Degenerate art

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Degenerate Art”: Ecce Homo by Lovis Corinth , 1925
Hafenkneipe by Joachim Ringelnatz , 1933

During the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany, “degenerate art” was the officially propagated term for modern art defamed on the basis of racial justifications . The term degeneracy was transferred from medicine to art at the end of the 19th century .

In the Nazi regime, all works of art and cultural currents that could not be reconciled with the National Socialists ' conception of art and the ideal of beauty , so-called German art, were considered "degenerate art" : Expressionism , Dadaism , New Objectivity , Surrealism , Cubism or Fauvism . In addition, all works by artists with a Jewish background were rated as degenerate.

Origin of the term "degenerate art"

The word "degenerate" originally comes from Middle High German , where it had the meaning "struck out of the kind". The term was first used in a pejorative context in the 19th century, when the romantic Friedrich Schlegel wrote of “degenerate art” in relation to late antiquity . The French diplomat and writer Arthur de Gobineau used the term in his Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines in 1853 for the first time in a racially derogatory sense, but without anti-Semitic or German national connotations . Karl Ludwig Schemann , who translated Gobineau's work into German and published it between 1898 and 1901, was a member of the Pan-German Association .

Richard Wagner published the article Das Judenthum in der Musik in 1850 , in which he denounced the influence of Judaism in music and called for Jewish emancipation in the sense of the abandonment of Judaism. Wagner published other theoretical writings in which he also dealt with other genres of art and some of which were received controversially. In 1892/93, the Jewish cultural critic Max Nordau published his work Entartung , in which he tried to prove that the degeneration of art can be traced back to the degeneration of the artist. In connection with Nietzsche's criticism of décadence, Nordau branded almost all literary movements from symbolism to naturalism as expressions of a degenerative disease. His main attacks are on the Pre-Raphaelites in painting, Wagner in music, and Verlaine, Mallarmé, Moréas, Baudelaire, Gautier, Wilde and Ibsen in poetry.

National Socialists against Modern Art

Defamation of all forms of modern art

The National Socialists developed a separate art ideal of a German art and pursued the opposing art, which was also referred to as "decay art" and "alien" because it was characterized by pessimism and pacifism . Artists whose works did not conform to National Socialist ideals who were communists or Jews were persecuted. The National Socialists banned them from professions and painting, had their works of art removed from museums and public collections, confiscated “degenerate art”, forced artists to emigrate or murdered them.

There were three consistent defamation measures of Nazi cultural policy: book burning in Berlin and 21 other cities in May 1933 and there after the annexation of Austria in 1938, persecution of painters and their “degenerate art” and persecution of “degenerate music” at the Reichsmusiktage 1938 in Düsseldorf.

With the introduction of the law for the restoration of the civil service of April 7, 1933, with the help of which Jewish, communist and other undesirable artists were forcibly removed from public office, as well as the book burning on May 10, 1933 with Joseph Goebbels ' speech on Berlin's Opernplatz , it became clear in the first few months after the National Socialists came to power that the diversity of artistic creation in the Weimar Republic was irrevocably over.

The annihilation attack on modernity and its protagonists affected all branches of culture such as literature , cinematography , theater , architecture and music . Modern music such as swing or jazz was just as ruthlessly defamed at the “ Degenerate Music ” exhibition that opened on May 24, 1938, as was “music Bolshevism” by internationally known composers such as Hanns Eisler , Paul Hindemith or Arnold Schönberg , most of whom also were of Jewish origin. As a result, the notorious Lexicon of Jews in Music appeared from 1940 .


The decree "Against Negro culture for German Volkstum" (April 5, 1930), which was directed against modern art , was the starting point for the attack on influences in art that were defined as "un-German" by Wilhelm Frick , Thuringia's National Education Minister . In October 1930, this led to Oskar Schlemmer's wall design in the Weimar workshop building being painted over . Frick continued to dissolve the Weimar Bauhaus School and dismissed the teaching staff. He appointed Paul Schultze-Naumburg , a leading representative of a right-wing conservative building and cultural ideology, as director of the newly founded United Art Schools Weimar. Under his direction, works by Ernst Barlach , Charles Crodel , Otto Dix , Erich Heckel , Oskar Kokoschka , Franz Marc , Emil Nolde , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and others were removed from the Weimar Castle Museum . Although the confidence of the Thuringian state parliament was withdrawn from Minister Frick on April 1, 1931, the state elections of July 31, 1932 gave the Nazi parliamentary group an absolute majority and opened up access from Weimar to Berlin, which consequently led to the fact that the just Bad Lauchstädt's spa facilities, which were renovated in the summer of 1933 with murals by Charles Crodel for the Goethe year 1932, were partly burned and partly painted over, while a bitter struggle for direction was waged in Berlin, which Alfred Rosenberg won in the winter of 1934/1935 and after the Olympic Games in Berlin Implemented in 1936. The artist Emil Bartoschek painted exaggeratedly naturalistic pictures, which found numerous buyers via a gallery in Berlin's Friedrichstrasse in order to distract from his abstract painting, which was reserved for a small group.

Memorial plaque on Köpenicker Strasse in Berlin in front of a former depot for "degenerate art"


The start of the new wave of persecution was the closure of the New Department of the National Gallery Berlin in the Kronprinzenpalais on October 30, 1936 and the decree of June 30, 1937, which authorized the new Reich Chamber of Art President Adolf Ziegler to “hold works in the possession of the German Reich, Länder and municipalities German decay art since 1910 in the field of painting and sculpture to select and secure for the purpose of an exhibition ”.

In 1936 all modern art was completely banned. Hundreds of works of art, especially from the field of painting, were removed from the museums and either confiscated for the “Degenerate Art” exhibition, sold abroad or destroyed. Painters, writers and composers were banned from working and exhibiting unless they had emigrated abroad. The purchase ban on non-Aryan and modern works of art, which had existed since 1933, was tightened. The gradual disenfranchisement of the Jewish population meant that numerous works of art from their private property fell into the hands of the state and, if they were considered "degenerate", were destroyed or sold abroad.

Well-known ostracized artists

Immediately after the National Socialists came to power , they aggressively set the line that they intended to enforce with regard to cultural policy in the following years, with exhibition closings forced by the police and verbal and physical attacks on artists and cultural associations. In response, many artists fled to Germany's neighboring states. Further waves of escape were triggered by the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, as well as by the defamation of “degenerate” art and the November pogroms in 1938 . For example, 64 Hamburg artists fled to 23 different countries.

The works of Ernst Barlach , Willi Baumeister , Max Beckmann , Karl Caspar , Maria Caspar-Filser , Marc Chagall , Giorgio de Chirico , Lovis Corinth , Otto Dix , Max Ernst , Otto Freundlich , Paul Gauguin and Wilhelm were considered “degenerate” Geyer , Otto Griebel , George Grosz , Werner Heuser , Karl Hofer , Karl Hubbuch , Hans Jürgen Kallmann , Wassily Kandinsky , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Paul Klee , Oskar Kokoschka , Käthe Kollwitz , Wilhelm Lehmbruck , Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler , Gerhard Marcks , Ludwig Meidner , Paula Modersohn-Becker , Piet Mondrian , Rudolf Möller , Otto Pankok , Max Pechstein , Pablo Picasso , Christian Rohlfs , Oskar Schlemmer , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Werner Scholz .

The exhibition “Degenerate Art” in Munich 1937

Joseph Goebbels in the traveling exhibition "Degenerate Art", 1938 in Berlin. Left two paintings by Emil Nolde : Christ and the Sinner and The Wise and the Foolish Virgins , right a sculpture by Gerhard Marcks : Saint George
Flyer for the 1937 exhibition in Munich
... and in 1938 in Berlin

The “Degenerate Art” exhibition opened in Munich on July 19, 1937 in the Hofgarten Arkaden and showed 650 works of art confiscated from 32 German museums. It also migrated to other houses across the empire and was "demonstrated" to school classes and party-affiliated associations. Over two million visitors saw them. That is clearly a multiple of the number of spectators than at the Great German Art Exhibition taking place at the same time in the House of German Art , which was visited by 420,000 people. The (propagated) interest in the mocked art was much greater than that in the officially celebrated. The exhibition was initiated by Joseph Goebbels and directed by Adolf Ziegler , President of the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts . At the same time, with the confiscation of a total of around 16,000 modern works of art, some of which were sold abroad or destroyed, the "cleansing" of the German art collections began, apparently from museums owned by Jewish collectors, for example. Sometimes older works of art were also affected.

Advertisement for the exhibition in Salzburg, August 1938

The exhibition went as a traveling exhibition through the big cities of the empire. After the annexation of Austria to the German Reich announced on March 13, 1938, she moved to Berlin from May 7 to June 18 in the Künstlerhaus in Vienna , from August 4 to 25 in the Salzburg Festival Hall and in Hamburg from November 11 Shown through December 31, 1938. From February 1938 to April 1941 it was shown in the following (previously known) cities: Berlin, Leipzig, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Frankfurt am Main, Vienna, Salzburg, Stettin and Halle.

The “Degenerate Art” exhibition equated the exhibits with drawings by the mentally handicapped and combined them with photos of crippled people that were supposed to arouse disgust and anxiety among visitors. The concept of art of avant-garde modernism should be taken ad absurdum and modern art should be understood as "degenerate" and as a phenomenon of decay. This presentation of “sick”, “ Jewish-Bolshevik ” art also served to legitimize the persecution of “racially inferior ” and “political opponents”.

Seizure of works of art

On July 24, 1937, Hitler ordered that all museums and public exhibitions had to publish works that were an expression of "cultural decay". In July 1937 the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts confiscated z. B. 72 paintings, 296 watercolors, pastels and hand drawings, 926 etchings, woodcuts and lithographs as well as eight sculptures from the Hamburger Kunsthalle . More than 1000 objects were withdrawn from the art collections of the city of Düsseldorf (now the Museum Kunstpalast ). Some works from this wave of confiscations were included in the traveling exhibition "Degenerate Art" shown above. In further confiscation actions from August 1937 onwards, a total of around 20,000 works of art by 1,400 artists were removed from over 100 museums. These also included loans from private collections, such as 13 paintings from the collection of Sophie Lissitzky-Küppers that were confiscated from the Provincial Museum in Hanover.

Exploitation of "degenerate art"

Portrait of Dr. Gachet by Vincent van Gogh, came into the private collection of Hermann Göring

The confiscated works were taken to depots in Berlin (e.g. in Viktoria-Speicher, Köpenicker Strasse) and in Schönhausen Palace . The expropriation of museums was subsequently legitimized by the law on the confiscation of products of degenerate art on May 31, 1938. Göring suggested selling the works of art abroad in exchange for currency, Hitler exchanged some for old masters . According to an official announcement, 1004 paintings and 3825 graphics were burned in the courtyard of the main fire station in Berlin-Kreuzberg on March 20, 1939, some of them are said to have been removed. 125 works were planned for auction in Switzerland.

A commission set up by Göring and others to exploit the products of degenerate art estimated the minimum bids and ultimately selected the Fischer Gallery in Lucerne for the auction. This auction took place on June 30, 1939 and aroused great interest around the world. However, the results for the works of the ostracized artists were quite low, because it had become known that Nazi Germany wanted to improve its foreign exchange status with the sale. Many, but not all, of the works were sold. Further sales of expropriated works on behalf of the empire were largely made by the four art dealers Bernhard A. Böhmer , Karl Buchholz , Hildebrand Gurlitt , Ferdinand Möller and, to a lesser extent, by Paul Graupe , Karl Haberstock , Hansjoachim Quantmeyer and others. The collector couple Sophie and Emanuel Fohn acquired works of so-called degenerate art or exchanged them for works by artists from the 18th and 19th centuries. The Sophie and Emanuel Fohn collection was created during the Nazi era and was donated to the Bavarian State Painting Collection in 1964 .

An inventory of unsold works of art was burned on March 20, 1939 by the Berlin fire brigade in an action called an exercise. Five thousand paintings, sculptures, drawings, watercolors and graphics were destroyed.

"According to the final report that Goebbels gave Hitler on July 4, 1939, most of the works of art are said to have been destroyed or put into storage, and some 300 paintings and sculptures as well as 3,000 graphics were sold abroad."

Propaganda film Venus in court

The National Socialists also worked the topic into their own propaganda film: In 1941, Venus was made in court , with which Hans H. Zerlett was entrusted as director and screenwriter.


Final losses for the museums

Many German museums acquired important collections of modern art between the world wars through purchases and donations. As a result of the confiscations as part of the “Degenerate Art” propaganda campaign in the summer of 1937, the museums were deprived of a large part of their holdings without compensation. For example, the former director of the Hamburger Kunsthalle , Alfred Hentzen , lamented the great artistic and material loss: “The expansion [of the collection] is only progressing slowly, more and more slowly, the more our inadequate funds are being run away from the art market prices, and it is today to fear that some serious gaps can no longer be closed. […] The explanation for these shortcomings and gaps is the same that all German museums have to give. The basis of the contemporary collection, which Gustav Pauli carefully built up from 1914 to 1933, was destroyed in 1937 through confiscation and sale - to the extent that only five acquisitions from his time appear in this selection. [...] Everything that Pauli had acquired in the way of works by younger contemporaries, major works by Munch, Nolde, Kirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff, Heckel, Kokoschka, Franz Marc, even an early work from Picasso's blue period, fell victim to the iconoclasm and is now located today in museums and private collections abroad. The loss will never be completely recoverable. "

In addition to the mostly contemporary “degenerate art”, works fell victim to the subject , including works from Romanticism and German Impressionism that were not compatible with National Socialist sentiments. Otto H. Förster , the curator of the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum , sold works by August Weber and Max Liebermann , among others, and bought looted art that had to be returned after 1945.

Most collections after 1945 showed little interest in filling the gaps in sales and war losses, and focused on art from Expressionism onwards.

Forgotten ostracized artists

Many of the painters defamed as degenerate are now counted among the "forgotten artists" or the missing generation because they themselves died in poverty, were driven to suicide or were murdered and their works were confiscated as "degenerate" and mostly destroyed. Even those who survived were often unable to regain recognition after the Second World War , because they had developed their style but did not want to identify with the new art movements.

The "forgotten artists" include u. a. Jankel Adler , Walter Gramatté , Curt Grosspietsch , Maximilian Jahns , Rudolf Jahns , Richard Haizmann , Ludwig Haller-Rechtern , Fritz Heinsheimer , Werner Hofmann , Johannes Molzahn , Gerta Overbeck-Schenk , Curt Querner , Carl Rabus, Anita Rée , Florence Robert Schabbon, Grete Schick , Fritz Schulze , Kurt Scheele , Erich Schmid , Georg Alfred Stockburger , Fritz Stuckenberg , Franz Wilhelm Seiwert , Kasia von Szadurska , Oscar Zügel, Werner Scholz and Josef Steiner .

Since the mid-1980s, the art collector Gerhard Schneider has acquired the estate of the painter Valentin Nagel, who died in 1942, as well as realistic, expressive works by other artists that had been ostracized and made them known to the public.

The Center for Persecuted Arts in Solingen, founded in 2015 by the Wuppertal Else-Lasker-Schüler-Gesellschaft and the Exil-Pen ( PEN center for German-speaking authors abroad ), is dedicated to coming to terms with forgotten artists. In addition to visual artists, they also include writers, musicians, composers, actors, dancers, etc. The Center for Persecuted Arts shows forgotten artists from the fields of painting and literature in two permanent exhibitions and complements the topic in temporary exhibitions.

Research project

A research center “Degenerate Art” was initiated in the spring of 2003 and was mainly funded by the Ferdinand Möller Foundation at the Institute of Art History at the Free University of Berlin . Klaus Krüger is responsible for the management, Meike Hoffmann is the coordinator with the assistance of Andreas Hüneke . In April 2004 a sister project of the same name was created at the Art History Department of the University of Hamburg . The research focuses on the methods of National Socialist art policy, in particular prehistory, events and the effects of the confiscation of modern works of art in German museums in 1937. This includes research on the female exhibitions of modern art since 1933 and on the propaganda show "Degenerate Art" with its numerous stations between 1937 and 1941. In addition, the fate of the artists concerned, the strategies of the museum directors and the role of the art dealers in it are researched. An important goal is the creation of a complete directory of all confiscated works of the "degenerate art". A series of publications reflects the state of research. Another focus of the project is on university teaching on provenance research . In addition, there are practical instructions for dealing with primary sources and for evaluating archive material as well as cooperation with Berlin museums and institutions that deal with Nazi-looted art and restitution .

Exhibitions in memoriam

  • Berlin Sculpture Fund
    During archaeological rescue excavations prior to the construction of the subway station Red Town Hall in the Town Hall Street opposite the Berlin City Hall , 2010 eleven sculptures were discovered in 1937 for the exhibition "Degenerate Art" were seized. According to the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation , these include bronzes by Edwin Scharff , Otto Baum , Marg Moll , Gustav Heinrich Wolff , Naum Slutzky and Karl Knappe, as well as parts of ceramic works by Otto Freundlich and Emy Roeder . They were shown in an exhibition entitled Der Berliner Skulpturenfund. 'Degenerate Art' shown
    in the bomb debris, shown from November 9, 2010 in the Greek courtyard of the Neues Museum on Museum Island and thereafter as a traveling exhibition. On the basis of remains, it is assumed that 200 to 300 paintings and graphics that did not survive the fire in the house in 1944 were also stored in the depot, which was unknown until the excavation. The works were probably brought to the site on trucks, as a note about "seven meters of load" reveals.
  • June 5 to August 28, 2011, Kulturforum Burgkloster, Lübeck
    1933–45. Persecuted - Ostracized - Degenerate. Works from the collection in the Willy Brandt House, Berlin.
  • Six more sculptures were found by chance
    On March 13, 2012, the Museum of Prehistory and Early History and the “Degenerate Art” research center at the Free University in Berlin presented six more finds to the public. These six sculptures are Frommer Mann by Karel Niestrath , Sitting Girl by Will Lammert , Figure by Richard Haizmann , Standing Female Nude by Gustav Heinrich Wolff , Rider by Fritz Wrampe and Girl with Grape by Karl Ehlers . These six sculptures could also be viewed in the exhibition Der Berliner Skulpturenfund until March 18, 2012 and were then exhibited in Hamburg.
  • Once upon a time there was a boomerang. The painter Joachim Ringelnatz returns. April 29 to July 17, 2016 in the Center for Persecuted Arts, Solingen.
  • SPOT ON: 1937. The 'Degenerate Art' campaign in Düsseldorf . Museum of Art Palace . July 14, 2017 to July 14, 2018

Schwabing art find 2012

In November 2013 it became known that in February 2012 in the apartment of Hildebrand Gurlitt's son in the Munich district of Schwabing, 1285 unframed and 121 framed pictures, which were thought to be lost, were found. Gurlitt was one of the art dealers who was commissioned to exploit confiscated works during the Nazi era. According to a report by the news magazine Focus , these include works by Pablo Picasso , Henri Matisse , Marc Chagall , Emil Nolde , Franz Marc , Max Beckmann and Max Liebermann . According to a report in the Süddeutsche Zeitung , the cultural historian Meike Hoffmann was commissioned to research the exact origin of the works. At least 300 of the works that have emerged should belong to Degenerate Art. Official search reports should be available for at least 200 plants.


  • Fritz Kaiser (Ed.): Degenerate "Art". Exhibition guide. Compiled by the Reich Propaganda Management of the NSDAP, Culture Office. Verlag für Kultur- und Wirtschaftswerbung, Berlin 1937. 32, pages, 56 illustrations; probably not used as exhibition guide in Berlin until 1938.
  • Jürgen Claus (catalog, text, documentation): “Degenerate Art.” Iconoclasm 25 years ago. Exhibition catalog Haus der Kunst Munich, October 25 - December 16, 1962.
  • Degenerate art. Exhibition guide, Munich-Berlin 1937. Reprint of the original from 1937. König, Cologne ISBN 3-88375-086-7 . (Partial print of the edition Stations of Modernism. Catalogs of epochal art exhibitions in Germany 1910–1962 , ISBN 3-88375-082-4 )
  • Another reprint of the original brochure: 1969 by Y. Fongi Verlag , Munich, with separately added quotations from Nazi ideologues on art, from Nazi magazines from the 1960s and from people who played a role in the dispute over the Munich Art Academy in 1969 (Hermann Kaspar , FJ Strauss and others).
  • Vienna 1938. Catalog for the 110th special exhibition of the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna from March 11th to June 30th, 1988. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-215-07022-7 .


in alphabetical order by authors / editors

  • Norbert Berghof (Red.): Art in pursuit: degenerate art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. 18 examples. Neckar, Villingen 1998.
    • Accompanying booklet: life data and personal testimonies (the artist). ibid. 1998.
  • Silke von Berswordt-Wallrabe et al. (Ed.): "Artige Kunst". Art and Politics in National Socialism, exhibition cat. Situation Art (for Max Imdahl) - art collections of the Ruhr University Bochum, Kunsthalle Rostock, Kunstforum Regensburg; Bielefeld and Bochum 2016, ISBN 978-3-7356-0288-6 .
  • Sabine Brantl: House of Art Munich. A place and its history under National Socialism. Allitera, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-86520-242-X .
  • Hildegard Brenner : The Art Policy of National Socialism. Rowohlt's German Encyclopedia 167/168. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1963.
  • Christine Fischer-Defoy , Kaspar Nürnberg (ed.): Good business - art trade in Berlin 1933–1944. Active Museum Fascism and Resistance, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-034061-1 (catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Centrum Judaicum (April 10 - July 31, 2011) and in the Berlin State Archives (October 20, 2011 - January 27 2012)).
  • Uwe Fleckner (ed.): Attack on the avant-garde. Art and Art Politics in National Socialism. Academy, Berlin 2007, ISBN 3-05-004062-9 .
  • Boris Thorsten Grell: “Degenerate Art”. Legal problems of the recording and the later fate of so-called degenerate art. Dissertation at the University of Zurich , 1999.
  • Berthold Hinz : Painting in German Fascism. Art and counterrevolution. Heyne, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-453-01906-7 .
  • Dina Kashapova: Art, Discourse and National Socialism. Semantic and pragmatic studies. Series German Linguistics, 266. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-484-31266-1 .
  • Georg Kreis et al .: "Degenerate" art for Basel. The challenge of 1939. Wiese, Basel 1990, ISBN 3-909158-31-5 . (The 21 purchases from Germany and how they came about.)
  • Hans-Peter Lühr: The exhibition “Degenerate Art” and the beginning of Nazi barbarism in Dresden. History Association, Dresden 2004, ISBN 3-910055-70-2 .
  • Beate Marks-Hanssen: Inner emigration? Ostracized artists in the time of National Socialism., Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-86624-169-0 .
  • Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister 1889–1955. Creator from the unknown. epubli, Berlin 2013. ISBN 978-3-8442-6815-7 ( Open Access edition )
  • Franz Roh : Degenerate Art. Art barbarism in the Third Reich. Torch bearer, Hanover 1962; also contains the original NS brochure for the exhibition "Degenerate Art", for Munich a. a. Places called "exhibition guide" (cover) or "guide through the exhibition" (title) as a reprint.
  • Christian Saehrendt: “The bridge” between statecraft and ostracism. Expressionist art as a political issue in the Weimar Republic, the “Third Reich” and the Cold War. Seiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 978-3-515-08614-1 (= Rüdiger vom Bruch , Eckart Henning (ed.): Pallas Athene. Contributions to the history of universities and science. Volume 13).
  • Peter-Klaus Schuster (editor): The ›Art City‹ Munich 1937. National Socialism and ›Degenerate Art‹ . Munich, Prestel-Verlag 1987. ISBN 3-791-3-08432 . (Published for the exhibition on the exhibition ›Degenerate Art‹ from 1937 in Munich, whose “reconstruction” is contained on p. 120 ff.)
  • Matthias Wemhoff : The Berlin Sculpture Find: “Degenerate Art” in bomb rubble , Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-7954-2463-3 .
  • Rainer Zimmermann : Expressive realism. Painting of the Lost Generation. 2nd edition, Hirmer, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7774-6420-1 (short biographies of around 400 artists).
  • Christoph surcharge: degenerate art. Exhibition strategies in Nazi Germany (= Heidelberg art-historical treatises NF 21). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1995, ISBN 3-88462-096-7 .

Web links

Commons : Degenerate Art  - Collection of Images

References and comments

  1. ^ Exhibition of German Art in London , a picture by Oskar Kokoschka that was torn into four parts by the Gestapo, Burlington Galleries London, July 7, 1938, in the Austrian National Library.
  2. ^ Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister 1889–1955. Creator from the unknown. epubli, Berlin 2013. ISBN 978-3-8442-6815-7 ( Open Access edition )
  3. This circumstance makes the processing of the Schwabing art find known in November 2013 (see below) so difficult, because state and non-state, Jewish and non-Jewish property claims often collide.
  4. SPOT ON: 1937. The 'Degenerate Art' campaign in Düsseldorf , at, accessed on April 8, 2018.
  5. Confiscation inventory : ( Memento from June 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on April 18, 2009.
  6. The date . In: Augsburger Allgemeine , March 20, 2009.
    see also: Paul Ortwin Rave (author), Uwe M. Schneede (ed.): Art dictatorship in the Third Reich . Argon Verlag, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-87024-112-8 , p. 124 (reprint of the Berlin 1949 edition)
  7. There could be more depots . In: Die Welt , November 11, 2013
  8. quoted from: Gabriele Franke: Fabeltier or "Judengeschöpf". Chronicle of a research. History workshop Bambeck, Hamburg 1990, p. 107.
  9. Good business, art trade in Berlin 1933-1945 . Catalog of the Active Museum, Berlin 2011
  10. Frankfurt a. M. 1933-1945
  11. ↑ Art thieves are not imagined to be so educated . In: NZZ , November 13, 2013
  12. ^ Community of Kusterdingen, Art Working Group in Kusterdingen Town Hall (editor): Georg Alfred Stockburger. Against forgetting. (Catalog for the exhibition in the gallery Kunstraum Hardening in Kusterdingen-Jettenburg from April 12 to May 10, 2015), Kusterdingen 2015, 46 pages
  13. Flyer of the Lübeck museums for the exhibition Persecuted - Ostracized - Entartet, Lübeck 2011
  14. Brochure Don't let my pictures die , publisher: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V.
  15. ^ Fördergesellschaft Museum für Veremte Kunst with the Gerhard Schneider Collection , accessed on September 15, 2016.
  16. a b Visit - Center for Persecuted Arts. In: Center for the Persecuted Arts, accessed April 15, 2016 .
  17. Database for the complete directory
  18. ^ Website of the research center “Degenerate Art” at the Free University of Berlin , accessed on September 27, 2016.
  19. Lost sculptures rediscovered . Spiegel Online ; Retrieved November 8, 2010.
  20. a b Nikolaus Bernau: "Degenerate Art" from the rubble . In: Berliner Zeitung , March 14, 2012
  21. ^ Exhibition Persecuted - Ostracized - Entartet , Lübeck 2011. Leaflet of the Lübeck museums
  22. Valuable stragglers . In: Der Tagesspiegel , March 14, 2012, p. 16.
  23. Information about the exhibition , accessed on April 8, 2018.
  24. ^ Sensational art treasure in Munich. In: Focus . Hubert Burda Media , November 3, 2013.
  25. The exploiter and his son. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . November 3, 2013, accessed November 3, 2013 .
  26. The Gurlitt case. Munich: looted art worth one billion euros found. In: FAZ . November 4, 2013, accessed November 10, 2017 .