State Gallery Stuttgart
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is an art museum in the state of Baden-Württemberg . It was opened in 1843 and shows paintings from the High Middle Ages onwards as well as sculptures from the 19th century and has an extensive graphic collection . The extension building, the Neue Staatsgalerie , opened in 1984 and designed by architect James Stirling in the style of postmodern architecture , is considered a masterpiece of this style in Germany.
Architecture and history
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is made up of three parts of the building, which stand for different definitions of museum architecture.
The State Gallery goes back to the Gesamtkunstanstalt opened in 1843 under the name Museum der Bildenden Künste , which spatially combined the Stuttgart Art School and the state art collections assigned to it.
Old State Gallery
In the classical Old State Gallery , which is one of the early museum buildings in Germany, the royal art school was originally housed in addition to the art collections. The art collections, which initially served primarily as teaching collections for art students, included the painting collection, a large number of plaster casts of sculptures and the copperplate cabinet. The three-wing building was erected between 1838 and 1842 according to the plans of the architect Gottlob Georg von Barth and opened in 1843 as a museum of fine arts . Albert von Bok added two wings to the original building from 1881 to 1888 . Throughout the 19th century, professors at the art school were also heads of collections for their respective disciplines.
From 1901 to 1907 the gallery halls were redesigned under the director Konrad Lange and the collection was systematically organized for the first time. From 1931, the “Painting Department (Director Dr. Braune) [...] carried the collective name“ State Gallery ”and [was] with the attached parts, the graphic and plastic collection, including the plaster collection, in the building at Neckarstrasse 32 (Museum of Fine Arts : Collection of paintings and plastic collection; older sculptures and plasters) and Königstraße 32 (former Kronprinzenpalais: newer paintings by Swabian artists, graphic collection, plastic collection: newer sculptures) ". In 1944 the former Kronprinzenpalais was completely destroyed in the heavy bombing raids on Stuttgart, the building at Neckarstraße 32 almost completely destroyed, rebuilt from 1946 and reopened in 1958. Extensive renovation measures took place between 2006 and 2010.
The photo collection of the Kupferstichkabinett is located in the photo collection of the Art History Institute of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen and is managed by the Museum of the University of Tübingen .
New State Gallery
In 1974 the state of Baden-Württemberg carried out a general ideas competition for the museum grounds. In 1977 an international limited competition for an extension to the Old State Gallery was announced. In addition to the seven winners from 1974, including Günter Behnisch , four foreigners were invited, including Stirling. The design by the London office of James Stirling, Michael Wilford & Associates was the unanimous winner of the competition. On March 9, 1984, the New State Gallery was inaugurated. Today it is considered one of the most important works of postmodern architecture in Germany. In 1985, Henry Moore installed “Die Liegende” in front of the main entrance .
The unconventional architecture of the building was initially controversial both among the specialist audience and the general public. Ironically alienated historical building forms and cladding alternating with travertine and sandstone contrast with bright green windows, colorful steel girders and pink-blue handrails. The international trade press reacted largely positively. But leading architects such as Frei Otto and architecture critics such as the Austrian Friedrich Achleitner accused Stirling of the monumentality and the many historical quotations in its building - a taboo break because the German architecture of the post-war period, in contrast to the architecture of the National Socialists, rejected everything monumental and historicizing went the way. Stirling countered the criticism: “We hope that the building has become ... monumental because monumentality is part of the tradition of public buildings. But we also hope that it has become informal and 'populist', popular. ”() In the first year after the opening, the number of visitors rose to second place in the German visitor statistics.
Extension of the Old State Gallery
From 2000 to 2002, the third building of the Staatsgalerie was an extension to the Alte Staatsgalerie, which today houses the graphic collection as well as two new exhibition halls and the graphic cabinet. The building was designed by the Swiss architect couple Katharina and Wilfrid Steib . It comprises a total of five floors over a length of 70 meters and is located to the east behind the Alte Staatsgalerie, to which it is connected by two glass bridges.
For the first time after the war, the State Gallery's graphic collection, comprising over 400,000 objects, had adequate premises available to ensure adequate accommodation, restoration and presentation of the works.
- Carl Lemcke , 1881 to 1901
- Konrad Lange , 1901 to 1907
- Max Diez , 1907 to 1915
- Heinrich Weizsäcker , 1915 to 1919?
- Edwin Redslob , 1919 to 1920?
- Hans Buchheit , 1920 to 1931
- Otto Fischer , 1921 to 1927
- Heinz Braune , 1927 to 1946
- Heinrich Theodor Musper , 1946 to 1963
- Erwin Petermann , 1963 to 1969
- Peter Beye , 1969 to 1994
- Christian von Holst , 1994 to 2006
- Sean Rainbird , 2006 to 2012
- Christiane Lange , since 2013
History of the collection of painting and sculpture
The State Gallery's collection comprises a total of around 5,000 paintings and sculptures. The story goes back to the 18th century. During this time the dukes of Württemberg laid the foundation with their collections.
The State Gallery houses, among other things:
- Old German painting 1300–1550
- The basis of this stock was laid in 1859 by purchasing 73 old Swabian panel paintings, including by Bartholomäus Zeitblom , from the Carl Gustav Abels collection .
- On the initiative of director Konrad von Lange (1901–1907), the collection was significantly expanded in the 20th century. The museum was able to acquire not only important works such as the Mühlhausen winged altar (also known as the “Prager Altar”) and the Ehninger altar, but also numerous paintings from royal and ecclesiastical property. Konrad Lange placed the emphasis on the profiling and accentuation of the old Swabian population. In 1924 the Herrenberg Altar , Jerg Ratgeb's main work , was added to the collection. Even after the end of World War II, important works by regional artists were acquired. These regional artists include Hans Schäufelin , Hans Holbein the Elder , Lucas Cranach the Elder and Christoph Amberger .
- The old German collection was later expanded to include exemplary works such as a panel by the master of the Darmstadt Passion , the work “Christ as Man of Sorrows” by Hans Baldung and Hans Holbein's “ Gray Passion ”.
- Italian painting 1300–1800
- Important works such as Mattia Preti's large format “Christ and the Canaanite” and Fra Bartolommeo's fragments with the “Coronation of Mary” were acquired early on . Then in 1852 the purchase of the Venetian private collection Barbini-Breganze with a high proportion of paintings from the Baroque and Rococo represented the decisive direction. With 195 paintings, this collection forms the largest complex within Italian painting in the State Gallery and the focus it sets is still visible: over half of the paintings collected in total are from the 17th and 18th centuries. Shortly before the turn of the 20th century, the management of the State Gallery was handed over to an art historian for the first time, and so new acquisitions could be made after the long period of classicist acquisitions. In 1948 31 Italian works were able to move into the Staatsgalerie through donations. These included pictures by Giambattista Pittoni , Bernardo Strozzi , Andrea Celesti , Francesco Maffei , Nicola Grassi and Luca Giordano . The State Gallery's collection acquires its individual character through works by artists who are rarely represented in museums. These include Crosato, Pietro Faccini and Gaspare Traversi. Newer acquisitions were also made in accordance with the existing structure of the collection.
- In 1971 the Staatsgalerie received 36 early Italian panel paintings as a bequest from Gerhard Freiherr von Preuschen. This aspect of the collection was also expanded with individual targeted purchases, for example with works by Mariotto Di Nardo or Lorenzo Monaco as well as the Erbach tables from Giotto's surroundings .
- Dutch painting 1500–1700
- The State Gallery's Dutch collection includes around 70 paintings from almost three centuries. This average size can be traced back to the fact that it was only possible to add to the collection at a late stage. Some important works come from historical ownership: The painting “Bathsheba in the Bath” by Hans Memling was able to find its way into the State Gallery by purchasing the collection of Count Gustav Adolf von Gotter . Jan van Amstel's painting "Entry of Christ into Jerusalem" was formerly owned by Burgrave Reinhard von Roeder. Both works were acquired in the 18th century, but several important acquisitions were made in the following century: The works “Paulus im Prison” by Rembrandt van Rijn and “Familienbildnis” by Wybrand Simonsz come from the auction of the Graeflich Schönborn Art Collection in 1867 . De Geests d. Ä. The donation from H. Rustige in the field of Dutch landscape painting set the first accents for the gallery. In the 1940s he donated paintings by Jan van Kessel, Allart van Everdingen , Joos de Momper and Anton Mirou to the Staatsgalerie . Since the 1950s, the collection has also included works by Aelbert Bouts , Peter Paul Rubens , Rembrandt van Rijn, Frans Hals , and Jan Davidsz. de Heem , Jan Steen , Emanuel de Witte and other artists.
- Art 1800–1900
- The 19th century collection includes both regional and international art, mainly from France and England. This collection arose out of princely property in the 18th century and was expanded through royal donations in the 19th century and targeted acquisitions that continue to the present day. The art of Romanticism is represented by Caspar David Friedrich , Carl Gustav Carus and Carl Blechen , among others . Romanticism forms the counterpoint to southwest German classicism, whose protagonists are the sculptor Johann Heinrich Dannecker and the painters Gottlieb Schick and Philipp Friedrich von Hetsch . In the field of French art, the middle of the century is represented with the romanticist Eugène Delacroix and the naturalist Gustave Courbet , as is early impressionism with Claude Monet , Alfred Sisley and Pierre-Auguste Renoir . Representative of turn-of-the-century painting are important works by Camille Pissarro , Paul Signac , Edgar Degas , Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin in the possession of the Staatsgalerie.
- Art 1900–1980
- The collection of classical modernism in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart consists not only of individual outstanding works, but also forms a kind of exemplary cross-section through the various groups of artists and styles of the first decades of the 20th century. The works acquired in the 1920s by Ernst Barlach , Max Beckmann , Otto Dix , Conrad Felixmüller , Erich Heckel , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Paul Klee , Oskar Schlemmer and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff all fell victim to the National Socialist campaign “ Degenerate Art ” and very few could be bought back. In 1959 the collection of the Norwegian shipowner Ragnar Moltzau was bought. The Staatsgalerie thus acquired 30 works of French impressionist painting and the Spaniard Pablo Picasso . This inventory was expanded in the decades 1960 and 1970 and also expanded to include plastic. The acquisition of the collection of the Stuttgart industrialist Hugo Borst in 1968 resulted in numerous paintings by Max Beckmann, Georges Braque , Paul Klee and August Macke , among others . In the 1970s, the focus was on acquisitions by the Bauhaus and Constructivism, but also Dadaism and Surrealism , and Joseph Beuys . In 1998 the Staatsgalerie was given the Steegmann Collection , which contains sculptures and paintings by Pablo Picasso, on permanent loan. In addition, the collection was expanded to include works by Henri Matisse , Piet Mondrian , Franz Marc and Otto Freundlich .
The Staatsgalerie holds four extensive archive holdings. Two include the work of the Stuttgart artists Oskar Schlemmer and Adolf Hölzel . The Staatsgalerie also owns the estate of the art historian Will Grohmann and keeps a large collection of intermediate art, such as Fluxus , Happening and Concrete Poetry, in the Sohm archive . All archives are accessible to the public - after prior agreement with the State Gallery - and can be used for research.
The internationally important graphic collection of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart includes drawings , watercolors, prints, portfolios, illustrated books, book objects, posters, bookplates , collages and photographs. It contains over 400,000 works by more than 12,000 artists. In 2010 it celebrated its 200th anniversary.
Changing exhibitions of the graphic collection take place in the graphic cabinet.
Digital Collection (formerly "Digital Catalog")
The collection Digital allows online access to catalog pages and thumbnail views of the collection holdings of the Staatsgalerie in January of 2009. It started with 500 works from the area of the Old Masters up to the 19th century. Further plants follow continuously. In December 2016, with the relaunch of the website, the digital catalog was expanded with various functions and renamed the Digital Collection . In addition to a full-text search, it is also possible to research using various filter categories and to mark your personal favorite works with a little heart.
The Staatsgalerie regularly shows thematic and temporary exhibitions on artists or art movements, such as The Great Graphic Boom - American Art 1960–1990 (2017), Pop Unlimited (2017) or the Baden-Württemberg state exhibition Der Meister von Meßkirch (from 8. December 2017), Francis Bacon . Invisible Spaces (2016/17) or Kirchner and the “Künstlergemeinschaft Brücke” (2018).
The largest exhibition to date with 185 exhibits was Mythos Atelier. From Spitzweg to Picasso . From Giacometti to Nauman (2012/2013). An important exhibit was, for example, Piet Mondrian's studio , which was reconstructed and was accessible.
For the 50th anniversary of the art movement Fluxus , the exhibition Fluxus! Anti-art is also art (2012/2013). The exhibits came mainly from the Sohm archive of the State Gallery in Stuttgart. In addition to the main topics of Fluxus, artists such as George Brecht , George Maciunas , Yoko Ono and Robert Watts were also presented.
The Edward Burne-Jones exhibition . The earthly paradise. The earthly paradise (2009/2010) was the first monographic exhibition on Edward Burne-Jones.
After the extensive restoration of Hans Holbein's Gray Passion , the altarpiece, which was acquired in 2003, was shown in the exhibition Hans Holbein the Elder , The Gray Passion in Her Time (2010/2011).
In 2014 the State Gallery presented the Baden-Württemberg state exhibition under the title Oskar Schlemmer. Visions of a New World, Schlemmer's largest retrospective for around 40 years. From November 21, 2014 to April 6, 2015, she paid tribute to the work of the Stuttgart artist. In addition to around 200 paintings, sculptures, graphic works and original costumes, previously unpublished documents that the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart could only purchase in 2012 conveyed Schlemmer's artistic vision.
Exhibition series "Open Depot"
In the spring of 2009, the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart launched a new series of focused insights into its collection under the title “Open Depot”. The starting point of the series are the works and collection areas in the museum's depots and archives as well as the examination of the depot itself as a place of safekeeping and categorization. The series asks the question of the interaction between the work of art and its place of representation, the museum ordering system, not only specifically in relation to the collection of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, but also presents current artistic positions.
The following exhibitions have taken place so far:
- Open Depot # 01: Anja Kirschner and David Panos - The Empty Plan. June 29th to October 9th 2011
- Open Depot # 02: Melvin Moti - The Art of Orientation. November 12, 2011 to March 4, 2012
- Open Depot # 03: Simon Starling - ANALOGUE ANALOGIES (Under Small Yellow Horses / Double Patti / Christ Entombed [in an Archival Envelope] / Etc.). October 26, 2013 to March 23, 2014
Open depot of the Scharpff Collection
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is part of the cooperation project Open Depot of the Scharpff Collection . With the help of the collection manager Carolin Scharpff-Striebich , the so-called “open depot” was created, in which the works of contemporary art from the private collection are integrated. This will enable five German museums - Hamburger Kunsthalle , Kunstmuseum Stuttgart , Kunstmuseum Bonn , Staatsgalerie Stuttgart and Kunsthalle Mannheim - with the holdings of the collection, which was built up by the couple Rudolf and Ute Scharpff from the 1960s, according to their own ideas and wishes To work on the basis of a cooperation agreement.
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, supported by the state of Baden-Württemberg and organized as a state company , is financed from public money, entrance fees and sponsorship money. Sponsors include Daimler AG , Deutsche Sparkassenverlag , the Würth Group , L-Bank , Landesbank Baden-Württemberg and Baden-Württembergische Bank .
The Friends of the State Gallery, with around 10,000 members, have been supporting the maintenance and expansion of the museum since 1906 . The association also strengthens art education and occasionally finances publications and exhibitions. In addition, the support group was founded in 1986 with around 400 members within the Friends of the State Gallery. At the end of 2007 the board of directors of the Friends of the State Gallery founded the dependent support foundation Friends of the State Gallery in Stuttgart , which serves to promote art and culture. Since public budgets for art purchases are constantly falling, the foundation raises sustainable funds for the State Gallery and the Friends of the State Gallery.
The historian Anja Heuss has been working on provenance research in the Staatsgalerie since October 2009 . It is checked whether there are illegally acquired cultural property in the museum. The history of works that were acquired after 1933 and were created before 1945 is primarily examined. In nine cases there are claims from the heirs of Jewish art dealers. In addition, the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart handles other cases automatically. It is difficult to distinguish whether a work of art was sold under normal conditions or whether the sale was due to persecution. The assignment is also made more difficult because the inventory and all files of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart burned during the Second World War. The Staatsgalerie does not have any files from before 1933.
In 2009 the Staatsgalerie returned two paintings to the heirs of the previous Jewish owner, which belonged to the Wuppertal art dealer Walter Westfeld and which were illegally confiscated and auctioned off by the Nazis in 1938. The works are Adolph von Menzel's painting Still life with an overturned tea kettle, as well as the picture Girl in front of an arbor by an unknown painter.
Also in 2009, after a legal dispute before a New York federal court , the Augsburg gender book was again assigned to the state of Baden-Württemberg. During the Second World War, the valuable “Stuttgarter Band” was stolen from its storage location in Waldburg / Hohenlohe and was considered to be burned until it reappeared at Sotheby's in New York in 2004. Attempts by the German embassy to come to an agreement with the current owner were unsuccessful. In 2010, after the approval of the court in the USA, he returned to the State Gallery's graphic collection. The volume shows heraldic shields held by various imaginatively depicted figures. Its purpose was to splendidly represent the rank and status of families bearing coats of arms. In 2012 the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart dedicated an exhibition to the regained volume.
In March 2013, the painting Maria mit Kind (anonymous Flemish master, formerly attributed to the master of Flémalle ) was returned to the community of heirs of the former Jewish owner Max Stern . It turned out that the painting was only sold after the Nuremberg Race Laws were passed on September 15, 1935. Therefore, the sale is to be classified as persecution-related.
In the case of the Jewish art dealer Alfred Flechtheim , claims were made by the heirs to seven works. A sale due to persecution could not be established in any of the works.
Works that have been acquired unlawfully and for which no legacy can be traced can be found on the Internet platform Lostart. This gives the heirs the opportunity to report.
30 restitution proceedings are currently underway in the state museums of Baden-Württemberg.
Education and mediation
The Staatsgalerie offers an accompanying program for all exhibitions. This is particularly aimed at children, young people and families; for example in the form of guided tours of the children's practice or family Sundays.
In October 2009 the Rudi Häussler Youth Foundation handed over a building that until 1945 belonged to the former Württ. Academy of Fine Arts in Urbanstrasse to the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. The foundation had previously acquired and renovated it from the state with its own funds. The Education and Communication is housed in this building. The building has various group work rooms and a media room in which people can work on photography and film. The State Gallery's art archives fill the remaining rooms.
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is the first art museum in Germany to use a professional quality management system in accordance with ISO 9001 and has also been certified in the area of environmental and energy management in accordance with ISO 14001 and ISO 50001 since 2016.
- Museum check with Markus Brock : Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Documentary, Germany, 2014, 29:30 min., Script and director: Martina Klug, production: SWR , 3sat , first broadcast: May 11, 2014 on 3sat, u. a. with Natalie Wörner and Christiane Lange . Synopsis ( memento from March 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) by 3sat.
- Elisabeth Wiemann: Old German painting. Staatsgalerie Stuttgart , ed. from the Stuttgarter Galerieverein e. V., Stuttgart 1989
- Happy science. The Sohm archive. State Gallery Stuttgart, 1986.
- 20 years Neue Staatsgalerie , special edition of the Stuttgarter Zeitung and the Stuttgarter Nachrichten from March 4, 2004 for the 20th anniversary of the Neue Staatsgalerie
- Anja Heuss: The State Gallery Stuttgart in the time of National Socialism . In: Yearbook of the State Art Collections in Baden-Württemberg 50, 2013/14, pp. 47–58.
- Official website of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
- Collection digital . In: Staatsgalerie.de
- Friends of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart - Stuttgarter Galerieverein e. V.
- Anja Heuss : State Gallery . In: Stadtlexikon-Stuttgart.de, April 19, 2018
- Wolfgang Kermer : The collection of the Stuttgart Academy: some comments on the foundation, prehistory and development on the occasion of its 30-year existence . Stuttgart: State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, 2005 (= WerkstattReihe , edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 12) ISBN 3-931485-71-4
- Reorganization of the state art collections . In: Schwäbischer Merkur , No. 224, September 25, 1931.
- Alte Staatsgalerie ( memento from April 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on staatsgalerie.de , accessed on August 19, 2014.
- According to the special edition of the Stuttgarter Zeitung / Stuttgarter Nachrichten of March 4, 2004
- Website of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart on the extension of the Alte Staatsgalerie ( Memento from March 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Enno Krüger: Early collectors 'old German' panel paintings after the secularization of 1803, Diss. Heidelberg 2009
- see Master of the Ehninger Altar
- Elsbeth Wiemann: The Old Masters. In: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart - The collection. Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-7774-7065-8 .
- Corinna Höper: From the “Königl. Ober-Hof Kupferstich-Bundle ”to this day. In: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart: "... only paper, and yet the whole world ..." - 200 years of graphic collection. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2010, ISBN 978-3-7757-2658-0 , p. 11, collection catalog.
- Digital catalog of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, accessed on April 18, 2015.
- Open Depot # 1. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved July 25, 2017 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Open Depot # 02. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved July 25, 2017 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Open Depot # 03. (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved July 25, 2017 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Sponsors and supporters at staatsgalerie.de , accessed on August 19, 2014.
- Hans-Martin Kaulbach, Helmut Zäh: The Augsburger sex book - coat of arms and figure art . A war loss returns [the graphic collection of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is showing the exhibition "The Augsburger Geschlechtbuch - Wappenpracht und Figurenkunst", March 3 - June 24, 2012]. Quaternio Verlag, Lucerne 2012, ISBN 978-3-905924-11-4 .
- A place for the mediation of art . Rudi Häussler Youth Foundation hands over the renovated building of the former art school to the State Gallery. In: Esslinger Zeitung . October 30, 2012 ( A place for the mediation of art [accessed June 24, 2013]).
- Staatsgalerie Stuttgart with QMS. In: www.tuev-sued.de. Retrieved August 3, 2016 .
- Staatsgalerie Stuttgart can now also be certified according to ISO 14001 and ISO 50001. In: www.tuev-sued.de. Retrieved August 3, 2016 .