a picture framer for the Louvre.
First exhibitions of Picasso's works abroad
The early phase of Cubism up to around 1912 is known as "Analytical Cubism". An example of this is the portrait of Ambroise Vollard (1910). From 1912 onwards, the papiers collés , an early form of collages, emerged . The transition to "Synthetic Cubism" had begun.
Picasso's works gradually became known abroad. In Germany Picasso was represented at the exhibition of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in 1910 as well as at the exhibition of the Sonderbund in Cologne, which opened in May 1912, and in Herwarth Walden's gallery Der Sturm in Berlin. Four of Picasso's works were included in the second exhibition of the Blauer Reiter in the Munich Galerie Goltz in the same year : Frauenkopf (1902), Umarmung (1903), Kopf (1909) and Still Leben (1910). In 1913, the first major was retrospective in the Modern Gallery of Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich.
Overseas, after Picasso's first exhibition in 1911 in Alfred Stieglitz 's gallery 291 , the new art movement was also represented in the Armory Show , New York , in 1913, in which works by Braque, Picasso and Matisse were exhibited, for example. Eight works, including two still life drawing were shown by Pablo Picasso Nude from 1910, women with mustard pot from 1910, on loan from Kahnweiler, and the bronze woman's head from 1909, on loan from Stieglitz. The criticism at all exhibitions, however, was considerable; modern art was not yet accepted.
When Picasso's liaison with Fernande Olivier broke up in 1912, Eva Gouel , née Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva, became his second partner until her untimely death in 1915. Picasso spent the summer of 1913 with Braque and Juan Gris in Céret . In the same year his father died. He set up his residence at 5 rue Schoelcher on Montparnasse , having lived briefly on 242 Boulevard Raspail in 1912.
Period of the First World War (1914-1918)
Picasso spent the time from late June to mid-November 1914 with Eva Gouel in Avignon . With the outbreak of the First World War , the situation changed suddenly for many artists. On August 2, 1914, Picasso accompanied Braque and Derain , who had received their presentation order, to the train station in Avignon. Braque suffered a serious head injury in 1915 and, after surviving an operation, took more than a year to recover. Your art dealer Kahnweiler, who was German, had to leave France; Picasso, who as a Spaniard did not have to do military service, stayed behind in Paris without his friends.
In July 1916, André Salmon organized an exhibition, L'Art modern en France (the so-called “Salon d'Antin”), at the Barbazanges gallery in Paris . There Picasso's work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon was presented to the public for the first time; it was only at this point that the painting was given this name by Salmon.
After the death of Eva Gouel, who died of tuberculosis in 1915 , Picasso had an affair with Gabrielle Lespinasse , whom he called Gaby. She lived on Boulevard Raspail near his studio. During a stay in Saint-Tropez in 1916, he declared his love for her, but she rejected him and married the American artist Herbert Lespinasse the following year. In October 1916 he moved to Montrouge near Paris.
In the spring of 1917, Picasso attended the rehearsals of the Ballets Russes ensemble in Rome under the direction of Sergei Djagilew for the ballet parade with the libretto by Jean Cocteau and the music by Erik Satie . He designed the costumes, sets and the classically romantic stage curtain that fell out of line. The Soviet writer Ilya Ehrenburg , who lived in exile in Paris , described the spectacular premiere in May 1917 at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris and the uproar of the audience who called for the performance to be abandoned: “The music was modern, the set was semi-cubist […] And when a horse with a cubist snout performed circus acts, they finally lost their patience: 'Death to the Russians! Picasso is a Boche ! The Russians are Boches! '”Picasso's friends, however, were delighted. Apollinaire, for example, saw the first-time artistic alliance between painting and dance, sculpture and the art of representation as the beginning of a comprehensive art, as a kind of "sur-réalisme".
While working on Parade , Picasso met the dancer Olga Stepanowna Chochlowa , prima ballerina of the "Ballets Russes", whom he married on July 12, 1918 in Paris. Groomsmen were Cocteau, Max Jacob and Apollinaire. The couple moved into an apartment at 23 rue La Boétie in December. After the marriage, he gave up his bohemian life and became a “painter prince” with his own chauffeur and housekeeping staff. The marriage resulted in son Paulo.
After Kahnweiler, Picasso was jointly represented worldwide from 1918 by the art dealers Paul Rosenberg and Georges Wildenstein . They bought a significant number of his paintings each year. Picasso's connection with Rosenberg lasted until 1939, that with Wildenstein until 1932.
Turning away from the Cubists (1916–1924)
As early as 1914, Picasso began to move away from the Cubist circle. He remembered this farewell and said: “One wanted to make a kind of physical culture out of Cubism. [...] From this a contrived art has emerged, without any real relationship to the logical work that I try to do. "
From 1916 to 1924 his work shows a stylistic juxtaposition. In addition to classicist paintings such as Three Women at the Well from 1921, painted in Fontainebleau , and Panpipe , 1923, painted in his holiday resort of Antibes , he created works in the style of synthetic cubism, such as Three Musicians from 1921.
Thanks to his increased fame, Picasso was able to use more time to develop his formal language. He experimented a lot and put a new focus on his sculptural work, which he had opened in 1902 with Sitzende Frau . At the same time he became estranged from his wife Olga.
Dealing with Surrealism (1924–1936)
Involvement and conflict
In 1923 Picasso met the surrealist André Breton . A plastic construction by Picasso was already reproduced in the first issue of the surrealist magazine La Révolution surréaliste in December 1924. In the second issue of January 1925, two pages from the sketchbook with the star drawings kept in Juan-les-Pins in the summer of 1924 . The fourth edition featured a picture of Picasso's painting Les Trois Danseuses (The Three Dancers) and - for the first time in France - by the Demoiselles d'Avignon .
The long-term contact with the Surrealists was not free of conflict, however. When Eric Satie's ballet Les Aventures de Mercure was performed in 1924, with the set and costumes by Picasso, several Surrealists protested Picasso's involvement, calling the event a charity event for the international aristocracy. André Breton , Louis Aragon and other surrealists, who were impressed by Picasso's ingenuity, then published an apology in the Paris Journal, which was declared an homage to Picasso . On the other hand, in 1926, in a detailed statement on the intentions and goals of his art, Picasso accused the Surrealists of not having understood him. The anti-Breton surrealist journal Documents by Georges Bataille devoted its special edition No. 3 of April 1930 entirely to Picasso.
In 1927 he met Marie-Thérèse Walter , whom he portrayed in Woman with Flower 1932 in a minimalist manner with surrealist echoes. He kept his relationship with Marie-Thérèse, who was initially a minor, a secret for a long time.
The Minotaur motif first appeared in his works in 1928 - as a Spaniard, Picasso has always been fascinated by bullfighting. The first issue of the surrealist artists' magazine Minotaure appeared on May 25, 1933 with a cover by Picasso, which according to the title shows a Minotaur. In 1935 he created the series of etchings Minotauromachy , which were inspired by Francisco de Goya's Tauromaquia (around 1815). The connection between sexuality, violence and death is explored in ever new variations.
In the summer of 1936 Picasso met the artist and art critic Roland Penrose through the surrealist poet Paul Éluard , with whom he became friends and who published the first biography about Picasso in 1958, on which the artist participated. In 1937 he made six portraits of Penrose's future wife, the photographer Lee Miller . During mutual visits, the photographer took around 1,000 pictures that show Picasso at work and in his free time.
Another portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter, the interior with a drawing girl from 1935, shows clearer echoes of his late style. The connection between sexuality and artistic creativity becomes a topic that will occupy Picasso until the end of his life. The year 1935 marked a crisis in his life and work. From the relationship with Marie-Thérèse, which lasted until 1937, the daughter Maya was born in that year. This was brought to his wife, who then demanded a divorce. Under French law, Picasso should have shared his property with her. He was not interested in that and they remained married until her death in February 1955.
In 1936 Picasso had an affair with Alice Rahon , the wife of Wolfgang Paalen , and met the French photographer Dora Maar , who became his constant companion in the 1940s and who often sat as a model for him. In November 1937 he visited Paul Klee in Bern in order to give him moral support, since his works were defamed by the National Socialists in the notorious Munich exhibition on degenerate art . In 1941 Dora Maar's portrait was created with simultaneous front and side views, Dora Maar with a cat ( Dora Maar au chat ). She competed with Marie-Thérèse Walter for Pablo Picasso's favor. “I was not interested in making a decision. […] I told them they should work it out among themselves, ”said the painter about the rivalry between the two women.
Statements on the Spanish Civil War - Guernica (1936–1939)
The events of the Spanish Civil War shook Picasso deeply, and pictures were created that recall Goya's horror of the war in their forcefulness , especially Guernica , which thematizes the horror of the bombing of the Basque city of Gernika on April 26, 1937 by the German Condor Legion . Under this impression, Picasso began studies on May 1 for the monumental picture of the same name, which was exhibited as a mural in the Spanish pavilion at the World Exhibition in Paris from July 12, 1937 .
From 1936 Picasso supported the republican government of Spain from Paris, which defended itself against the putschist and future dictator Franco . He tried, albeit in vain, to get the French government to intervene, and in 1937 the Spanish Republican government appointed him director of the important Prado art museum in Madrid in absentia .
World War II period (1940–1945)
The artist worked in Paris from 1936 in a studio at 7 Rue des Grands-Augustins, where Guernica was created and which he also used as an apartment from the spring of 1939. From the beginning of the German occupation in 1940 during World War II until the liberation of Paris on August 25, 1944, he lived here without traveling. The National Socialists had banned him from exhibiting because of his opposition to Franco. Picasso's application for French citizenship in 1940 had been rejected because the authorities had dossiers from 1905 in which he was classified as anarchist .
During the occupation, the collaborators did not tolerate modern art . The painter André Lhote remembered the battle cries “Matisse in the garbage can” and “Picasso in the madhouse!”. After the liberation, the political left first assessed him as the artist who "most effectively symbolized the spirit of resistance".
The Museum of Modern Art in New York City under its director Alfred Barr dedicated a successful retrospective to Picasso from 1939 to 1940 , which made him widely known in America and among contemporary art critics and artist colleagues.
In 1944, Picasso became a member of the French Communist Party and remained so for the rest of his life. The seriousness of his entry was doubted and he was accused of having a certain symbolic meaning in his work with colors and shapes, to which he countered: "Just for the pleasure of being understood, I will not work in an ordinary style." A statement, among others, that led to the accusation that his communism was superficial and that he did not believe in the inseparability of art and politics. In his defense he wrote: “What do you think is an artist? An imbecile who only has eyes when he's a painter, only ears when he's a musician, even only a lyre for all levels of the heart when he's a poet, or even muscles when he's a boxer? But on the contrary! He is at the same time a political being who lives constantly in the consciousness of destructive, burning or exhilarating world events and forms himself completely in their image. […] No, painting was not invented to decorate apartments! It is a weapon for attack and defense against the enemy. "
The later years (1945–1973)
After six years of internal emigration and isolation in Paris during the Second World War, Picasso visited places in the south of France such as Antibes and Nice more frequently from 1945 onwards . There he visited Henri Matisse , whose painting style left a clear influence on Picasso's late work. The two artists remained loosely connected for many years, with Matisse being the only living artist whom Picasso regarded as an equal. Both recognized the importance of the other, respected each other throughout their lives and influenced each other despite their differences.
His companion during these years was the painter Françoise Gilot , whom he had met in Paris in 1943. The relationship lasted until 1953; their son Claude was born in 1947, their daughter Paloma in 1949.
Vallauris and Cannes
The Mediterranean surroundings of his youth pulled Picasso under his spell again, because from the spring of 1948 he and Françoise Gilot lived after stays in Golfe-Juan in the villa "La Galloise" in Vallauris , a place with traditional pottery , where he is already a year had previously stopped. There, under the guidance of local potters, he experimented with clay and glazes in the Madoura factory , broke the traditional product framework and helped the place to become nationally and later internationally known.
Despite joining the Communist Party, Picasso retained an independent mindset. The painting Massacre in Korea , created in 1951, angered the Americans, his portrait of Stalin from 1953 the communists, because in the Soviet Union his painting style was officially considered decadent. However, whenever Picasso was asked to do so, he was committed to peace. In 1949 he designed a poster with a dove for the Paris World Peace Congress . The dove subsequently became a symbol of peace around the world. In 1952 two large wall paintings were created: The War and The Peace , for the "Temple of Peace" in Vallauris.
Jacqueline Roque , a ceramics seller at Madoura in Vallauris, was Picasso's new partner from 1953 after Françoise Gilot had left him, and Geneviève Laporte , with whom he had an affair, did not want to move in with him either. He created numerous portraits of Roque such as the portrait of Madame Z. (Jacqueline Roque) in 1954 and Jacqueline in the studio in 1956 .
In 1954, in Vallauris, he met 19-year-old Sylvette David , a young woman with a blonde ponytail, who was his model and who he portrayed in almost 60 portraits over a period of several months.
In 1955 Picasso bought the villa “La Californie” in Cannes . Works such as Women of Algiers by Eugène Delacroix in 1955, Diego Velazquez 's Las Meninas in 1957 or Édouard Manet's breakfast outdoors in 1961 showed his turn to classical interpretations of masterpieces . As early as 1946, an exhibition in the Louvre had contrasted his pictures with those of classical masters.
Acquisition of Vauvenargues Castle
Picasso was increasingly harassed by tourists and admirers. In the immediate vicinity of "La Californie", high-rise residential buildings were built that both blocked the view of the landscape and gave strangers a glimpse of his property. He tried unsuccessfully to persuade the art collector Douglas Cooper to leave him his castle at Château de Castille near Avignon . Instead, in 1958, Cooper recommended Vauvenargues Castle near Aix-en-Provence with a view of Paul Cézanne's favorite motif, the Montagne Sainte-Victoire mountains . Picasso bought it and set up a studio there, but kept coming back to “La Californie”.
Picasso's style was increasingly reduced to the line-emphasized, sketchy. With high productivity he not only dealt with painting and graphics such as lithography and linocut , but from 1947 also with sculpture and ceramics . He varied and quoted his subjects repeatedly.
Last place of residence of Mougins and death
Picasso never divorced his wife Olga for financial reasons. Several years after her death, he married Jacqueline Roque in 1961 and moved with her to the Mas Notre-Dame de Vie mansion in Mougins , north over the slopes of Cannes . The marriage remained childless. He used Vauvenargues Castle as a warehouse for countless pictures.
In 1962 Picasso was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize.
In 1963 the Museu Picasso was opened in Barcelona, which later received a large part of his estate. The foundation was formed by the donation of 574 works by Picasso's friend and secretary Sabartés. On the occasion of the publication of the memories of Françoise Gilot , Life with Picasso in 1964, there was a falling out with his children Claude and Paloma Picasso , who came from this relationship .
On 8 April 1973 Picasso died at his home in Mougins suffering a heart attack , which from a pulmonary edema had been triggered. He was buried on April 10th in the garden of his castle in Vauvenargues. Picasso had left no will. His heirs paid inheritance tax in the form of works of art by Picasso and other paintings from his collection, such as works by Matisse and the Yadwigha by Rousseau. They formed the basis of the collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives inaugurated the museum dedicated to Picasso in his native Málaga, the Museo Picasso , and gave him many exhibits.
His widow Jacqueline committed suicide in the Mougins house in 1986, 13 years after Picasso's death.
Paulo Picasso (February 4, 1921 - June 5, 1975) was Picasso's first child from his marriage to Olga Chochlowa . As a toddler, Paulo was the model for the paintings Paulo on a Donkey (1923) and Paulo as a Harlequin (1924).
Maya Widmaier Picasso (born September 5, 1935) comes from the connection with Marie-Thérèse Walter . Her father painted several Maya-themed pictures, including Maya à la poupée ( Maya with a doll ), which was stolen from Picasso's granddaughter Diana Widmaier Picasso's apartment in February 2007 . In August 2008, the pictures and a drawing that had also been stolen were found by the French police.
Paloma Picasso (born April 19, 1949) is the second child of Picasso's connection with Françoise Gilot. She made a brand name for herself through the creation of jewelry, fashion accessories and perfumes.
According to the On-Line Picasso Project , set up in 1997 by Enrique Mallen ( Sam Houston State University ), the total number of Picasso's works is estimated at around 50,000, including 1885 paintings, 7089 drawings, 30,000 prints (etchings, lithographs, etc.), 150 sketchbooks , 1228 sculptures, 3222 ceramics and tapestries. The on-line project uses a small P based on the @ symbol as a logo.
“When it comes to painting, in my opinion, 'searching' means nothing. It's all about finding. "
Work of Youth (1889–1897)
The first picture by Picasso from around 1889 is The Picador , which was already painted in oil. Bullfighting scenes, pigeons and the depiction of a statue of Hercules formed the subjects of his first drawings. Oil paintings were created in the style of the old masters genre painting based on the father's model. At the age of eleven he received lessons in the tradition of academic painting under his guidance. Using plaster casts, he made drawings such as Etude pour un torse .
In the paintings from around 1895, the Spanish painters of the 17th century were his model. At that time he was a student in the drawing class of “La Llotja” in Barcelona. Some of his pictures show echoes and studies of the works of Francisco de Zurbarán and the early Diego Velázquez , such as the portrait of Philippe IV after Velázquez. From 1897 Picasso studied for a short time at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid. A drawing from this period shows the matador Luis Miguel Dominguin .
In 1896 his painting The First Communion was exhibited in the Exhibition of Arts and Crafts in Barcelona and was praised in a major newspaper. In 1897 he painted the great composition Science and Charity . It corresponded to the variety of history painting that was popular at the time and received an official honorable mention in the General Art Exhibition in Madrid. It later received a gold medal in its native city of Malaga.
Years of Orientation (1898–1901)
When Picasso left the Royal Academy in 1897 at the age of 16, his independent artistic career began. The years between 1898 and 1901 characterize the time of orientation: the consistent examination of the creative principles of almost all then progressive and avant-garde directions. He overcame his purely academic training in a way that was characteristic of him, just as he had learned to absorb new things: as appropriation through imitation.
He was influenced by the works of the Catalan painters of Modernism , Isidre Nonell and Santiago Rusiñol , and received further inspiration - to name just a few - from the field of Symbolism , the English Pre-Raphaelites , Viennese Modernism , Catalan wall paintings of the 14th century, from the works of El Greco , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Théophile Steinlen , the illustrator in the style of Art Nouveau . Picasso was already trying to reshape his role models. In 1900, Picasso's engagement with Toulouse-Lautrec culminated in the painting Le Moulin de la Galette . His first solo exhibition at " Els Quatre Gats " in the same year, however, received negative reviews.
Blue Period (1901–1904)
The term blue period in Picasso's work places the predominant monochrome color scheme in the foreground. The foundations of the Blue Period were developed in Paris. The picture Evocation - Casagema's funeral is the first picture of that creative phase. It is supposed to represent the end of a friendship and the beginning of something new. This resulted in works such as The Blue Room and the famous self-portrait from 1901.
After moving to Barcelona in 1902, melancholy figurines formed the main themes. Outsiders of society such as beggars, homeless people, but also lonely people as well as mothers and children were represented. With the help of these topics, he processed both his loneliness in a foreign country and the death of his friend. The choice of themes in Picasso's works is comparable to that of Nonell's. However, if Nonell recognizes a section of reality and allows conclusions to be drawn about larger contexts, Picasso realizes fate as something individual, in isolation.
In 1902 Melancholie was created , the portrait of a melancholy young woman. The overly long depiction of the characters, such as the one in the ironer (1904), can be traced back to the discussion with El Greco : “The fact that my characters in the Blue Period are all elongated is probably due to his influence.” On the other hand, the theme of the closes The ironer seamlessly adapts to the representations of Daumier and great studies from Degas.
Pink Period (1904-1906)
Art history divides the years 1901–1906 in Picasso's work into two periods, the Blue and the Pink Period. For the contemporaries, however, the years mentioned formed a unit. The predominant use of the color pink in no way justified a separation from the preceding for them, and they continuously spoke of the blue period. In retrospect, the artist saw it that way too.
With the pictures of the Blue and Pink Periods, Picasso clearly set himself apart from the official art that was celebrated at the time. From 1904 Picasso gradually replaced the predominant blue with pink and orange tones. The motifs of the Pink Period often come from the world of actors and artists, who were then understood as symbols for the artistic world. The pink period is also known as the Harlequin period . On the other hand, however, the figure of the harlequin appears in both periods. Picasso had portrayed himself in 1905 in the Paris cabaret Le Lapin Agile in the painting Au Lapin Agile as a harlequin with his then lover Germaine Gargallo . Due to Picasso's love for Fernande Olivier , the model for sculptors and painters, whom he had met in Paris in 1904 and which was to become the subject of many of his paintings, and additionally to his first financial successes, the work appears more optimistic. The painting The Jugglers ( Les Saltimbanques ) from 1905 is considered the main work of the Pink Period .
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and période nègre (1907–1908)
The painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon from 1907 is today undisputedly the highlight of Picasso's Sturm und Drang period. When the work found its way to the public in 1939, it became the key image of modernism . The Demoiselles are inspired by the paintings of Paul Cézanne and the works of the Fauves , such as Le bonheur de vivre (Joy of Life , 1905/06) by Henri Matisse .
The starting point for Picasso was his examination of European art tradition and the recourse to prehistoric art, which is evident in his occupation with Iberian art, which began in the summer of 1906. Since the winter of 1905/06, formal studies have been made that reflect this discussion. With the final work of the Demoiselles , Picasso's so-called période nègre ( Negro period or Iberian period ) began. In that phase Picasso had freely combined suggestions from African and, to a lesser extent, oceanic art (see primitivism ). Picasso himself always spoke only of art nègre , since he "Africanized" the oceanic models. One work from the période nègre is the painting Nude with Garment from the summer / autumn of 1907.
"Cubism is neither a seed nor a fetus, but an art that is primarily about the form, and once a form is created, it is there and continues to live its own life"
The central starting point for Picasso was the painterly art form Cézanne from the last years of his life. Picasso had studied his work and later said to the photographer Brassaï : “Cézanne! He was the father of all of us! ”The preferred motifs were still lifes , in particular musical instruments, landscapes and people are depicted.
Picasso's cubist period can be divided into two phases: analytical and synthetic cubism .
Analytical Cubism (1908-1912). Picasso's method - the "opening" of the closed form of the represented bodies in favor of a form rhythm - allows the physicality of things and their position in space to be represented instead of simulating them by illusionistic means. The lighting played a subordinate role. In the paintings it was not specified which side the light comes from. The resulting different views of the objects create the appearance of simultaneous perspective , as if they could be viewed from all sides at the same time. This creates the effect of a “crystalline” structure. One example is the portrait of Ambroise Vollard, created in 1910 .
Synthetic Cubism (1912-1916). Synthetic Cubism emerged from the collage technique practiced by Picasso and Braque , the papier collé . Their three-dimensional constructions, the paper sculptures, which they made from paper and cardboard, Picasso later from sheet metal, inspired them to create the papier collés . They form the basis of all subsequent collage techniques up to the ready-made .
Paper, newspaper, wallpaper, imitation wood grain, sawdust, sand and similar materials now appeared in the works. The boundaries between the painted and real object and the object flow into one another. In this way, Braque and Picasso created a synthesis of different elements, from which the name of this creative period resulted. The pictures processed in this way acquire a tangible, material character that creates a new reality for the picture. Picasso's first work of this kind was still life with a cane chair ( Nature morte à la chaise cannée ), created in 1912 , which is the first collage. Another work from this phase is the violin and wine glass on a table .
Stylistic coexistence (1916–1924)
During the First World War , a yearning for “purity and order” arose in Europe. There was a return to the classical tradition and an often blatant rejection of all modernisms. France saw itself as a direct successor to the exemplary antiquity as a refuge of humanity and opponent of the “barbaric Germans”. The recollection also took place in other Romance countries: for example in Barcelona in the Noucentisme , which Picasso met on his trip to Spain in 1917. Two opposing artistic camps emerged in France. One, with the main representative Fernand Léger , tried to combine the formal achievements of Cubism with the forms of the Classical period in order to make art serve political goals. The other, with Picasso as the main representative, followed the direct examination of classical values. The revival of classicism in Picasso's work was the result.
As early as 1914/15, Picasso's works show figurative representations which, in keeping with the tradition of the Classical and European Classicisms, proceed from the form-defining line, such as the portrait of Olga in an armchair from 1917. In addition to the classical nudes, portraits and scenic representations At the same time, however, he created works of synthetic cubism, such as still lifes in front of a window in Saint-Raphaël from the summer of 1919 or three musicians from the summer of 1921. In this way, the years 1916 to 1924 seem to form a time of coexistence of opposites. The art historian Julius Meier-Graefe scoffed : "In the morning he makes cubes, in the afternoon voluminous women."
The composition Drei Frauen am Brunnen from 1921 shows three powerful women, dressed like ancient goddesses, who look at each other melancholy. Another antique theme is the painting The Panpipe from 1924.
Dealing with Surrealism (1925–1936)
From 1925 to 1936 Picasso again turned intensively to plastic design. All two- and three-dimensional forms of expression were placed side by side and one after the other in an almost “exploding” abundance of mutual correspondences. For his juggling with form, Picasso received support in those years from a new artistic movement that had emerged from the currents of Dadaism : Surrealism . For the surrealists, Picasso was a symbol of modernity. However, Picasso in the narrower sense cannot be assigned to surrealism.
In 1925, Picasso took part in the first exhibition of surrealist painters at the Pierre Galerie in Paris . His work could be seen there alongside works by Hans Arp , Giorgio de Chirico , Max Ernst , Man Ray and Joan Miró . In retrospect, he said in the 1950s that he had worked free of surrealist influences before 1933. However, this statement by Picasso is opposed to the fact that he had precisely perceived the works of Giorgio de Chirico to Joan Miró and used them as models. Surrealist sculpture gave him a lot of inspiration, especially works by Alberto Giacometti . However, these takeovers are never isolated, but are functionalized by Picasso for his purposes and combined with borrowings from completely different art movements. Picasso said: “Some call the works I created during a certain period surrealistic. I am not a surrealist. I have never deviated from the truth: I have always remained in reality. "
Works that are surrealistically inspired include, for example, the Sleeping Woman in an Armchair , 1927, the Seated Bathing Woman on the Beach and The Crucifixion from 1930.
The theme of the first movement, the Picasso Spanish Civil War created was Dream and Lie of Franco , a series of 18 aquatint - etchings that Picasso on January 8, 1937 had begun. After the bombing of Gernika in April 1937, this impression resulted in the large-format, around three and a half meters high and almost eight meters wide mural Guernica , which was exhibited together with Paul Éluard's poem The Victory of Guernica in June at the Paris World Exhibition in the Spanish pavilion.
After initial criticism, which was precisely based on its lack of political clarity, it was declared the most famous anti-war image of the 20th century in reception - the images by George Grosz and Otto Dix about the First World War follow a long way off . Some key figures from the painting, such as the Weeping Woman and the Dying Horse , can be found in his later works.
Late work after 1945
“Why do you think I date everything I do? Because it is not enough to know the work of an artist, you also have to know when, why, how and under what conditions he created them [...] it is important to me to leave as complete a documentation as possible for posterity [...] Now you know See why I date everything I do. "
After the Second World War , Picasso's style changed again by reinterpreting the art of the old masters and seeking competition with them. Examples are a portrait of a painter based on El Greco , 1950, the 15 versions based on Delacroix's Women of Algiers from 1954 and Las Meninas based on Velazquez in 1957 . In Las Meninas , Picasso replaced the mastiff of the Spanish king with his dachshund Lump . The replicas are characterized by formal wit and content irony. He anticipated the "art of quotation", it was to become very widespread in the 1960s.
The special form of glass painting invented by Jean Crotti , "Gemmail" (plural "Gemmaux"), was used by Picasso in his 1955 work Ma jolie guitar . Using this technique, he created around 60 works from 1954, in which he repeated earlier themes.
Self-portraits by Picasso are rare: “I really didn't deal with my face very often.” Instead, Picasso showed himself in encrypted self-portraits, hidden in harlequins, young men and old men and in the portraits of Rembrandt and Balzac (1952). Towards the end of his career, however, a number of self-portraits were created. In April 1972 Picasso created The Young Painter . With a few simple strokes, which stand in contrast to the expressive, pastose painted works of the past few years, he portrays himself with a broad-brimmed hat, holding the brush loosely in his hand, perhaps an attempt in the face of death to be little Pablo Ruiz again. Another self-portrait followed in June, showing him as an old man and staring at the viewer with wide-eyed terror.
Picasso's painterly work ended with the picture The Embrace , which was created on June 1, 1972; until his death on April 8, 1973, Picasso only drew - there were no fewer than two hundred pictures. Two colors dominate the love scene: blue and pink. Here Picasso goes back to the foundations of his art: the images of death, the intoxication of love, the melancholy blue period and the playful pink period. In this last picture, a blue wave is racing towards a couple who are barely recognizable; it can only be deduced from the title. An ecstatic tangle of body and genitals dominates the picture.
As a non-trained sculptor Picasso created between the years 1909 and 1930 sculptures that make a big impact on the sculpture should have the 20th century. Three-dimensional works accompanied his entire work and served him as a field of experimentation for his painterly work. He did not pursue his innovations , but they served as inspiration to contemporary sculptors such as the Futurists , the Dadaists and the Constructivists .
Picasso's earliest sculpture is the small bronze Seated Woman from 1902, which he modeled when he was a good 20 years old. His first significant sculpture was the almost life-size woman's head (Fernande) from the summer of 1909, which was created in connection with pictures by Fernande, which after dealing with Cézanne's late work already had a new, non-perspective image structure, a reduced color plate and form decomposition. No further sculptures were made until 1912, when the first collage , Still life with cane chair wickerwork , was created. In the same year he created the Montage Guitar , a "construction" made of pieces of cardboard glued together with strings.
From 1914 comes a series of six absinthe glasses , consisting of cubistically shaped bronze glass to which a real absinthe spoon and a fake lump of sugar have been added and which are painted in different ways - an unconventional treatment of bronze as a material . This is an assemblage . The real spoon is reminiscent of a ready-made by Marcel Duchamp . From 1923 Picasso worked with his friend, the sculptor Julio González , who made him more familiar with the various possibilities of sculptural design.
In 1928 and 1929 he created iron and wire sculptures, one of his key works being wire construction ( monument to Guillaume Apollinaire ); it was created in Paris at the end of 1928. In his work phase at the beginning of the 1930s, Picasso created realistic sculptures such as the woman's head ( Marie Thérèse ), 1931, which refers to the love affair with his new partner Marie-Thérèse Walter . Other sculptural works include, for example, the assemblage Der Stierschädel from 1942, Man with Lamm , 1942/43, as well as the model for the monumental sculpture without a title from 1967 in Chicago on Daley Plaza; the citizens refer to her as the Chicago Picasso , and she is sometimes compared to a bird or a woman's head. Picasso's grandson Olivier Widmaier Picasso told the Chicago Sun-Times in 2004 that the artist was inspired by his model Sylvette when designing the sculpture .
In the years from 1930 to 1937 Picasso created a series of one hundred prints, which was named the Suite Vollard after the publisher and art dealer Vollard ; he had commissioned them from the artist. Picasso varied subjects such as artist and model and the Minotaur motif. The graphics museum Pablo Picasso Münster acquired the complete series of graphics in 2001.
The bullfight , which Picasso depicted in a series of etchings in 1935, became a central theme . Motifs of the bull and the bullfight as a traditional Spanish theme run through Picasso's entire work. The Minotauromachy links the ancient myth of the Minotaur with modern bullfighting scenes, which can be found, for example, in the series of etchings Dream and Lie Franco from 1937 and his monumental painting Guernica . The Minotauromachy is a quote from his compatriot Francisco de Goya , who created his series of etchings Tauromaquia around 1815. The series La Tauromaquia with 26 aquatint etchings, created in 1957, was created as an illustration for the first textbook of bullfighting, La Tauromaquia, o arte de torear , a book from 1796, the author of which was one of the most famous bullfighters of his time, the torero José Delgado y Galvez, called Pepe Illo.
From November 1945, after his first lithographs from 1919 to 1930, he returned to the technique of lithography in Fernand Mourlot's workshop in Paris ; for example, Tête de femme , Les deux femmes nues and Le Taureau were created .
In 1968 he created two large series of etchings: Painter and Model and Die Liegend , which once again took up the central themes of his work: circus, bullfight and erotic motifs.
Commercial graphics Picasso was also active in commercial graphics - production of press drawings, posters and book illustrations as well as drafts for calendar pictures, cards and music books. The commercial graphic works initially served the young artist's livelihood, later they were created as favors for befriended writers, composers, publishers and gallery owners. In Vallauris in 1948 he devoted himself to ceramics and the technique of linocut , which he carried out together with the printer Hidalgo Arnera. His first works were posters for bullfights and ceramics exhibitions in the community. His best-known poster is the dove of peace for the Paris World Peace Congress in 1949. Picasso created around a hundred drawings for the dove of peace , which became a symbol known throughout the world; their design is based on impressionistic stylistic devices. In April 1949, the dove of peace was first exhibited at the Paris congress, the “Congrès mondial des partisans de la paix”. More pigeons followed for the congresses in Warsaw and Vienna.
Book illustrations Picasso illustrated works from ancient Greece to contemporary literature in bibliophile editions. André Breton's Clair de terre from 1923 contains his first book illustrations, followed by illustrations for works by Luis de Góngora , Francesco Petrarca , Tristan Tzara , Antonin Artaud and Pierre Reverdy . The most famous work is the Le Chef d'Œuvre Inconnu ( The Unknown Masterpiece ) published by Vollard in 1931 by Honoré de Balzac with illustrations by the artist. With the protagonist Frenhofer, a painter, he was linked by his profession and the street he had lived on - the Rue des Grands-Augustins.
Other types of work
Stage sets and curtains, costumes Even in his early years, Picasso discovered the theater as a source of inspiration for his art. From 1905 he had chosen the melancholy harlequin and sad artists as motifs for his paintings. The examination of the theater runs through his entire oeuvre. In 1917 Picasso created six sets, the stage curtain and the costumes for Sergei Djagilev's Ballet Russes , which performed the ballet Parade based on a theme by Jean Cocteau and the music of Erik Satie . Set designs for Manuel de Falla's opera Der Dreispitz followed in 1919 , in 1920 for Igor Stravinski's Pulcinella and in 1924 for Satie's ballet Les Aventures de Mercure . From the end of 2006 to the beginning of 2007, the Frankfurt Schirn showed more than 140 works: drafts for stage sets, photographs, costumes, stage curtains, drawings and paintings. However, many of the original stage sets and costumes have been destroyed or lost. Often there are only a few black and white photographs left of the original choreographies.
Ceramics In the spring of 1947, Picasso moved into a studio in the French town of Vallauris , having met Suzanne and Georges Ramie, the owners of the Madoura workshop, a ceramics factory, by chance at the annual pottery exhibition the year before. Picasso made his first attempts with ceramics and decided to devote himself to this art. His approach was unorthodox. He created fauns and nymphs out of the clay, poured the earth like bronze, decorated plates and plates with his favorite motifs such as bullfight, women, owls, goats, used unusual substrates (pignates shards, saggars or broken bricks) and invented a white clay mass Made of non-enamelled ceramic with reliefs. Within twenty years, Picasso created a large number of original ceramic works.
Luminography Although Picasso himself was not very interested in photography, he knew how to use the possibilities of the medium for his artistic experiments. In 1949, in collaboration with the photographer Gjon Mili, a series of light paintings, so-called luminographs , was created in Vallauris . Picasso swapped pen with a flashlight and painted figures in the air in front of Mili's camera in a darkened room. Through long-term exposure , its light paths became clear in the photo as “luminograms”.
In addition to his pictorial work, Pablo Picasso left dozens of poems. His texts can be found in the literature list under Peter Schifferli: Pablo Picasso. Word and Confession. The collected seals and certificates.
In addition, Picasso appeared as a playwright. Under the impression of the German occupation of Paris and a harsh winter, the piece Le Désir attrapé par la queue was written in just a few days in 1941 , and it first appeared in Message magazine. It was staged in March 1944, directed by Albert Camus, in the apartment of Michel Leiris with the participation of Simone de Beauvoir , Jean-Paul Sartre , Raymond Queneau , Dora Maar and Valentine Hugo . It premiered in 1950 at London's Watergate Theater.
Paul Celan translated this drama into German under the title How to grab wishes by the tail . Its German-language premiere took place in 1956 in the Kleintheater Bern under the direction of Daniel Spoerri and with the participation of Meret Oppenheim (set design and costumes) among others . Veit Relin edited the piece for ZDF in 1971 . On the occasion of the radio play version of this “dadaistic, erotic comedy” produced by SDR in 1980, Deutschlandfunk wrote : “The piece, inspired by the spirit of psychoanalysis, is a (but) funny collage of absurd scenes and surreal encounters by a poet, in which dream images and elements of the real world are added merge in a strange synthesis. "
In 1948 Picasso wrote another play Les quatre petites , which was translated into German under the title Four Little Girls and premiered in London in 1981.
Testimonies from contemporaries
Picasso's compatriot Salvador Dalí traveled to Paris for the first time in 1926 and visited Picasso. “When I arrived at Picasso's, I was so deeply moved and full of respect, as if I had an audience with the Pope”. In 1934, Picasso lent Dalí the money for a crossing to the USA, which Dalí was never to repay. Their esteem was to change later, they became competitors and Dalí, in contrast to Picasso, a supporter of Francisco Franco . Dalí's saying became known:
- “Picasso es pintor, yo también; Picasso es español, yo también; Picasso es comunista, yo tampoco. "
(" Picasso is a painter, me too; Picasso is Spaniard, me too; Picasso is a communist, neither do I. ")
The surrealist writer André Breton praises the artist in his work Surrealism and Painting from 1928: “You have to be deprived of all imagination of Picasso's extraordinary predestination to even dare to fear a decline in him. O Picasso, who drove the spirit to its highest degree not of contradiction, but of liberation [...]. "
The gallery owner Ambroise Vollard reports in his work, Memories of an Art Dealer 1936, about the reaction of the public on the occasion of the exhibitions of his works: "Every new work by Picasso horrifies the public until the astonishment turns into admiration."
In 1942, Maurice de Vlaminck was critical: “He did not draw a line or applied any color without reminding of an original. Giorgione , El Greco , Steinlen , Lautrec , Greek masks and figurines: he uses everything […] The only thing that Picasso can't do: a 'Picasso' that comes from Picasso ”(reprint in“ My Testament ”, 1959).
Relationship with Matisse
The Picasso Myth - "Picasso and the Myths"
"Any conversation with the pilot is prohibited."
No other artist of the 20th century was so controversial and none became as famous as Picasso. No one had been interpreted as the decisive artist of his epoch so early, so long, and finally so consistently. Nobody has been the subject of poetry or films that often. Picasso's father is said to have honored his son, as shown by Picasso's quotation reproduced by Sabartés: "He gave me his colors and his brushes and never painted again". The father is said to have done this at a time when young Pablo could no longer learn from him.
Opinions about Picasso show all the extremes of the current notions of modernity and became more and more obvious. Even the considerable amount of biographical tradition represents “only a drop” in comparison to the stream of statements, reviews, studies and books on Picasso's work that has been flowing for decades. For Klaus Herding , Picasso's work is the ultimate challenge for the avant-garde , and in Werner Spies ' eyes Picasso is again “without a doubt the greatest draftsman” of the 20th century. According to William Rubin , Picasso's work represents the art of the 20th century as a whole through the "variety of its styles, the variety and its creativity."
In 2002 the Bucerius Kunst Forum in Hamburg showed the exhibition “Picasso and the Myths”. Petra Kipphoff reviewed in Die Zeit : “Picasso and the women, Picasso and the children, Picasso and death, Picasso and the war, Picasso, the painter, the sculptor, the draftsman, the graphic artist: no other artist of the 20th century is so much has been exhibited, so extensively published and commented on. […] For the Spaniard and avowed macho Pablo Picasso, however, the bull was the fixed point of myth and the preferred other identity. The Minotaur , the result of a carefully prepared affair between the Cretan Queen Pasiphae and a bull, is the beginning of all masculinity legends. Picasso not only quoted him again and again, but also plays with the double role of man and bull himself, sometimes cheerful, sometimes aggressive. And that the myth of prehistoric times can also get its confirmation on the street in the 20th century, shows the famous bull's skull from 1942, in which Picasso mounted the saddle and the handlebar of a bicycle in such a way that the silhouette of a bull's head is indeed visible . "
"Hommage à Picasso"
69 exhibits by contemporary artists quoting Picasso and his work were presented in an exhibition entitled "Hommage à Picasso" on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kronach in 2003. The artists paid him their artistic reverence on his 90th birthday want to prove in 1971. The linocuts, etchings and lithographs presented come from the years 1971 to 1974 and were published for the first time in 1973 and 1974 in a portfolio, published by Propylaen Verlag, Berlin, and the Pantheon Presse, Rome. The portfolio includes works by artists such as Henry Moore , Max Bill , Allen Jones , Robert Motherwell , Jacques Lipchitz , Giacomo Manzù , Pierre Alechinsky , Joseph Beuys , Roy Lichtenstein , Michelangelo Pistoletto , Richard Hamilton , Walter De Maria and Hans Hartung , the honored Picasso with their specific artistic language of form.
In 2006 the Deutsche Guggenheim showed an updated and expanded version of her work Hommage à Picasso from the years 1995/96 by the concept artist Hanne Darboven as a commissioned work . Darboven juxtaposed 9720 sheets of writing in 270 frames in a room installation with a copy of Picasso's painting Seated Woman in Turkish Costume - his original was made in 1955 - which was completed by a series of sculptures, a bronze bust of Picasso and donkeys woven from birch branches. Another part of the work was Opus 60 , a musical composition performed during the exhibition.
Re-evaluation of Picasso's late work
After the Hamburger Kunsthalle , the Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung , Munich and the Neue Nationalgalerie , Berlin had already shown the artist's late work in the exhibition “Picasso, Die Zeit nach Guernica 1937–1973” in 1992/93 , it took place on the occasion of Picasso's 125th birthday In exhibitions at the Albertina , Vienna and the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen , Düsseldorf, under the title “Picasso - Painting Against Time” in 2006, Picasso's late work, which had long been criticized, was re-evaluated. “Disjointed graffiti, carried out by a mad old man in the anteroom of death,” was the verdict of the collector and art historian Douglas Cooper , for example, of Picasso's unsettling, wild late work.
The catalog for the exhibition was published by Werner Spies , who knew Picasso personally and is considered an excellent expert on his work. “Pablo Picasso left a lasting mark on the art of the 20th century like no other. Among the numerous phases and stylistic periods in his work, the old work occupies a special position. His late pictures, which are attached to sensuality and embracing with every fiber, which show kiss and copulation in close-ups, are characterized by a great restlessness aimed at exorcising death. The masterfully fast, 'wild' paintings are juxtaposed with technically meticulous drawings in which a unique joy in narration prevails. Based on almost 200 works - paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures - the special working method and dialectic of Picasso's later art. Above all, the exciting dialogue between painting and drawing, developed over the years in Mougins, shows the greatest artist of the 20th century competing with the time left to him. "
Film and theater
In 1956, the French film director Henri-Georges Clouzot released a reportage- style documentary film about Pablo Picasso and his working methods under the title Picasso (Le Mystere Picasso) . Picasso made a cameo in Jean Cocteau's 1960 film Le Testament d'Orphée ( The Testament of Orpheus ) . In 1978 the Swedish comedy The Adventures of Mr Picasso (Picasso's aventyr) was shot, directed by Tage Danielsson . In 1996, the biopic Mein Mann Picasso (Surviving Picasso) was created , in which Sir Anthony Hopkins played the painter. The film takes place in the ten years from 1943 to 1953, when Gilot was Picasso's partner.
Picasso picture Girl with Dove plays a central role in the of Adolf Kabatek devised Disney credit history Picasso robbery in Barcelona (1985), a comic book , in which Scrooge McDuck with his relatives all sorts of adventures in and around Barcelona experience. In the 184-minute documentary 13 days in the life of Pablo Picasso (France 1999, ARTE-Edition / absolut Medien), produced by Pierre Daix , Pierre Philippe and Pierre-André Boutang, thirteen days are based on the turning points in Picasso's life documented by works of art, sketchbooks, conversations and film clips.
In 1993 the American actor Steve Martin wrote the play Picasso at the Lapin Agile . It describes an imaginary meeting in 1904 between Pablo Picasso and Albert Einstein at the Paris cabaret Lapin Agile .
The one and a half hour television film Matisse & Picasso: A Gentle Rivalry was made in 2000; he deals with the portraits of the two "giants" in 20th century art. He shows rarely published photographs of her paintings and sculptures, as well as photos and films from archives showing her at work. Geneviève Bujold is the voice of Françoise Gilot , Robert Clary is Matisse and Miguel Ferrer Picasso. The production, which was awarded a national Emmy , comes from KERA-Dallas / Fort Worth / Denton in collaboration with the Kimbell Art Museum , Fort Worth, Texas .
In the play of the Irish author Brian McAvera Picasso Women ( Picasso's Women ) eight women tell in the context of a fictional press conference about her life with the artist in order of acquaintance with Picasso: First speak Fernande Olivier , followed by Eva Gouel , Gabrielle Lespinasse , Olga Chochlowa , Marie-Thérèse Walter , then Dora Maar , Françoise Gilot and finally Jacqueline Roque . The book edition was published in 1998. From 2003 performances took place in the form of tours .
The Italian playwright and painter Dario Fo wrote the play Picasso desnudo , which premiered in 2012. He himself felt that the images he created for this were “Falso Picasso”, as the image rights seemed too expensive to him. They were shown in a gallery in Stuttgart in November 2014.
Also in 2012, the film La banda Picasso was directed by the Spaniard Fernando Colomo . He deals with the spectacular robbery of the painting of the Mona Lisa , which initially put Guillaume Apollinaire and Picasso under suspicion.
The documentation by Hugues Nancy , Picasso, l'inventaire d'une vie (in the German version Looking for Picasso ), created in 2013 , shows many of his works chronologically as if in a diary, especially works from his personal estate that were not previously shown. His core thesis is, citing Françoise Gilot, as well as John Richardson, a change in relationships with women was followed by a change of style in Picasso. It contains interviews with family members, friends, lawyers and biographers.
A television series of the National Geographic Channel showed from April 2018 in the Genius series in the German version under the title Genie: Picasso the life of the artist. The leading actor of the older Picasso is Antonio Banderas .
Picasso's works were also not spared from forgeries . Orson Welles made the documentary F for fake in 1974 , in which he portrayed art forgers; Among them is the Hungarian painter Elmyr de Hory , who copied “Picassos” in a deceptively similar manner in series.
"Picasso Fund" 2010
In 2010, Picasso's former electrician Pierre Le Guennec and his wife discovered 271 previously unknown works by Picasso, which allegedly had been stored in Guennec's garage for 40 years and were declared as wages for manual work. A subsequent trial for receiving stolen goods was concluded in March 2015 with a two-year suspended sentence. More information can be found in the article on the estate administrator Claude Picasso .
The value of the painting Buste de Femme from 1938 is estimated today (2019) at 25 million euros. Unknown stolen it from a yacht at anchor off Antibes , France , in 1999 . At that time, the insurance company offered a reward of 400,000 euros. An art detective had received a tip from the underworld and found the picture with a businessman in Amsterdam in 2019. The theft is statute-barred, the picture was handed over to the insurance company.
From 19 to 20 May 2010, inter alia Dove with peas , painted in cubist style in 1911 or spring 1912, stolen from the Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris and cut from the frame. In 2017 the trial against three suspects was reported, the picture remains missing.
The “Picasso Route” in the Catalan city of Barcelona leads to his training center “La Llotja”, the artist café Els Quatre Gats , the site of his first exhibition, the Museu Picasso , and shows the three friezes on the facade of the Col·legi d'Arquitectes which were created by the Norwegian artist Carl Nesjar (1920–2015) based on Picasso's drawings , as well as the family's place of residence, the Porxos d'en Xifré building.
- Works by Pablo Picasso were shown in the Galerie 291 (1911), the Armory Show (1913), the documenta 1 (1955), the documenta II (1959), the documenta III (1964), the documenta 6 (1977) and the documenta 8 issued in 1987 in Kassel .
- 1913: Pablo Picasso , Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser , Munich. World's first major gallery exhibition
- 1925: First joint exhibition of the Surrealists in the Galerie Pierre , Paris
- 1932: Picasso , Kunsthaus Zurich . World's first museum retrospective
- 1936: International Surrealist Exhibition , Burlington Galleries, London
- 1938: Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme , Galerie Beaux-Arts, Paris
- 1939: Retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art , New York
- 1971: First retrospective of a living artist in the Louvre
- 1973/74: Hommage à Picasso , Kestner Society , Hanover
- 1986: Picasso - pastels, drawings, watercolors , Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia Art Collection, Tübingen, Kunsthalle (catalog by Werner Spies at Hatje)
- 1993: Picasso. The time after Guernica 1937–1973. Munich, art gallery of the Hypo-Kulturstiftung
- 1996/97: Picasso et le portrait . Galeries nationales, Grand Palais , Paris
- 2000/01: Picasso. Figure and portrait , major works from the Bernard Picasso collection in the Bank Austria Kunstforum
- 2002/03: Matisse-Picasso . Tate Gallery of Modern Art , London (subsequently: Galeries nationales, Grand Palais, Paris; Museum of Modern Art, New York)
- 2006: Exhibitions for the 125th birthday
- 2007: Picasso - Painting Against Time , old work (paintings, graphics). Albertina , Vienna and the North Rhine-Westphalia Art Collection , Düsseldorf
- 2007: Goya and Picasso - Tauromaquia . Wallraf-Richartz-Museum , Cologne
- 2009: Picasso et les maîtres . Galeries nationales, Grand Palais, Paris
- 2010: Picasso and the studio . Exhibition for the tenth anniversary of the Pablo Picasso Graphics Museum
- 2010/11: Picasso: Peace and Freedom , Tate , Liverpool; Picasso: Peace and Freedom , Albertina , Vienna
- 2010/11: Picasso (homage to the 1932 exhibition), Kunsthaus Zürich
- 2012: women. Pablo Picasso, Max Beckmann, Willem de Kooning , Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich
- 2013: The Picassos are here! Kunstmuseum Basel , Basel
- 2013: Becoming Picasso: Paris 1901 , Courtauld Gallery , London
- 2014: Sylvette, Sylvette, Sylvette. Picasso and the model, Kunsthalle Bremen , February 22nd to June 22nd, 2014
- 2014: Picasso TV , Museo Picasso , Málaga, June 30th to November 16th, 2014
- 2014/15: Picasso / Dali, Dali / Picasso , Dalí Museum , St. Petersburg, Florida, November 8, 2014 to February 16, 2015; followed by Museu Picasso , Barcelona, March 19 to June 28, 2015
- 2015/16: Picasso Sculpture , Museum of Modern Art , New York, September 14, 2015 to February 7, 2016
- 2015/16: Picasso.mania (group exhibition), Petit Palais , Paris, October 7, 2015 to February 29, 2016
- 2016: Picasso. Window to the World , Bucerius Kunst Forum , Hamburg, February 6 to May 16, 2016
- 2016/17: Picasso. Sculptures , Palais des Beaux-Arts (BOZAR), Brussels, October 26, 2016 to March 5, 2017
- 2017: Olga Picasso , Musée Picasso , Paris, March 21 to September 3, 2017
- 2019: The young Picasso - Blue and Rose Periods , Fondation Beyeler , Riehen / Basel, February 3, 2019 to May 26, 2019
- 2019/20: Magic Paintings. Musée Picasso, Paris, October 1, 2019 to February 23, 2020
- 2020: Pablo Picasso. War years 1939 to 1945. K20 / K21 - Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen , Düsseldorf, February 15 to June 14, 2020
- from 1889: Some of Picasso's early works
- 1897: Science and Mercy , oil on canvas, 197 × 249.5 cm, Museu Picasso , Barcelona
- 1901: Evocation - Casagema's funeral , oil on canvas, 150 × 90 cm, Musée Picasso , Paris.
- 1901: La Gommeuse , oil on canvas, 81.3 × 54 cm, private collection.
- 1902: Sleepy Drinker ( Buveuse assoupie ) , oil on canvas, 80 × 60.5 cm, Kunstmuseum Bern
- 1902: The Two Sisters , oil on canvas, 152 × 100 cm, Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
- 1902: Melancholy , oil on canvas, 100 × 69.2 cm, Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit
- 1903: Family Soler , oil on canvas, 150 × 200 cm, Le Musée d'Art moderne et d'Art contemporain , Liège (Liège)
- 1903: Life ( La Vie ), oil on canvas, 197 × 127 cm, Cleveland Museum of Art
- 1904: The barren meal , etching, 46.3 × 37.7 cm, Ulmer Museum, Ulm
- 1904: The Ironer , oil on canvas, 116 × 73 cm, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York Fig.
- 1904: Woman with a crow , charcoal, pastel and watercolor on paper, 64.6 × 49.5 cm, Toledo Museum of Art
- 1905: Seated Harlequin , watercolor and ink on cardboard 57.2 × 41.2 cm Berggruen Collection, Berlin
- 1905: Boy with a pipe , oil on canvas, 100 × 81.3 cm, private collection
- 1905: The Jugglers ( Les Saltimbanques ) , oil on canvas, 212 × 229 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington
- 1906: Portrait of Allan Stein , gouache on cardboard, 74 × 59.7 cm, Baltimore Museum of Art Fig.
- 1906: Portrait of Gertrude Stein , oil on canvas, 100 × 81 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- 1906: Self-portrait , oil on canvas, 93 × 73 cm, The Philadelphia Museum of Art
- 1907: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , oil on canvas, 243.9 × 233.7 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1908: The Great Dryad , oil on canvas, 185 × 108 cm, Hermitage, St. Petersburg
- 1910: Portrait of Ambroise Vollard , oil on canvas, 92 × 65 cm, Pushkin Museum, Moscow Fig.
- 1910: Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler , oil on canvas, 101 × 73 cm, The Art Institute of Chicago
- 1910: Woman with mustard pot , oil on canvas, approx. 29 × 24 cm, Gemeentmuseum, The Hague Fig.
- 1919: Sleeping Peasants , tempera, watercolor and pencil, 31.1 × 48.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1920: Two seated women , oil on canvas, 195 × 163 cm, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen , Düsseldorf
- 1921: Three Musicians , oil on canvas, 200.7 × 222.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art , New York
- 1921: Three women at the well , oil on canvas, 203.9 × 1744 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1923: The Flute of Pan , oil on canvas, 205 × 174.5 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris Fig.
- 1924: Paolo as a Harlequin , oil on canvas, 130 × 97 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1925: The Embrace (The Kiss) , 130.5 × 97.7 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris Fig.
- 1925: The Three Dancers ( Les Trois Danseuses ) , oil on canvas, 215 × 142 cm, Tate Modern , London
- 1927: Seated Woman , oil on panel, 130 × 97 cm, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1930: Seated bathers on the beach , oil on canvas, 163.2 × 129.5 cm, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1932: Nude with green leaves and bust , oil on canvas, 162 × 130 cm, private property
- 1932: Girl in front of the mirror , oil on canvas, 162.5 × 130 cm, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1932: Le Rêve (painting) (The Dream) , oil on canvas, 130 × 98 cm, private collection
- 1935: Interior with a girl drawing , oil on canvas, 130 × 195 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1937: Portrait of Dora Maar , oil on canvas, 92 × 65 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris Fig.
- 1937: Portrait of Lee Miller as Arlésienne , oil on canvas, Museu Picasso , Barcelona Fig.
- 1937: The Weeping Woman , Tate Modern, London Fig.
- 1937: Guernica , oil on canvas, 349.3 × 776.6 cm, Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid
- 1939: Nocturnal fishing in Antibes , oil on canvas, 205.7 × 345.4 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1941: Dora Maar with a cat ( Dora Maar au Chat ) , oil on canvas, 130 × 97 cm, private collection
- 1942: The morning serenade (L'aubade, Serenade), oil on canvas, 195 × 265 cm, Center Pompidou
- 1945: The Charnel House, oil on canvas, 199.8 × 250.1 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1946: La femme-fleur , portrait of Francoise Gilot, oil on canvas, 146 × 89 cm, Collection Particuliére
- 1951: Massacre in Korea , oil on plywood, 109.5 × 209.5 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1954: Portrait of Sylvette , oil on canvas, 81 × 65 cm, private ownership Fig. Selection of images from a series of portraits of Sylvette
- 1954/55: Les Femmes d'Alger (The Women of Algiers) , 15 versions, inspired by Delacroix ' The Women of Algiers
- 1956: The "La Californie" studio in Cannes , oil on canvas, 89 × 116 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1957: Las Meninas after Velazquez , oil on canvas, 194 × 260 cm, Museu Picasso, Barcelona Fig.
- 1958: The fall of Icarus , 800 × 1000 cm, mural UNESCO, Delegates' Lobby, Paris Fig.
- 1961: Breakfast outdoors according to Manet , oil on canvas, 60 × 73 cm, Museum Ludwig, Cologne
- 1963: Woman with a mirror , oil on canvas, 116 × 89 cm, private collection
- 1964: Femme au chat assise dans un fauteuil , oil on canvas, 130 × 81 cm, Christie's, New York to Dimitri Mavromatis
- 1965: Naked Woman , oil on canvas, 115.8 × 88.5 cm, Christie's, London
- 1969: Two Fighters III , red felt pen on paper, 11.7 × 18.4 cm, Sotheby's, London
- 1961: Man with a pipe , oil on canvas, 130.2 × 97.2 cm, Sotheby's, London
- 1968: Women robbery , etching, Dresden State Art Collections
- 1972: The young painter III , oil on canvas, 91 × 72.5 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1972: Self-portrait , wax pencil on paper, 65.7 × 50.5 cm, Fuji Television Gallery, Tokyo Fig.
- 1973: Seated man , red chalk on paper, 33.7 × 26.7 cm, Sotheby's, London
- 1905: The Court Jester, bronze, 40 × 35 × 22 cm, private collection
- 1909: Fernande's head , bronze, 41.3 cm high, Musée Picasso, Paris Fig.
- 1928: Wire construction (monument to Guillaume Apollinaire), metal wire, 50.5 × 40.8 × 18.5 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1929–1930: Woman in a Garden , bronze, 210 × 117 × 82 cm, Paloma Picasso Lopez Collection, Paris
- 1932: Head of a woman , bronze, 128.5 × 54.5 × 62.5 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1934: Woman with Leaves , bronze, 38 × 18.7 × 25.8 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1942: Bull skull , assemblage of bicycle seat and bicycle handle, 33.5 × 43.5 × 19 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris Fig.
- 1943: Skull , bronze, 25 × 21 × 31 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris
- 1944: Man with Sheep , bronze, 220 × 78 × 72 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia
- 1950: Woman with Crossed Arms , bronze, 34 × 10 × 10 cm, Paloma Picasso Lopez Collection, Paris
- 1951: Baboon with young , bronze, 53.3 × 33.7 × 42.7 cm, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1952–1953: Woman reading , painted bronze, 15.5 × 35.5 cm, private collection, Paris
- 1959: The Arm , bronze, 57.8 × 16.5 × 16 cm, Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
- 1962: head , iron, metal, 105 × 70 × 48 cm, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
- 1964: Sitting Faun , glass, hand-blown, 11.5 cm, Sotheby's, London
- 1972: Monument , 395.3 × 149.2 × 319.3 cm, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
Collections in museums
Extensive groups of works on Picasso are exhibited in Germany at the Berggruen Museum in Berlin , the Sprengel Museum Hanover , the North Rhine-Westphalia Art Collection in Düsseldorf , the Ludwig Museum in Cologne and the Stuttgart State Gallery . Almost all of his graphic work can be seen in the Pablo Picasso Art Museum in Münster . Important collections of Picasso's paintings in German-speaking Switzerland are shown in the Kunstmuseum Basel , the Fondation Beyeler in Riehen , the Rosengart Collection in Lucerne and the Kunstmuseum Bern .
In France, collections can be found in the Musée Picasso in Paris , in the Musée national Picasso La Guerre et la Paix de Vallauris , in the Lille Métropole Museum of Modern Art, Contemporary Art and Art Brut in Villeneuve-d'Ascq and in the Musée Picasso Antibes in the Chateâu Grimaldi . In Russia in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow and in the Hermitage , Saint Petersburg. In Spain in the Museu Picasso , Barcelona, in the Museo Reina Sofía , Madrid as well as in the Museo Picasso in Málaga and in the USA in the Museum of Modern Art , New York and in the Art Institute of Chicago .
Catalogs of works and aids
- Pierre Daix: Dictionaire Picasso . Robert Laffont, Paris 1995.
- Johannes M. Fox: Picasso's World. A lexicon . Vol. 1-2. Projects Verlag Cornelius, Halle 2008.
- Work overviews
- Herschel Chipp, Alan Wofsy: Picasso Project. Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. A. Comprehensive Illustrated Catalog 1885–1973, previously 22 vols. Alan Wofsy, San Francisco 1995 ff.
- Juan-Eduardo Cirlot: Pablo Picasso. The youth work of a genius . DuMont, Cologne 1972.
- Christian Zervos : Catalog Raisonné des Œuvres de Pablo Picasso . Éditions Cahiers d'Art , Paris, 1932–1978 (catalog raisonné, 33 volumes with 16,000 b / w reproductions; new edition, edited by Staffan Ahrenberg , 2014)
- Graphics and hand drawing
- Brigitte Baer, Bernhard Geiser: Picasso. Peintre engraver. Catalog Raisonne de l'oeuvre grave et lithographie et des monotype 1899–1972 Vol. I – VII [+ addendum to Catalog Raisonné 1969–1972]. Kornfeld, Bern 1984–1996.
- Georges Bloch: Picasso. Catalog de l'oeuvre gravé et lithographié . Vol. 1–2 and 4. Kornfeld, revised edition. Bern 1975, Vol. 2 and 4 in a revised edition as part of the Picasso Project (see web links ) Wofsy, San Francisco 2004; Vol. 3 Catalog de l'oeuvre gravé ceramique . Kornfeld and Klipstein, Bern 1972.
- Arnold Glimcher: Je suis le cahier. Pablo Picasso's sketchbooks . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1986.
- Ernst-Gerhard Güse, Bernhard Rau: Pablo Picasso. The lithographs . Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-7757-0261-X .
- Fernand Mourlot : Picasso, lithographer . Sauret, Paris 1970, .
- Applied graphics
- Christophe Czwiklitzer: Pablo Picasso. Posters 1923–1973. Catalog raisonné . Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag dtv, Munich 1981, ISBN 978-3-423-02875-2 .
- Sebastian Goeppert, Herma Goeppert-Frank, Patrick Cramer: Pablo Picasso. The illustrated books . Hatje, Ostfildern 1995.
- Ceramics and sculpture
- Georges Ramié: Céramiques de Picasso. Photographs by Edward Quinn. Cercle d'Art, Paris 1974.
- Alain Ramié: Picasso de l'Oeuvre Ceramique Édité 1947–1971. Madoura, Vallauris 1988.
- Werner Spies (Ed.): Picasso: Sculptures . Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2000, ISBN 3-7757-0908-8 .
- Peter Schifferli (Ed.): Pablo Picasso. Word and Confession. The collected seals and certificates . Translated by Elisabeth Schnack , Paul Celan. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main 1957.
- Wilhelm Boeck : Pablo Picasso , with a biography of Jaime Sabartes. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1955
- Mary Ann Caws: Pablo Picasso. “Painting is never prose”. A portrait . Piet Meyer, Bern 2010, ISBN 978-3-905799-06-4 .
- Siegfried Gohr : Pablo Picasso. Life and work. I don't search, I find . DuMont, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8321-7743-4 .
- Arianna Stassinopoulos Huffington : Picasso. Genius and violence . Droemer Knaur, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-426-26399-8 .
- Norman Mailer : Picasso. Portrait of the artist as a young man . Piper, Munich Zurich 1996, ISBN 3-492-03878-6 .
- Patrick O'Brian : Pablo Picasso. A biography . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 3-455-08890-2 ; Ullstein, Hamburg 1982.
- Roland Penrose : Pablo Picasso. His life - his work. Original edition 1958, 2nd edition, Heyne, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-453-55083-8 ( limited preview in Google book search, English).
- John Richardson , Marilyn McCully: A Life of Picasso . New York 1996 ff. (Previously 3 volumes; volumes 1–2 also in German in Kindler, Munich 1991; 1997).
- Wilfried Wiegand : Picasso. With personal testimonials and picture documents . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 19th edition 2002, ISBN 978-3-499-50205-7 .
- Representations of friends and family
- Joe F. Bodenstein: Picasso in Arno Breker - une biography. Èditions SÉGUIER Paris, French first edition 2016, ISBN 978-2-84049-690-8 .
- Brassaï : Conversations with Picasso . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1966, 2nd edition 1985, ISBN 3-499-15593-1 (Original: Conversation avec Picasso , Paris 1964)
- Ilja Ehrenburg : Memoirs. People, years, life. Vol. 1, 1891-1922. Munich 1962, again 1965, ISBN 3-463-00511-5 , pp. 296-311.
- Françoise Gilot / Carlton Lake : Living with Picasso . Diogenes, Zurich 1987, ISBN 978-3-257-21584-7 (Original: Life with Picasso , New York 1964)
- Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler : My painters, my galleries . DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1961
- Fernande Olivier : Picasso and his friends. Memories from the years 1905–1913 . Foreword by Paul Léautaud . Translated by Gertrud Droz-Rüegg. Diogenes, Zurich 1989, ISBN 978-3-257-21748-3 (There are earlier editions - Original Picasso et ses amis. 1933)
- Geneviève Laporte : Si tard le soir le soleil brille . Éditions Plon, Paris 1973 (Further books on Picasso followed.)
- Antony Penrose : The Boy Who Bit Picasso (children's book). From the English by Egbert Baqué, Knesebeck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86873-260-3 .
- Marina Picasso : The Forgotten Children . Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1998, ISBN 3-404-61403-8 .
- Marina Picasso: And still a Picasso. Living in the shadow of my grandfather . List, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-471-78443-8 .
- Jaime Sabartés : Picasso. Conversations and memories . With 17 portraits and drawings by Picasso. Arche, Zurich 1956.
- Gertrude Stein : Picasso. All texts 1909–1938 . Arche, Hamburg, new edition 2003, ISBN 978-3-7160-2314-3 .
- Olivier Widmaier Picasso (son of Picasso's daughter Maya): Picasso - portrait of the family . Prestel, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7913-2962-6 .
- Picasso and the women
- James Lord : Picasso and Dora Maar . Matthes and Seitz, 1994, ISBN 3-88221-797-9 .
- Ingrid Mössinger, Kerstin Dechsel, Beate Ritter: Picasso et les femmes - Picasso and women . DuMont, Cologne 2005, ISBN 978-3-8321-7529-0 .
- Fernande Olivier : Picasso and his friends. Memories from the years 1905–1913 . Diogenes, new edition 1989, ISBN 978-3-257-21748-3 . The French original edition appeared in 1933.
- On Picasso's work
- Gereon Becht-Jördens, Peter M. Wehmeier: Picasso and Christian Iconography. Mother relationship and artistic position . Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-496-01272-2 .
- John Berger : Splendor and misery of the painter Pablo Picasso . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1973.
- Elisabeth Cowling: Picasso. Style and meaning . Berlin, London 2002.
- Pierre Daix : Picasso creator. La vie intime et l'oeuvre . Paris 1987.
- Mary Matthews Gedo: Picasso. Art as Autobiography . The University of Chicago Press, Chicago / London 1980, ISBN 0-226-28482-4 .
- Graphics Museum Pablo Picasso Münster: Pablo Picasso - In the artist's studio . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in Münster (August 28 - November 21, 2010). Overall from exhib. and catalog: Markus Müller. Hirmer, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7774-3281-6 .
- Klaus Herding : Pablo Picasso: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. The challenge of the avant-garde. Frankfurt a. M. 1992, ISBN 3-596-10953-1 .
- Katja Herlach: Printed for the day. Picasso's commercial art . Collection Margadant, Scheidegger & Spiess, Zurich 2005, ISBN 978-3-85881-160-8 .
- Kestner Society Hanover: Homage à Picasso . Exhibition catalog, address by Wieland Schmied , Hanover 1973.
- Josep Palau i Fabre : Picasso. Childhood and youth of a genius . Könemann, Cologne 1998.
- Josep Palau i Fabre: Picasso. Cubism. 1907-1917 . Könemann, Cologne 1998.
- Josep Palau i Fabre: Picasso. From ballets to drama. 1917-1926 . Könemann, Cologne 1999.
- Roland Penrose: Picasso and His Time - A Photo Book . Zurich 1957.
- Roland Penrose: The Sculpture of Picasso . The Museum of Modern Art, New York 1967, no ISBN.
- Roland Penrose, John Golding (Ed.): Picasso in Retrospect . Praeger Publishers, New York Washington 1973, Granada London 1973.
- Jane Fluegel, William Rubin (Ed.): Pablo Picasso. Retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York . Prestel, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-7913-0534-4 .
- Werner Spies (Ed.): Pablo Picasso: an exhibition for the 100th birthday; Works from the Marina Picasso collection . Munich 1981, ISBN 3-7913-0523-9 .
- Werner Spies, Götz Adriani (ed.): Picasso: pastels, drawings, watercolors . Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-7757-0213-X .
- Werner Spies (ed.): Painting against time . Picasso's late work. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2006, ISBN 978-3-7757-1831-8 .
- Ulrich Weisner: Picasso . Kerber, Bielefeld 1997, ISBN 3-924639-78-7 .
- Ingo F. Walther : Picasso - the genius of the century . Taschen, Cologne, 12th edition 1999, ISBN 978-3-8228-6371-8 .
- Carsten-Peter Warncke: Pablo Picasso 1881–1973 . Taschen, Cologne, special edition 2006, ISBN 978-3-8228-5025-1 .
- Photo documentation
- David Douglas Duncan : Viva Picasso. For his 100th birthday . Fritz Molden, Vienna 1981, ISBN 3-217-01203-8 .
- Art Museum Pablo Picasso Münster (Ed.): Picasso at work. Through the lens of David Douglas Duncan . Wienand, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-86832-080-0 . Insights into studios, houses and family life.
- Edward Quinn : Picasso - Man and Image . Introduction: Pierre Daix, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-608-76221-3 .
- Edward Quinn: Picasso - Works + Days . Introduction and text: Roland Penrose , Manesse, Conzett & Huber, Zurich 1965, without ISBN.
- Helge Sobik: Picasso on the Riviera . Feymedia, Düsseldorf 2010, ISBN 978-3-941459-11-3 .
- Helge Sobik: Picasso's houses . Feymedia, Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-941459-00-7 .
- Kerstin Stremmel (Ed. For the Museum Ludwig , Cologne): Ichundichundich - Picasso in a photo portrait . HatjeCantz, Ostfildern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7757-3198-0 (German), ISBN 978-3-7757-3199-7 (English), ISBN 978-3-7757-3248-2 (Spanish); Photo documentation catalog for the exhibition of the same name in Cologne (September 24, 2011 to January 15, 2012), in Málaga (March 5 - June 10, 2012) and at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe , Hamburg (July 21 to October 10, 2012).
- Marie-Laure Bernadac, Christine Piot (eds.): Picasso. Collected Writings . Abbeville Press, New York 1989, ISBN 1-55859-045-5 (French: Paris 1989).
- Elizabeth Cowling: Visiting Picasso - The Notebooks and Letters of Roland Penrose . Thames & Hudson, London 2006, ISBN 978-0-500-51293-7 .
- David Douglas Duncan: Picasso & Lump . Benteli, Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-7165-1435-7 .
- Boris Friedewald : The Animals by Picasso . Prestel, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7913-4989-3 .
- Michael Carlo Klepsch: Picasso and National Socialism . Patmos, Düsseldorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-491-35011-3 .
- Piet Meyer (Ed.): Pablo Picasso in Zurich 1932 . Piet Meyer, Bern 2010, ISBN 978-3-905799-09-5 .
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The station arte zum Film, which was involved in the production ( memento of October 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ); Oct. 2014 Premiere on January 23, 2014 at the Festival International de Programmes Audiovisuels. Information in the Internet Movie Database (English)
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ruiz Picasso, Pablo; Ruiz Picasso, Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Mártir Patricio Clito|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Spanish painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 25, 1881|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Málaga|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 8, 1973|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Mougins|