Friedrich Wilhelm Baumeister (born January 22, 1889 in Stuttgart ; † August 31, 1955 there ) was a German painter , graphic artist , set designer , typographer , art theorist , author and university lecturer . He is considered an important modern artist.
childhood and education
Willi Baumeister grew up in his hometown Stuttgart, where he attended Friedrich-Eugens-Oberrealschule up to secondary school . His parents Wilhelm and Anna Baumeister already had a daughter Klara and a son Hans. As a master chimney sweep, the father ran the family's own craft business. Anna Baumeister b. Schuler came from a family of decorative painters who had practiced this craft for five generations.
After training as a decorative painter from 1905 to 1907, he did his military service as a one-year volunteer in Stuttgart from autumn 1907 to autumn 1908 . During his training period (1905/1906) Baumeister began studying art at the Stuttgart Art Academy , attended Robert Poetzelberger's drawing class and took additional lessons from Josef Kerschensteiner . In 1906 he continued his painting apprenticeship and finished it in 1907 with the journeyman's examination.
Studies and World War I
After his military service, Willi Baumeister resumed his studies at the art academy. However, he was rejected by his teacher Poetzelberger due to a lack of talent as a student. Baumeister switched to Adolf Hölzel's composition class , to which he belonged (with an interruption due to the war) until the end of the winter semester of 1918/19. Here he met Oskar Schlemmer and Alf Bayrle . Baumeister made his first trip to Paris in 1911. He successfully participated in an exhibition in a Zurich gallery in 1912 . The following year he became a participant in the First German Autumn Salon in the Berlin Sturm Gallery . Here he met the expressionist painter Franz Marc . In 1914 Baumeister had his first solo exhibition in the “Neue Kunstsalon” in Stuttgart. In the same year, Adolf Hölzel arranged for him, Schlemmer and Hermann Stenner to carry out wall paintings in the Cologne Werkbund exhibition . At the great Stuttgart exhibition of the Association of Art Friends in the countries on the Rhine in 1914, he, Josef Eberz and Schlemmer were most strongly represented with three works each in the so-called “Expressionist Hall” that Hölzel had organized.
Before Willi Baumeister was drafted into military service at a field pilot's replacement department at the beginning of November 1914, he traveled to Amsterdam , London and Paris with Schlemmer and, for a time, Stenner . Despite the war, Baumeister met the painter Oskar Kokoschka and the architect Adolf Loos in Vienna in 1915 . In 1916 he took part in the exhibition Hölzel and his circle at the Kunstverein Freiburg im Breisgau , which was also shown in 1917 at the Ludwig Schames art salon in Frankfurt am Main . From the field he steered the text “Vadartal” for the exhibition publication, which showed four of his works. Ahranli, July 20, 1916 ”. Even before his discharge from military service and his return to Stuttgart in December 1918, he exhibited together with Oskar Schlemmer at the Schaller gallery in Stuttgart. When Baumeister and Schlemmer tried in the course of 1919 to enforce Paul Klee's appointment to the Stuttgart Academy as a successor to Hölzel, although Klee had agreed to take on the teaching post , this was supported by the Academy under the direction of Heinrich Altherr vehemently opposed and rejected by local press organs. It is unclear to what extent Baumeister joined the Berlin artists' association " Novembergruppe " as early as 1919 . It was founded in 1918 by Max Pechstein , immediately after the German surrender and the fall of the monarchy, and until 1933 it remained one of the most important associations of German artists.
Real and vocation
In Stuttgart, together with Schlemmer and other artists, Baumeister took the initiative in 1919 to found the artist group Üecht ( Alemannic : “real”, “true”), which he left in 1921. In 1919 he made his first set, which was followed by a total of 17 more. In 1922 Baumeister finished his studies at the Stuttgart Academy, where he was last enrolled with Heinrich Altherr , and moved into his own studio in Stuttgart. He worked as a freelance artist and took part in exhibitions in Berlin, Dresden and Hagen . His fame and recognition that extends beyond Germany became clear in a joint exhibition with Fernand Léger in the Berlin gallery “Der Sturm” in 1922. During these years Baumeister developed relationships with artists such as Paul Klee, Léger, Le Corbusier , Ozenfant and Michel Seuphor . In 1924 some of his works were shown at the “First General German Art Exhibition” in Moscow . In 1925 Baumeister was appointed special expert for colored house paints at the Württemberg building advice center and took part in the Paris exhibition L'Art d'aujourd'hui (“Art Today”). In addition to his artistic work, he also devoted himself to commercial graphics and designed advertisements for companies such as Bosch and DLW (Deutsche Linoleumwerke).
Willi Baumeister and the painter Margarete Oehm married in 1926 . That same year, Baumeister had the opportunity to take part in the International Exhibition of Modern Art in New York . The following year he had a solo exhibition in Paris and on the occasion of his participation in the Great Berlin Art Exhibition (with his own room) he met Kazimir Malevich .
In 1927, on the recommendation of Fritz Wichert , Baumeister was appointed to the Frankfurt School of Applied Arts, which later became the Städelschule . From 1928 on he headed the class for commercial graphics, typography and fabric printing. Baumeister's daughter Krista was born that year. He canceled an appointment to the Bauhaus in Dessau that was pronounced the following year . In 1929, Willi Baumeister, as a member of the German Association of Artists, took part in the anniversary exhibition in the Cologne State House at Rheinpark , where he showed three oil paintings.
From 1930 he was in charge of the design of the magazine des Neuen Frankfurt , and in 1931 the magazine Der Cross- Section appeared for the first time with Baumeister's promotional cover concept. While Baumeister had been a member of the “ring neue werbegestalter” since 1927 (chairman was Kurt Schwitters ), he joined the artists' association Cercle et Carré (“Circle and Square”) in 1930 and received the Württemberg State Prize for the painting line figure in the same year . In addition to Cercle et Carré, he was a member of the Abstraction-Création artist movement in Paris .
In National Socialist Germany
On March 31, 1933, Willi Baumeister's professorship at the School of Applied Arts was saved as a result of the National Socialists' seizure of power ; his colleagues Albert Windisch and Wilhelm Biering were also forced to take Baumeister's courses. Elisabeth Hase , Marta Hoepffner , Jacques Germain , Hannes Neuner and Jo von Kalckreuth were among Baumeister's most important students in Frankfurt. After his return to Stuttgart (April 1933), Baumeister made his living mainly from commercial graphics, although he traveled to Switzerland, Italy and France. In the same year his daughter Felicitas was born. In 1936, through the mediation of the Wuppertal architect Heinz Rasch - with whom he had been friends since working together at the 1924 building exhibition in Stuttgart - he met Kurt Herberts , owner of a Wuppertal paint factory, and worked in his Wuppertal working group from 1937 . Other artists ostracized by the Nazi rulers worked there alongside him: Hans Hildebrandt , Franz Krause , Alfred Lörcher , Georg Muche and Oskar Schlemmer. This year five of his works were shown in the National Socialist exhibition “ Degenerate Art ”.
Until the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts was banned from painting and exhibiting in 1941, Baumeister still had many opportunities to exhibit his work in other European countries. Despite the ban and constant surveillance, he worked on his artistic work in parallel to his work in the Herberts paint factory. When Wuppertal and finally Baumeister's house in Stuttgart became uninhabitable in 1943, he and his family moved to Urach on the Swabian Alb . At the beginning of April 1945 he was supposed to defend the place with a bazooka in the Volkssturm , but the family fled to Lake Constance, where they stayed with Max Ackermann in his summer house in Horn near Radolfzell . Baumeister and his family stayed on Lake Constance for the summer. He only returned to Stuttgart in September.
After the Second World War
After the end of the Second World War , Willi Baumeister completed his book The Unknown in Art in 1945 , which appeared in 1947, the manuscript of which he had already written in 1943/1944. His first appearance at an exhibition after twelve years of National Socialist rule was in autumn 1945 when he took part in the “German Art of Our Time” exhibition organized as part of the Überlingen Culture Week . On November 15 of the same year, " Wilhelm F. Arntz [...] on behalf of the Stuttgart city administration in the foyer of the Kammerspiele of the Stuttgart New Theater (Friedrichstrasse 13) opened to a large audience Baumeister's first solo exhibition in Germany after 1933". On March 16, 1946, Minister of Culture (then Württemberg-Baden official title) Theodor Heuss appointed Willi Baumeister as professor and head of a class for "decorative painting" at the newly constituted State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart . Baumeister immediately noted in his diary:
- "Appointment to the Academy of Fine Arts, according to the official letter signed by Councilor Dr. Kauffmann to be considered completed. In 14 days it will be 13 years since I was abruptly adopted. I might think I'd never come to the surface. Now everything seems favorable, especially the successful pictures that were taken in the dark years. What will the office bring? Decorative painting class. I don't like this name. "
The term was not used later, rather Baumeister's academy class was considered a specialist class for painting. The plan proposed in 1945 in connection with the discussions about the reopening of the Stuttgart Academy, especially by the Stuttgart museum men Theodor Musper and Erwin Petermann with the support of the American side, Baumeister for the director of the academy or him in the event of a merger of the academy, arts and crafts school and architecture department Appointing a member of the board of directors of the Technical University together with Richard Döcker was not realized, the sculptor Hermann Brachert was appointed acting director. Baumeister became a member of a planning committee set up by Heuss to prepare for the rebuilding of the Stuttgart Academy.
In 1949, Willi Baumeister was a co-founder of the artist group “ Objectless ”, which exhibited for the first time in 1950 under the name “ ZEN 49 ”. Baumeister met Fritz Winter , Ernst Wilhelm Nay and many others who were involved in the visual arts after the end of the war and dictatorship in Germany for a fresh start and connection to international developments. In July 1950 he took part in the “First Darmstadt Conversation” on the occasion of the exhibition “The Image of Man in Our Time”. Baumeister defended modern art against Hans Sedlmayr's thesis of the “loss of the center”.
From 1951 to 1954 Willi Baumeister was a member of the board of the re-established German Association of Artists . On March 13, 1951, the Senate of the Stuttgart Academy elected him with an overwhelming majority as deputy rector for two years, after the rector election - in the case of “division of teachers” (Willi Baumeister) - had resulted in a one-vote difference in favor of Hermann Brachert, who had been in office since 1946 . At that time, until his death in 1955, he had reached the height of his artistic career, which found expression in many national and international exhibition participations (e.g. participation in the Venice Biennale in 1948 and 1952, Biennale São Paulo ( Brazil ) in 1951 (Prize for his painting “Cosmic Gesture”), “Younger European Artists”, Guggenheim Museum New-York).
After the academy had applied for a one-year extension of the regular employment relationship since 1953, due to resistance from the cultural authority, Baumeister, whose classes were attended by around 200 students, retired on February 28, 1955, but received a “teaching assignment for non-objective Painting ”for the summer semester 1955. In the nine years of his work at the academy, he was exposed to numerous hostilities, his progressive pedagogical views, characterized by“ open ”teaching (leitmotif:“ We don't paint pictures, we study ”), the students attracted from all over the world, met with fierce resistance from colleagues. In 1949, for example, his internal proposal for the reform of elementary artistic teaching (first published by Wolfgang Kermer in 1971), which characterized him as an authentic pioneer and protector of the idea of a fundamental artistic “preliminary apprenticeship”, because it dates back to the dawn of the 20th century, was made by the then rector Hermann Brachert, who saw his opinion supported in particular by Gerhard Gollwitzer , Hans Meid and Karl Rössing , was rejected. At the first exhibition of the Stuttgart Academy after the war he propagated his pedagogical conception with the text “From Imitation to Creation” in the spring of 1949 and, as shortly before in Wuppertal, showed fourteen in Stuttgart (later supplemented by another four with student work) “ Didactic tables "," schematic illustrations of design and didactic considerations, diagrams and abbreviated, succinct speculations about color and form "(Wolfgang Kermer).
Prominent artists emerged from his student circle in Stuttgart, including Klaus Bendixen , Karl Bohrmann , Peter Brüning , Hans Werner Geerdts , Peter Grau , Klaus Jürgen-Fischer , Herbert W. Kapitzki , Emil Kiess , Frans Krajcberg , Antonio Máro , Eduard Micus , Luisa Richter , Friedrich Seitz , Gerhard Uhlig , Ludwig Wilding , most of whom have worked as university teachers again. In the period from 1931 to 1989, several student exhibitions related to Baumeister's Frankfurt and Stuttgart teaching activities took place.
On August 31, 1955, Willi Baumeister died, brush in hand, sitting in front of his easel in his studio in Stuttgart.
On the occasion of his appointment to the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart, Willi Baumeister outlined his artistic development in 1946 in an article for the Stuttgarter Zeitung :
- “Until 1907 naturalist; 1907 to 1909 impressionist; 1910 to 1914 post-impressionism; 1919 to 1930 constructivism; 1924 to 1929 sports pictures; 1930 to 1935 abstractions of sports images; 1935 to 1937 'painterly compositions'; 1937 to 1938 non-representational painting (ideograms); 1939 series of compositions with floating forms; 1942 elementary black and white compositions and relief painting; 1940 pictures with colored glazes; 1942 black and white pictures and relief pictures; 1943 illustrations for 'Gilgamesch', for 'saul', 'esther', 'storm' by Shakespeare; 1944 drafting of the manuscript 'the unknown in art' ”.
Baumeister first took part in an exhibition in 1910 and showed figurative works influenced by Impressionism . At that time, however, he was particularly interested in Cubism and Paul Cézanne , whose work he remained connected to throughout his life. The influences of Impressionism and Cubism that shaped the beginning of Baumeister's painting played an essential role in his work until the late 1920s. On the one hand, his representational painting is becoming increasingly reduced (more abstract / geometric), gaining form, losing depth. There are also parallels to the painting of his friend Oskar Schlemmer and Otto Meyer-Amden as part of an independent further development of Baumeister's handling of form and color. His teacher Adolf Hölzel wrote to him as early as 1919: “Of all of us you will be the one who comes the highest.” It is striking that the specifically German path to modernity, Expressionism , is hardly echoed in Baumeister's work, although it was early on for example, he met Franz Marc and in any case knew the works of the Brücke artists such as those of the Blauer Reiter .
After his return from the First World War, Baumeister consistently continued to develop his work. The forms become more geometric, gain their own dynamism and Baumeister breaks the traditional connection between form and color. For Baumeister, the usually strict separation between abstract and figurative plays a less important role. By preoccupying with the image of man, Baumeister gains his very own formal language. At this time, various groups of works were created, including the relief-like wall pictures or paintings on the subject of sport (as a symbol of modernity). In his painting the examination of the form and the material of the painting as well as the relationship between reality and image is visible. At the same time, non-representational painting is also taking on a clear contour in paintings that focus on geometric shapes and their relationships to one another in the picture (e.g. area ratio from 1920). The lively exchange with other German and also foreign artists can be seen as of great importance for the consistent further development of Baumeister's work, since for many of his artistic contemporaries similar, if not the same issues are on the agenda of modernity (e.g. El Lissitzky , Kasimir Malewitsch , Wassili Kandinsky , Fernand Léger , Amédée Ozenfant , Le Corbusier , Paul Klee ).
Towards the end of the 1920s, the forms in Baumeister's pictures softened. He gives up the strict painting based on the basic forms of circles, triangles and rectangles in favor of increasingly organic forms. A development that can also be observed in the work of other artists of his time, but which Baumeister also has to do with his fascination for prehistoric archaic painting. Willi Baumeister deals intensively with early painterly evidence and integrates this pictorial experience into his own painting. Baumeister identifies the symbols, signs and figures of the cave paintings as valid archaic imagery that he addresses in his work. This includes the fact that more and more paintings are now being created in “oil on sand on canvas”, which also come close to the cave painting admired by Baumeister (from around 1933) in terms of their material. He himself collects examples of prehistoric finds, small sculptures and tools, and deals with rock carvings that were discovered in Rhodesia. This experience is undoubtedly important for Baumeister's artistic approach, since, inspired by this rich collection of symbols from prehistoric works, he finally uses extraordinarily reduced organic forms for his “ ideograms ” (from around 1937). In them he uses his very own world of symbols, which he understands as symbols for the laws of nature, their development and for human existence.
Baumeister's development as a painter was not interrupted when he lost his professorship at the Frankfurt Städel in 1933. Despite political persecution and economic difficulties, he consistently continues to paint. His work and its development is correspondingly diverse for the period beyond 1941, when he was banned from exhibiting. The employment in the Wuppertal paint factory Dr. Kurt Herberts & Co for research on ancient and modern painting techniques protects him on the one hand politically, on the other hand gives him the opportunity to deal with the basics of painting, so that he can deepen his knowledge of the techniques of prehistoric cave painting. At the same time, he turns to Goethe's idea of primeval plant forms. The result is the “Eidos-Bilder” (Eidos: Idea): Paintings that, unlike Baumeister's ideograms, are rich in diversity and color. Furthermore, the forms are organic, but seem to be less symbols or signs than images of simple plant and animal life forms. The pictures have titles such as rock garden , Eidos or Urpflanzlich .
As a tireless researcher and collector, Baumeister also has examples of African sculptures in which, as in the evidence of prehistory, he sees universal images of life, becoming and human existence. Correspondingly, their formal language found its way into Baumeister's work in the early 1940s - highly abstract, initially reserved in color ( African story , 1942) and increasingly colorful over time, sometimes very complex in their formal design ( Owambo , 1944/1948). The title and formal language also prove Baumeister's preoccupation with other ancient ( Latin American ) cultures ( Peruvian Wall, 1946, or Aztec Couple , 1948).
Another example of the search for the “foundations of art” is Baumeister's implementation of the Gilgamesh epic . If this is one of the oldest written poems that has survived in writing, Baumeister uses his personal language of images and symbols in his illustration of the story (from 1943), resulting in a closed cycle, which, with its visual language, closely resembles the effect emanating from the story (Appearance) reaches the modern reader. Further illustrations are created for texts from the Bible: Saul, Esther, Salome, as well as for William Shakespeare's The Tempest ( The Tempest ).
In this way, Baumeister purposefully and successfully developed a very personal visual language that is and remains unique in German art immediately after 1945. The recognition that he received in the post-war period at home and abroad is correspondingly high. However, his artistic development did not stop there. On the one hand, he continued to develop his painting with virtuosity, and also combined the diversity of his creative phases in many other pictures - in part to “overall structures”, which, however, still have a foundation that is reminiscent of landscape pictures ( Blue Movement , 1950). On the other hand, highly condensed abstractions emerged which, based on a central form, characterize Baumeister as an outstanding “non-objective”. These paintings are probably best known and are directly associated with Willi Baumeister by a broad public (including Montaru with white and red , 1953 or later ARU 2 , 1955). However, Baumeister did not commit to this late “trademark”. Diverse and multicolored pictures emerge in parallel in the year of his death.
Willi Baumeister's work is particularly noticeable today in Germany, France, Italy and Spain. In contrast to the “French classics” of modernism in particular, or the important American artists of the second half of the 20th century , Baumeister received little attention in the Anglo-Saxon world. The quality of his work is undisputed. It is clear, however, that he, working in the “ inner emigration ” during the Nazi dictatorship, had no influence on a lively artistic environment. After 1945 Willi Baumeister played an important role in German and European art development. Of the German painters who did not leave the country despite the persecution by the National Socialists, only a few other artists took such forward-looking steps leading to new contents and forms between 1933 and 1945. After 1945 he became a spokesman in the debate about modernity. Baumeister was regarded as an advocate for “abstract” painting and as such was valued as much as it was violently attacked.
A significant collection of Willi Baumeister's works can be found in the Willi Baumeister archive, which is part of the Stuttgart Art Museum , and in the Domnick Collection , Nürtingen .
- 1910: Württembergischer Kunstverein (as a guest at an exhibition of French painters)
- 1927: Galerie d'Art Contemporain, Paris, France
- 1929: State House at Rheinpark, Cologne
- 1929: Large art exhibition, Kunstverein Kassel
- 1930: Venice Biennale, Italy
- 1931: Kunstverein Frankfurt
- 1935: Galleria Il Milione, Milan, Italy
- 1939: Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris, France
- 1949: Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris, France
- 1950: Zen 49 , Central Collecting Point , Munich
- 1951: German Association of Artists, University of Fine Arts, Berlin
- 1953: Guggenheim Museum New York, USA
- 1954: Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart
- 1955: documenta 1 , Kassel
- 1955: Cercle Volnay, Paris, France
- 1959: documenta II , Kassel
- 1964: documenta III , Kassel
- 1965: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne
- 1971: Willi Baumeister, painting , Kunsthalle Tübingen
- 1975: Willi Baumeister: lithographs and etchings, printed by Erich Mönch , State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart
- 1985: Willi Baumeister, drawings and gouaches , Galerie Roswitha Haftmann Modern Art, Zurich
- 1989: National Gallery Berlin
- 1989: Willi Baumeister: Typography and advertising design , State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart
- 1990: Willi Baumeister: Typography and advertising design , Deutscher Werkbund, Frankfurt am Main
- 1999: Willi Baumeister et la France , Musée d'Unterlinden, Colmar
- 2000: Musée d'Art Moderne, Saint-Etienne
- 2003: Thyssen Bornemisza Museum, Madrid
- 2004: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich
- 2004: Willi Baumeister - Karl Hofer: Encounter of Images , Museum of Fine Arts, Leipzig
- 2005: Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg
- 2005: The Frankfurt years 1928–1933 , Museum Giersch , Frankfurt am Main
- 2005: Westphalian State Museum for Art and Cultural History, Münster
- 2006: Von der Heydt-Museum , Wuppertal
- 2007: Art Museum Stuttgart
- 2007: Galerie Domberger, Filderstadt , Germany
- 2011: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart : Gilgamesch , review: Badische Zeitung of January 7th, 2011, p. 12, culture, Volker Bauermeister: A wall of pictures
- 2011: Museu Fundación Juan March, Palma
- 2012: Kunstmuseum Winterthur
- 2012: MART Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto , Trento
- 2013/2014: Willi Baumeister International , Kunstmuseum Stuttgart
- 2014: Willi Baumeister International , Museum Küppersmühle for Modern Art , Duisburg
- 2015: Curtain up for Willi Baumeister! , House of City History, Waiblingen
- 2016: The desire for the unknown - Willi Baumeister, Municipal Museums and Galleries, Paderborn
- 2016/2017: On paper ... works by Willi Baumeister , Kunstmuseum Stuttgart
- 2016/2017: Gilgamesch - Builder and Schumacher , Emil Schumacher Museum , Hagen
- 2016/2017: Coming and going artist residencies in the Frankfurt / Rhein Main region , Museum Giersch of the Goethe University
- 2017: Artige Kunst , traveling exhibition Bochum-Rostock-Regensburg,
- New typography . In: Die Form, vol. 1, 1925/26, issue 10, pp. 215-217 ( digitized version ).
- The unknown in art. 1947, 1960, 1974, 1988, ISBN 3-7701-2159-7 .
- Gilgamesh. With an introduction by Werner Haftmann, Cologne 1976.
- Stuttgart and the Swabians. Edited and with an afterword by Wolfgang Kermer Willi Baumeister and the magazine 'Der Cross-Section'. State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart 1999 (= WerkstattReihe [State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart] edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 6)
- Cezanne. Edited and with an introduction by Wolfgang Kermer. State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart 2006 (= WerkstattReihe [State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart] edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 16) ISBN 3-931485-79-X . (Reprinted on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Cézanne's death)
- Will Grohmann : Willi Baumeister - life and work. DuMont, Cologne 1963, 1988.
- Jürgen Claus: The unknown as the potential of the creative person. In: ders: Theories of contemporary painting. rowohlts deutsche enzyklopädie, vol. 182. Reinbek / Hamburg 1963, p. 22 ff. New edition: Jürgen Claus: Painting as Action. Ullstein Malerialien, Frankfurt / M. 1986, p. 22 ff.
- Götz Adriani : Willi Baumeister, painting. Catalog publication at the Kunsthalle Tübingen ; Kunstverein Ludwigshafen - Kunstverein Mannheim; Municipal art collections Bonn, Tübingen and Cologne 1971.
- Wolfgang Kermer : Some aspects of Willi Baumeister's art teaching. In: 175 years of Friedrich-Eugens-Gymnasium Stuttgart. Belser, Stuttgart 1971, pp. 126-152. (Among other things, the first publication of Baumeister's draft reform from 1949, proposal to include the “elementary design means” in the existing “general preliminary or basic class” ).
- Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister. Lithographs and etchings, printed by Erich Mönch. State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart 1975.
- Dietmar Ponert: Willi Baumeister - catalog raisonné of drawings, gouaches and collages. DuMont, Cologne 1988. ISBN 3-8321-7300-5
- Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X . (with detailed biographical data)
- Hans-Dieter Mück: Master builder, Schlemmer and the Üecht group. Stuttgart avant-garde 1919. Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-87516-512-8 .
- Réne Hirner-Schüssele: From Intuition to Form Invention. Studies on Willi Baumeister's theory of modern art = manuscripts for art history in the Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, 32nd Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1990, ISBN 978-3-88462-931-4 .
- Willi Baumeister. Lithographs, serigraphs - 55 works from the period 1919 to 1964. Catalog No. 109. Galerie Schlichtenmaier, Grafenau 1991, ISBN 3-89298-069-1 .
- Jörg-Heiko Bruns: Willi Baumeister. Dresden 1991, ISBN 3-364-00249-5 .
- Wolfgang Kermer: The creative angle - Willi Baumeister's educational activity . Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart . Edited by Wolfgang Kermer. Vol. 7. Edition Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1992, ISBN 3-89322-420-3 . (With a catalog and reproductions of the didactic boards from 1949)
- Willi Baumeister. Paintings, lithographs, serigraphs - 55 works from 1919 to 1964 . With a contribution by Werner Haftmann. Catalog No. 132. Schlichtenmaier Gallery, Grafenau 1994, ISBN 3-89298-096-9 .
- Gottfried Boehm : Willi Baumeister. Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-7757-0559-7 .
- Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): From Willi Baumeister's diaries. Memories of Otto Meyer-Amden, Adolf Hölzel, Paul Klee, Karl Konrad Düssel and Oskar Schlemmer. With additional writings and letters from Willi Baumeister. Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart. Edited by Wolfgang Kermer. Vol. 8th Edition Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1996, ISBN 3-89322-421-1 .
- Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): Between book art and book design, book designer at the academy and former arts and crafts school in Stuttgart. Work examples and texts. Württemberg State Library Stuttgart, October 30th – 23rd November 1996. Exhibition catalog. Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1996, ISBN 3-89322-893-4 , pp. 17-18, 55-57, 122-123, 167-173. (detailed biography with catalog raisonné)
- Willi Baumeister, Julius Bissier, Oskar Schlemmer, artist friendships. Gallery Schlichtenmaier Schloss Dätzingen July 12th – 12th September 1998. With a contribution by Karin von Maur . Exhibition catalog No. 155. Grafenau 1998, ISBN 3-89298-121-3 .
- Willi Baumeister In dialogue with the collector . Gallery Schlichtenmaier Schloss Dätzingen June 27–11. September 1999. With a contribution by Heinz Spielmann and Willi Baumeister “Zimmer- und Wandgeister”. Exhibition catalog No. 159 Grafenau 1999, ISBN 3-89298-125-6 .
- Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister as a typographer and advertising designer for the DLW . In: Gerhard Kaldewei (ed.): Linoleum - history, design, architecture 1882–2000. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2000, ISBN 3-7757-0962-2 , pp. 210-223.
- Peter Beye , Felicitas Baumeister: Willi Baumeister. Catalog of works of the paintings. Ostfildern-Ruit 2002, ISBN 978-3-7757-0936-1 .
- Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister and the Werkbund exhibition "The Apartment" Stuttgart 1927 . Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart. Edited by Wolfgang Kermer. Vol. 11th State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-931485-55-2 .
- Heinz Spielmann / Felicitas Baumeister: Willi Baumeister. Catalog of works of prints. Ostfildern-Ruit 2005, ISBN 3-7757-1690-4 .
- Willi Baumeister - Figures and Signs. Catalog Hamburg, Münster, Wuppertal. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2005. ISBN 3-7757-1691-2 .
- Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): About builders: the artist and teacher in the judgment of his students. State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart 2006 (= WerkstattReihe [State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart] edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 15) ISBN 3-931485-77-3 . (With contributions by Klaus Bendixen, Heinz Bodamer, Klaus Erler, Fia Ernst, Erich Fuchs, Hans Werner Geerdts, Peter Grau, Marta Hoepffner, Hans-Dieter Ingenhoff, Klaus Jürgen-Fischer, Herbert W. Kapitzki, Frans Krajcberg, Eduard Micus, Fritz Seitz, Gerhard Uhlig and a directory of the Baumeister-pupil exhibitions)
- In the spotlight. Master builder as a set designer. Munich / Berlin 2007, ISBN 3-422-06775-2 .
- Gerd Presler / Felicitas Baumeister: Willi Baumeister. Catalog raisonné of the sketchbooks. Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-422-06890-2 .
- Willi Baumeister: paintings and drawings . Edited by Dieter Schwarz and Manuel Fontán del Junco. Exhibition cat. Museu Fundación Juan March, Palma, June 9th – 10th December 2011; Kunstmuseum Winterthur, January 28–22. April 2012; MART Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto, June 23–9. September 2012. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 2011, ISBN 978-3-941263-34-5 .
- Daniel Spanke: Constructed Apollo. Willi Baumeister's Apollo Pictures and the New Man by Otto Meyer-Amden and Oskar Schlemmer. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin / Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-07022-6 .
- Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister 1889–1955. Creator from the unknown. epubli, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-8442-6815-7 . ( Open access edition )
- Gilgamesh - Builder and Schumacher. Edited by Ulrich Schumacher and Rouven Lotz . Exhibition cat. Emil Schumacher Museum, Hagen, November 13, 2016–26. June 2017.
- Literature by and about Willi Baumeister in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Willi Baumeister in the German Digital Library
- Search for Willi Baumeister in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Materials by and about Willi Baumeister in the documenta archive
- Irmgard Zündorf: Willi Baumeister. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- willi-baumeister.org , official Willi-Baumeister website of the archive and the Baumeister family, Stuttgart (with numerous images)
- Wolfgang Brauer: The way to the origins - Willi Baumeister's works on paper . In: Das Blättchen , Vol. 21, No. 4 from February 12, 2018
- Builder, Willi. Hessian biography. (As of January 22, 2020). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Baumeister, Willi in the Frankfurt Personal Lexicon
- ↑ Jörg Kurz: The Gänsheide , history and culture. Verlag im Ziegelhaus, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-925440-16-8 .
- ^ Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister 1889–1955. Creator from the unknown. epubli, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-8442-6815-7 . ( Open access edition )
- ^ Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister 1889–1955. Creator from the unknown. epubli, Berlin 2013, p. 15. ( Open Access edition )
- ^ Exhibition catalog Art Exhibition Stuttgart 1914. Kgl. Art building, Schloßplatz, May to October. Edited by the Association of Art Friends in the States on the Rhine, Stuttgart 1914, p. 47, cat. No. 401 ("Image IV", oil painting), cat. 404 ("Image III", oil painting) and cat. No. 409 ("Image I", oil painting).
- ↑ Hölzel and his circle 1916 . Strecker and Schröder [Drucker], Stuttgart September 1916, ill. P. 33 ( Eva ), 34 ( readers ), 35 ( blue composition ), 36 ( Gestade ), the text is printed on p. 19.
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer : Timeline . In: Ders .: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 305, illus. P. 254 No. 4 (copy of the certificate of Willi Baumeister's study times, issued by the Württemberg Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart on 8. December 1927)
- ^ Catalog of the Deutscher Künstlerbund Cologne 1929. May – September 1929 in the State House. M. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1929. ( Baumeister, Willi, Frankfurt AM : Cat. No. 23: Center , 24: Swimmer on the ladder (Fig. P. 43), 25: Boxing school )
- ↑ All covers of the magazine designed by Baumeister are shown in color in: Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister - Typographie und Reklamegestaltung . Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , pp. 286-287.
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister and the magazine "Der Cross Section". In: Willi Baumeister: Stuttgart and the Swabians. WerkstattReihe (6), ed. by Wolfgang Kermer. State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, 1999, pp. 9–13.
- ↑ Brigitte Pedde: Willi Baumeister - Creator from the Unknown. Willi Baumeister Foundation, Bonn 2013, p. 80.
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer: Timeline. In: Ders .: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 317.
- ^ Willi Baumeister, diary note, March 16, 1946, quoted from: Wolfgang Kermer: Zeittafel. In: Ders .: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 317.
- ^ Wolfgang Kermer: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 317.
- ↑ kuenstlerbund.de: Board members of the German Association of Artists since 1951 ( Memento from December 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on November 16, 2015)
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer: Timeline. In: Ders .: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 337.
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer: Timeline. In: Ders .: Willi Baumeister - typography and advertising design. Edition Cantz, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-89322-145-X , p. 341
- ^ Reprint of the text "From Imitation to Creation" published in the booklet accompanying the Academy Exhibition in 1949, as well as a list of the "Didactic tables" in: Wolfgang Kermer: Der schöpferische Winkel - Willi Baumeister's educational activity. Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart . Vol. 7th ed. By Wolfgang Kermer. Edition Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1992, ISBN 3-89322-420-3 , pp. 171–172 (text), pp. 136–141 (directory of the "Didactic tables") as well as color illus. Pp. 145-162.
- ^ A directory of Willi Baumeister's students at the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart 1946–1955 in: Wolfgang Kermer: Der Schöpferische Winkel - Willi Baumeister's educational activity. Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart. Vol. 7th ed. By Wolfgang Kermer. Edition Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1992, ISBN 3-89322-420-3 , pp. 199-201.
- ↑ List of the student exhibitions in: Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): About Baumeister: the artist and teacher in the judgment of his students. State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, Stuttgart 2006 (= WerkstattReihe [State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart], edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 15) ISBN 3-931485-77-3 , pp. 54–55.
- ^ The newspaper page (Sunday supplement of the Stuttgarter Zeitung of September 21, 1946) with autobiographies of the newly appointed professors at the Stuttgart Academy reproduced in facsimile in: Wolfgang Kermer: thirty years ago . In: Akademie-Mitteilungen 7 , Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart, 1976, p. 3.
- ↑ Spanke, Daniel .: Constructed Apollo. : Willi Baumeister's Apollo Pictures and the New Man by Otto Meyer-Amden and Oskar Schlemmer . Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-07022-6 .
- ↑ Ludmila Vachtova . Roswitha Haftmann . P. 103
- ↑ kunstgeschichteportal.de, April 20, 2011, Günter Baumann: Exhibition review (July 31, 2011)
- ^ Entry in the state bibliography of Baden-Württemberg
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Builder, Friedrich Wilhelm|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 22, 1889|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Stuttgart|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 31, 1955|
|Place of death||Stuttgart|