The Kunsthalle Bremen is an important German art museum that has earned a high reputation through changing exhibitions. The museum is located in the immediate vicinity of Bremen's old town in the ramparts on the “culture mile” . The sponsor is the non-profit art association in Bremen - the Kunsthalle Bremen is the only museum in Germany with an extensive art collection from the 14th to the 21st century that is still privately owned today. The building has been a listed building since 1977 .
History of the art association
A group of initially 34 art-interested merchants around Senator Hieronymus Klugkist founded the art association in Bremen in 1823 with the aim of "spreading and developing the sense of the beautiful", whereby one wanted to limit itself to the fine arts. Shortly after the company was founded, hand drawings and prints from an important Bremen collection were acquired by signing shares, probably also to prevent the city from losing them. The number of members was initially limited to 50, then grew to 575 within three years after the limit was lifted in 1843.
The first 20 years of the association's activity also included public art exhibitions, the proceeds of which were used to financially secure business activities and the acquisition of works of art. From 1843 the exhibitions were organized in association with the art associations in Hanover , Lübeck , Greifswald and Rostock , a strategy that is continued through intensive contacts with the art associations and the circles of friends of the museums in Hamburg , Hanover , Stuttgart and other cities. You also coordinate with these houses in exhibition projects.
The Kunstverein in Bremen is still the sole sponsor of the Kunsthalle Bremen and now has around 9,000 members. Under the chairmanship of Georg Abegg, the inside of the building was rebuilt (opened in 1998) and expanded with laterally flanking additions by the Berlin architectural office Hufnagel Pütz Rafaelian (construction period 2008–2011). After 20 years of voluntary management of the art association, Abegg handed over the chairmanship to Bernd Schmielau. (As of 2014).
The building from 1849
Supported by foundations from numerous patrons , the association was able to officially open the Kunsthalle am Ostertor built by Lüder Rutenberg on May 1, 1849 after the foundation stone was laid in July 1847 , making it the first art association in Germany to have its own self-financed building and at the same time the first independent for a bourgeois collection. While the collections were largely owned by the art association, the property remained in the possession of the city. The four stone figures of Raphael , Michelangelo , Dürer and Rubens above the entrance area were created by the sculptor Adolph Steinhäuser (1825–1858).
Extension in 1902
After a competition among Bremen architects for an urgently needed extension, two architects were ultimately commissioned to submit a joint design in 1898: Albert Dunkel for the interior, Eduard Gildemeister for the monumental sandstone facade, the decoration of which was made by well-known sculptors (such as Georg Roemer and Georg Wrba ) was designed. The foundation work began at the end of 1899 and the ceremonial opening took place on February 15, 1902. The facade was completed in 1904.
The extension was also financed by foundations. The largest individual amounts came from the long-time chairman of the association, the merchant Carl Schütte , who donated a total of 400,000 thalers , and Joseph Johannes Arnold Hachez and Hermann Melchers , who each donated 100,000 thalers.
Consequences of the Second World War
The art gallery was closed shortly after the outbreak of war for fear of air raids . The pictures were initially stored in the basement, which had been converted into a bunker . On the night of September 5, 1942, the art gallery was hit by an incendiary bomb that destroyed the stairwell and six halls on the upper floor. Emanuel Leutzes famous history painting Washington crosses the Delaware , which could not be brought to the depot due to its size , was also burned (a second version is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art ).
After this severe damage, large parts of the collection were secured in shelters under the Bremer Landesbank and the Norddeutsche Kreditbank , which is now the Peek and Cloppenburg / Tchibo building. Finally, Mayor Böhmcker ordered that the collection should be brought to a safe place outside the city, something Waldmann resisted for a long time, but ultimately could not prevent it. So the search began in 1943 with the removal of works of art in four different places: the paintings, drawings and graphic works were partly in the Mark Brandenburg Castle Karnzow of Count Königsmarck in Kyritz , partly on Castle Neumuehle of Count von der Schulenburg in Salzwedel and Schwöbber Castle near Hamelin . The sculptures were brought to the royal crypt in Bückeburg .
Karnzow Castle, where 50 paintings, 1,715 drawings and around 3,000 sheets of prints had been relocated, was used by Soviet troops on their return home as permanent quarters from May 1945 and looted in the process. The Soviet troops were also betrayed the hiding place of the Bremen works of art, with the result that the works of art kept there were more or less open to everyone. Much was also stolen from Germans living in the neighborhood, which was a stroke of luck, as the Berlin sculptor Kurt Reutti, the head of the department he set up for this purpose at the magistrate in Berlin, succeeded in doing at least some of them by Germans through intensive research reclaim works that have been stolen or appear on the black market .
In 1945, the Soviet officer Viktor Baldin discovered the artifacts from Bremen in the cellar of the Brandenburg Castle in Kartzow . To protect them from destruction, he packed the drawings by Rembrandt , Tizian , Rubens , Goya , Vincent van Gogh and Édouard Manet in a suitcase and, according to his own statements, exchanged more sheets with his comrades on the way back to the Soviet Union .
In the fall of 1989, Victor Baldin - he was director of the Moscow Architecture Museum for 25 years (since 1963) - appeared in the Bremen Kunsthalle and reported to the director and the chairman of the art association that he had taken two paintings and 362 drawings with him from Kartzow Castle at the time and they handed over to the state "Research and Science Museum for Architecture AV Shchusev" in the Soviet Union for safekeeping. In the following years he tried again and again to have the works of art returned to the Kunstverein as the legal owner, by submitting petitions to the highest authorities in the USSR, but without success. The entire subject of “ looted art ” from Germany was taboo.
In 1995 the collection, now named after him, was shown in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg . In February 2003, after a formal application by the Kunstverein in 2000, the then Russian minister of culture gave a written return promise. The Duma has but so far, although the Baldin collection does not fall under the actual looted art law, refused to return.
Reconstruction after 1945
In the post-war period, the external conditions for museum activity were extremely difficult. The Americans had quartered the America House in the Kunsthalle in 1947/1948 and occupied the copper engraving cabinet and the management room there. Although the building was largely unusable due to the war damage, Busch, in cooperation with the board of the Kunstverein, was able to organize temporary exhibitions from 1946 onwards and gradually resume operations.
For the 125th anniversary of the Kunstverein, ten rooms on the upper floor were again opened to the public in 1948, and at the end of 1951 all the rooms on the upper floor were usable again.
Repair in 1961
In 1961, extensive repairs were carried out, during which the severe war damage was repaired and the stairwell and the entrance front were modernized in the style of the time.
Extension in 1982
The extension building completed in 1982 (architect Werner Düttmann , Berlin) caused a scandal: Contrary to the plans, according to which a sandstone facade had been approved, a red clinker facade was erected, which was planted with greenery over time.
1990–1992 the Kunstverein and director Salzmann succeeded in a first renovation project to secure the financing for the renovation of the workshops, depots and the copperplate cabinet of the structurally and functionally obsolete house. With 3 million DM, private donors raised almost half of the estimated construction costs, the other part was made available by Bremen and the Stiftung Wohnliche Stadt.
From 1996 to 1998, the urgent renovation of the art gallery was continued under the chairman Georg Abegg and director Wulf Herzogenrath; urgently because the exhibition halls were in poor condition, the lighting conditions no longer met the requirements and the climate values could not meet the international standards.
The board of trustees “Save the Art Hall”, founded within the Kunstverein in 1995 under the leadership of the businessman and deputy chairman Dieter Harald Berghöfer, managed to get Bremen founders and patrons to donate 7 million DM within one year, a third of the calculated construction costs. The state of Bremen and the Federal Republic did not want to be inferior to this private service and together they secured the other two thirds. However, due to unexpected difficulties with the building structure, the construction costs rose to almost 25 million DM and these additional costs were raised solely by donors who wanted to support and honor the efforts of the Kunstverein and the Board of Trustees for the renovation.
Expansion until 2011
From 2009 to 2011, following the demolition of the extension in 1982, according to the plans of the architects Hufnagel, Pütz and Rafaelian from Berlin, two modern, cubic wings with 5560 m² gross floor area were added to the old main building to expand the exhibition space. The main building with 7410 m² gross floor area was modernized. The project should cost around 30 million euros. The families Friedrich and Peter Lürßen from the Lürssen shipyard and the "Karin and Uwe Hollweg Foundation" contributed a third, the city of Bremen and the federal government each paid a further third of these costs. The art association bore the additional costs of 3.5 million euros, including for the foundation and geothermal heating. The art gallery reopened on August 20, 2011, and the first exhibition after the renovation work was completed was opened on October 15, 2011.
Directors of the collection
As early as 1887, when the extension was planned, the board recognized the need for a scientific director of the collection, who not only organizes the exhibitions, but also “acts on the artistic interest in our city” through lectures and writing.
Gustav Pauli, 1899–1914
Gustav Pauli (1866–1938), son of Bremen's mayor Alfred Pauli , had worked at the Dresden Kupferstichkabinett after completing his doctorate on Renaissance buildings in Bremen . In the summer of 1899 he was appointed as the first research assistant to the Kunsthalle Bremen and, after several years on the board, became its first director in 1905.
Pauli turned the Kunsthalle into a gallery of modern art and concentrated on the latest artistic trends when making acquisitions, because even then the Old Masters were unaffordable for the Kunsthalle. He campaigned for the Worpswede painters and acquired paintings by Paula Modersohn-Becker , who was completely unrecognized at the time , and whose first solo exhibition he held in 1908. He also brought together a collection of pictures by French and German impressionists , which are still the main focus of the collection today.
The purchase of the painting Mohnfeld by van Gogh in 1911 sparked an art dispute among painters and museum people all over Germany . Otto Modersohn was the only one of the “Worpsweder” to campaign resolutely for the purchase, as “one of the most stimulating images of modern art”, as he put it in response to the “protest by German artists”.
During Pauli's tenure there were acquisitions of works by the painters Courbet , Corinth , Liebermann , Manet , Paula Modersohn-Becker , Monet , Pissarro , Renoir , Slevogt and van Gogh as well as foundations and gifts from the painters Barlach , Degas , Klinger , Liebermann, Adolph Menzel , Pissarro, Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec .
Pauli was a tireless increase in the collection, for the first time processed the holdings according to scientific standards and rearranged the showrooms. In 1914 he became director of the Hamburger Kunsthalle .
Emil Waldmann, 1914–1945
After studying in Greece , Italy and France in 1913/1914, Emil Waldmann (1880–1945) was director of the Dresden Kupferstichkabinett and in 1914, succeeding Gustav Pauli, accepted the position of director of the Kunsthalle Bremen, whose collection was brought to him by his assistantship in 1906 / 1907 was already familiar.
Waldmann, who shared Pauli's preference for the German Impressionists, was able to add to the collection as planned despite the difficult economic situation after the First World War . His focus was on expanding the collection of masters from the 19th century, but he also took the collection further into the modern era . One of his most important publications is the monograph on the etchings and copperplate engravings by Albrecht Altdorfer ; similar to Gustav Pauli, he was particularly interested in old German prints .
During Waldmann's tenure, works by the painters Cézanne , Corinth, Caspar David Friedrich , Heckel , Kokoschka , Georg Kolbe , Lehmbruck , Wilhelm Leibl , Liebermann, Marées , Menzel, Munch , Pechstein, Max Slevogt and Trübner, as well as important foundations and donations from the Painters Courbet, Largillière and in 1937 the extensive estate of Friedrich Lahmann with pictures by Blechen , Carus , Dahl , Gille and Sisley . During his time, Wilken von Alten (1885–1944) was primarily responsible for the Kupferstichkabinett as curator . After Waldmann's suicide in March 1945, the curator at the time, Günter Busch, took over the scientific management of the Kunsthalle.
Günter Busch, 1945–1984
The art historian Günter Busch (1917–2009) was appointed curator by the board of the Kunstverein in early 1945. After Waldmann's death he was also in charge of scientific management. Since he had already completed his traineeship at the Kunsthalle Bremen, he was familiar with the collection and the house and consequently continued to develop the work of his predecessors in the third generation.
On October 1, 1946, Rudolf Alexander Schröder , who resigned from office on April 1, 1950 and was elected honorary chairman of the art association, was appointed acting director of the Kunsthalle, in agreement with the American occupation forces . Busch officially took up his position as director of the Kunsthalle Bremen. The leitmotifs of his acquisition policy were the collection concept founded by Pauli of a parallel representation of German and French art of the 19th century and the emphasis on "painterly" painting.
After the war, Busch had the difficult task of getting the works of art back from the relocation sites and closing gaps in the collection that had been created by destruction. With the limited resources of the Kunstverein, compensation for the losses incurred by the old masters and works of the Expressionists who had fallen victim to the “ Degenerate Art ” campaign was only possible to a limited extent. The result was a collection concept based on “concentration and renunciation”, which gave the Kunsthalle Bremen some outstanding work complexes that still shape the special profile of the collection today.
The generous patronage that has been a tradition at the Kunstverein in Bremen since its foundation continued under Busch's directorate. The donations reached a high point with the large jubilee foundation in 1973 for the 150th anniversary of the Kunstverein. In 1984 Busch retired after almost 40 years of museum activity.
Siegfried Salzmann, 1985-1993
Siegfried Salzmann (1928–1994) studied in Munich and Göttingen , where he received his doctorate in 1957 with a thesis on the Katharinenkirche in Osnabrück . He completed his internship at the Städtisches Museum Göttingen, where he worked on the sculpture collection . Since 1960, Salzmann was involved in various functions in setting up the Lehmbruck Museum in Duisburg , which he headed as director from 1971 to 1984.
When Salzmann took office in 1985, the art association's debts had already become a threat to its existence through the financing of an extension, so that the sale of works of art was necessary to reduce debt. Together with the city and the Bremer Sparkasse, which also provided funds, the debt was completely reduced by the summer of 1993. The renovation of the art gallery was also carried out in a first phase thanks to the support of the city between 1990 and 1993.
Since the means of purchase occasionally made available by the city became practically insignificant, Salzmann was primarily dependent on the commitment of friends and sponsors of the house, with whose help he was able to win a significant number of works of art for the collection. They are comprehensively presented in the catalog published in 1993 on the new acquisitions in the Salzmann era.
Salzmann devoted a large part of his time and manpower to efforts to repatriate the works stolen from the relocation depot in Schloss Karnzow by Soviet troops in 1945, intensified public relations work and networked the regional art institutions.
Siegfried Salzmann fell seriously ill in early 1992 and retired at the end of 1993. He died in Bremen in 1994.
Wulf Herzogenrath, 1994-2011
Wulf Herzogenrath started his service in September 1994, coming from the Nationalgalerie Berlin . He set the first accents with the restoration of the architecture of the former "Beckmann Room" and a few months later a publication appeared on what is now the Great Gallery, the largest hall in the Kunsthalle. Significant acquisitions since Wulf Herzogenrath took office included the video synthesizer by Nam June Paik (1969) and the sound and light installation Essay by John Cage , which an art lover donated to the collection. He retired in September 2011.
Christoph Grunenberg (from November 2011)
Since November 1, 2011, the art historian Christoph Grunenberg has been the new director of the Kunsthalle Bremen. Before that, from 2001 to October 2011 he was director of the Tate Gallery in Liverpool, England .
The deputy director is (as of 2011) the art historian Dorothee Hansen , who has been a curator at the Kunsthalle since 1995 . She curated numerous art exhibitions here, several of which also met with national interest. For example the Van Gogh exhibition of 2002/03, which with over 320,000 visitors became the most successful exhibition at the Bremen Kunsthalle to date and which was also the most popular exhibition in an art museum in the German-speaking countries in 2002/2003.
Sponsors and donors
Foundations and patronage have a long tradition in the Kunstverein and have made the establishment and maintenance of the important collections and the construction of the Kunsthalle possible. This tradition has been preserved to this day and is supplemented by voluntary work such as the museum shop, which is not only an important source of income, but also offers a service for visitors.
The donations reached a high point with the large jubilee foundation in 1973 for the 150th anniversary of the Kunstverein. They represent the entire range of the collection from the 16th century to contemporary painting and have been presented in a separate catalog, which is why a few donors are mentioned here as examples. The generous financial contributions for the extension have already been mentioned.
Private donors (selection)
There were numerous private collectors who made valuable contributions to the museum's holdings.
- In 1899 Gustav Pauli founded the Association of Friends of the Kunsthalle, whose members supported the purchase of new acquisitions with their annual contributions of 100 marks.
- Alfred Walter Heymel donated the fruit still life by Renoir, the pastel of the dancer by Degas and the six fight on the island of Lipadusa by Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
- Berta Biermann and her son Leopold Biermann gave, among other things, the cowherdess of Max Liebermann and the shepherd in the storm by Ernst Barlach.
- Largillière's family portrait came from Wilhelm Albers' estate .
- The flower still life by Gustave Courbet came from Carl Schütte's possession .
- In 1937 the Dresden collector Friedrich Lahmann (1858–1937) received 639 drawings, 3,627 prints and 45 paintings, mainly works of the Romantic period, including pictures by Dahl, Carus, Blechen, Gille, but also by Sisley.
- The sculptor Hans Wimmer (1907–1992) gave the Kunsthalle 150 drawings.
- The sculptor and draftsman Gustav Seitz (1906–1969) bequeathed numerous drawings and sculptures to the house
- From an initial donation by the sculptor Kurt Reutti and his wife Dore, over 450 sheets of graphic prints and all of Barlach's illustrated portfolios and books came to the Kunsthalle in 1967. In a second, in 1975, they handed over 13 sculptures by Barlach to the Kunsthalle, among other things, so that, together with the shepherd in the wind, who had already come to the house in Pauli's time, another focus of the collection could be formed.
- The merchant Hermann Henrich Meier junior (1845–1905), long-time chairman of the association, made the most important foundation with his famous collection of graphics. The approximately 100,000-sheet collection contained works from Goya to Munch, with a special focus on Menzel, Klinger, Pissarro and Toulouse-Lautrec, among others, and 24 paintings were added in 1928, including Mice by Jacques de Gheyn and Golfers by Aert van der Neer.
Foundation and support groups
- The gallery association made it possible, among other things, to purchase the cemetery gate from Caspar David Friedrich
- “Support group for contemporary art” in the art association
- Circle of donors for the "Bremen Art Prize" in the Kunstverein, founded in 1984, renamed in 1995 for the "Art Prize of Böttcherstraße"
- KulturStiftung der Länder
The art association and politics
In 1903, the board of directors asked the Senate for an annual subsidy, “so that it could, in the interests of our population, not only in the interests of its members, make the collections entrusted to it accessible to everyone, increase and manage it, which is impossible for him to fulfill with his own resources. ”And he argued that Bremen was“ the only more important state in Germany in which the promotion of the visual arts is left to the private activities of an association alone and without state aid. ”
In 1904 the Bremen Senate approved a grant of 10,000 marks for the first time, which increased to 30,000 marks in 1905 and to 50,000 marks per year for administration and new acquisitions in 1912. The condition attached to this, to keep the collections permanently open to all Bremen residents and foreigners, coincided with the long-term efforts of the art association and an official was hired to present graphic sheets to interested visitors in the copper engraving cabinet. The art gallery had become a public museum, supported by a private association with financial support from the city.
After the First World War and in the course of inflation , when the Klugkist and Kulenkamp Foundations were lost, the Kunstverein's financial situation had come to a head. In 1919 the association submitted an application to the Senate to increase the grant, but had to ask for an increase again the following year, which triggered a counter-motion from the citizens to nationalize the Kunsthalle. On the basis of an expert opinion that Waldmann obtained from leading German museum people on the question of private or state sponsorship, the decision was made, with a few changes, to retain the previous legal status, which was sealed in a state treaty in 1921: The state committed itself to an annual agreement A new allowance to be calculated for the personnel and management costs and the art association in return had to preserve and care for the art objects owned by the state; In addition, five members of the citizenship were sent to the board. The state now also had a fixed stake in the art gallery, which was financed entirely privately until 1904.
Additional agreements were confirmed in further contracts in 1931 and 1940, according to which, on the one hand, all “works of art acquired with public funds from the Kunstverein (or in the possession of the Kunstverein in the future)" should be owned by the city of Bremen, but on the other hand by the Kunstverein All such works of art should now and in the future have an unlimited right of usufruct . All of these works of art thus became a permanent and inalienable part of the art gallery's collections. The position of the art gallery as a Bremen art museum was thus finally consolidated. In this respect, the State Treaty of 1921 with its supplementary agreements can with good reason be seen as the Kunstverein's “second” Magna Carta .
The private sponsorship model was also able to assert itself against state attacks during the National Socialist era . The Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur , Ortsgruppe Bremen, endeavored to nationalize the Kunsthalle and make it a political instrument. In order to achieve this, he criticized Waldmann's work in 1933 with the charge of “un-German convictions”, “one-sided preference for French art” and “insufficient consideration of local, Bremen and northwest German art”. But Waldmann was able to refute the allegations by proving that the acquisitions by French masters had only made up a very small part of his acquisitions.
In 1934 the Senate forced the resignation of the long-time chairman Hermann Apelt . In his place came the Castens school council, under whom the " Gleichschaltung " of the art association was operated. She expressed herself in small things, which however made the new pitch unmistakably clear. A railing was erected on the roof so that the swastika flag could be hoisted safely ; the room in which Munch and the German Expressionists were shown was closed with a curtain that was covered with a defamatory sign: “Foreigners and Modernity”. In addition, the gallery was rearranged: four halls were now reserved for north-west German painting, a clear upgrade of “ Heimatkunst ”.
In the course of the “ Degenerate Art ” campaign, 15 paintings had to be banished to the depot, including all of Liebermann's paintings , but also Utrillo and Bonnard . They were then also missing in the inventory catalog published in 1939, which represented, so to speak, a "National Socialist clean version".
Special exhibitions (selection)
- March 25, 2000 to June 12, 2000: “ The Blue Rider ”, with 40 life-size blue horse sculptures being displayed in the city
- October 19, 2002 to January 26, 2003: " van Gogh : Fields - the poppy field and the artists' dispute"
- October 15, 2005 to February 26, 2006: " Monet and Camille - Women Portraits in Impressionism"
In this exhibition, the Kunsthalle showed Claude Monet's early figurative work based on the work Camille in a Green Dress (1866), which the Kunsthalle bought in 1906 . In addition to works by Monet, the exhibition also featured works by Renoir , Manet , Carolus-Duran , Degas , as well as photographs, fashion illustrations and contemporary clothing. With over 230,000 visitors, more than 80 percent of whom are from outside Germany, it ranks second in the series of successful exhibitions.
- October 13, 2007 to February 24, 2008: "Paula in Paris - Paula Modersohn-Becker and art in Paris around 1900. From Cézanne to Picasso ".
- June 29, 2008 to October 5, 2008: “Across the water - Gustave Caillebotte . An impressionist rediscovered "
- October 15, 2011 to February 26, 2012: " Edvard Munch - Riddle Behind the Screen". At the same time there was an accompanying exhibition by artists from the Blaumeier studio with the title "The Last Scream"
- October 20, 2012 to February 17, 2013: “ Friedensreich Hundertwasser : Against the grain. Works 1949 to 1970 "
- April 13 to August 11, 2013: “ WOLS . The retrospective. ”First major exhibition in 25 years for the artist's 100th birthday. The exhibition then went to Houston, USA ( Menil Collection ).
- February 22nd to June 22nd, 2014: “ Sylvette , Sylvette, Sylvette. Picasso and the model ”.
- 7 February to 31 May 2015: " Émile Bernard - On the pulse of modernity".
- October 22, 2016 to February 26, 2017: “ Max Liebermann . From leisure time to modern sport ”.
- 2017: “Under the sign of the lily. French prints at the time of Louis XIV. ”Catalog.
- 2017: "Fernando Bryce. Unforgettable land "
- 2017: “The blind spot. Bremen and Art in the Colonial Era "
- 2017/2018: " Max Beckmann . World Theater "(then in Potsdam, Museum Barberini )
- March 7th to July 1st, 2018: “Cool light and wide seas. Dutch master drawings and their restoration "
- April 7th to August 26th, 2018: “Tulips, tobacco, herring fishing. Dutch painting of the Golden Age "
- March 23 to September 1, 2019: Animal riot. 200 years of Bremen Town Musicians in art, kitsch and society
The Kunsthalle has had its own specialist art library since 1849, today (2017) with a stock of almost 95,000 volumes. The library has an extensive collection of catalog raisonnés, auction, exhibition and collection catalogs as well as illustrated books from the 15th to 20th centuries.
- Museum check with Markus Brock : Kunsthalle Bremen and Paula Modersohn-Becker-Museum. Synopsis and video from 3sat . First broadcast: December 18, 2016.
- List of German museums by subject , list of museums in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
- Working group of independent cultural institutes
- Herbert Black Forest : The Great Bremen Lexicon . 2nd, updated, revised and expanded edition. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2003, ISBN 3-86108-693-X .
- Gerhard Gerkens , Ursula Heiderich: Catalog of the paintings of the 19th and 20th centuries in the Kunsthalle Bremen. Two volumes, Hauschild Verlag, Bremen 1973.
- Corinna Höper: Catalog of paintings from the 14th to 18th centuries in the Kunsthalle Bremen. Hauschild Verlag, Bremen 1990, ISBN 978-3-926598-39-4 .
- Ursula Heiderich: Catalog of the sculptures in the Kunsthalle Bremen. Hauschild Verlag, Bremen 1993, ISBN 978-3-929902-04-4 .
- The freely accessible database of international literature on looted art contains several hundred literature references on the fate of the holdings that were relocated to Brandenburg in the Second World War. (Enter as search terms: Kunsthalle or Baldin or similar.)
- Camille Monet and the Others - The Models of the Impressionists. The language area, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936301-06-9 .
- Online presence of the Kunsthalle Bremen
- Official blog of the Kunsthalle Bremen
- The Baldin Collection. The Odyssey of Bremen's looted art ( memento from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) - themed reports, Radio Bremen
- Statement of Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill at Customs Art Repatriation Event - Press release of the Bureau of Public Affairs, USA , on the subject of looted art from Bremen from July 19, 2001 (English)
- Kunsthalle Bremen digitizes works from the Kupferstichkabinett on December 5, 2017 on butenunbinnen.de
- Wulf Herzogenrath, Ingmar Laehnemann (ed.): Noble guests. Masterpieces from the Kunsthalle Bremen are guests in 22 German museums . Hachmannedition, Bremen 2009, ISBN 978-3-939429-58-6 , pp. 9 .
- Monument database of the LfD
- New head of the Kunsthalle. Christoph Grunenberg comes to Bremen from Liverpool. In: Weser-Kurier of July 13, 2011, p. 1 (and p. 23).
- See exhibition book Caviar instead of bread. Kurt Reutti. Collectors and donors. Kunsthalle Bremen October 2001 - January 2002. Seemann, Leipzig 2001.
- Archived copy ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Paula in Paris. Paula Modersohn-Becker and the art in Paris around 1900. From Cézanne to Picasso
- blaumeier.de: The latest craze! Blaumeiers painter in the footsteps of Edvard Munch. Retrieved December 28, 2015 .
- weser-kurier.de: Artists from the Blaumeier studio have painted their own works for Edvard Munch. Retrieved February 13, 2013 .