Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (pseudonym Louis de Marsalle ; born May 6, 1880 in Aschaffenburg , † June 15, 1938 in Frauenkirch-Wildboden near Davos / Switzerland) was a German painter and graphic artist and is one of the most important representatives of Expressionism . Kirchner was a founding member of the artist group Brücke . In 1937 the National Socialists branded his works as " degenerate ". Over 600 of these works were then sold or destroyed. He died of suicide a year later .
life and work
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was the son of the studied chemist Ernst Kirchner (1847-1921), a specialist in industrial paper production, from 1892 professor at the technical college and trade academy in Chemnitz , and his wife Maria Elise, née Franke (1851-1928), in Aschaffenburg born. He had two younger siblings, Hans Walter and Ulrich Kirchner. The years of study that he began after graduating from high school in Chemnitz in 1901 with a degree in architecture at the Technical University of Dresden , he successfully ended in 1905 with the thesis design of a cemetery complex . In the winter semester of 1903/04 he had studied at the Technical University of Munich , which disappointed him; only attending the Munich Debschitz School was a gain for him. However, after completing his studies, he decided against the profession of architect.
The artist group Brücke
On June 7th, 1905, Kirchner joined forces with Erich Heckel , Fritz Bleyl and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff - autodidacts like him - to form the Dresden artist group Brücke . In 1906, Cuno Amiet , Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein joined as active members. During this time Kirchner developed from an impressionistically influenced painter to an expressionist . His favorite subjects included nudes and portraits as well as landscapes, cityscapes and the world of vaudeville.
Doris Große, called "Dodo", a milliner from Dresden, became Kirchner's model and lover for two years from 1909 . From the same year, the then nine-year-old Lina Franziska Fehrmann , known as "Fränzi", was the model for the painters Heckel, Pechstein and Kirchner. In the summer at the Moritzburg ponds , in the winter in the Dresden studios, the artists sketched, drawn, painted and portrayed them using printmaking techniques. It was not until July 1995 that her family name "Fehrmann" was discovered in a sketchbook by Kirchner, so that her identity could be determined by researching church records.
Kirchner lived in Dresden until 1911 and then moved to Berlin . The main reason for this decision was the lack of success of his art. In Berlin his situation initially improved only slightly. However, a change was noticeable in his pictures. So his round forms became more jagged, the lines appeared more nervous (contrast of landscape and big city), his colors decreased in luminosity. Street scenes appeared in his work. In today's Kirchner reception, these are the artist's most sought-after pictures. In 1911 he and other Brücke artists took part in an exhibition of the New Secession , directed by Max Pechstein, in Berlin.
In December 1911, Kirchner and Max Pechstein founded a painting school called the MUIM Institute (“Modern Painting Lessons”), but this was unsuccessful. In 1912 he met his longtime partner Erna Schilling (1884–1945). After participating in the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne, Kirchner wrote a chronicle about the "Brücke" in 1913, in which he overemphasized its importance for the group of artists. This led to a dispute with the other remaining members, as a result of which Kirchner resigned. This led to the final dissolution of the group.
Seated Lady (Dodo) , 1909, Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich
Fränzi in front of a carved chair , 1910, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum , Madrid
Self-portrait with model , 1910, Hamburger Kunsthalle
Gut Staberhof on Fehmarn , 1910, Hamburger Kunsthalle
Stays on Fehmarn
In 1908 and from 1912 to 1914 Kirchner lived on Fehmarn in the summer and painted coastal pictures, for example the painting Staberhuk Lighthouse from 1912. During these four summers he created a tenth of his painterly work with over 120 pictures, adding hundreds of drawings and sketches and several sculptures. He also captured the island in photographs.
In 1908 Kirchner was on Fehmarn with siblings Emi and Hans Frisch. From 1912 to 1914 he traveled to the island with Erna Schilling, together they lived with the keeper of the Staberhuk lighthouse . In 1912/1913 Kirchner and his partner had frequent visits, including Erich Heckel and Otto Mueller . However, an often assumed visit by Max Pechstein cannot be clearly proven. In 1914 Kirchner and his wife had to prematurely break off their summer vacation on the island because of the outbreak of the First World War .
First World War
At the beginning of the First World War , Kirchner volunteered and became a driver in an artillery regiment. In the spring of 1915 he came to Halle an der Saale as a recruit . He only endured the drill for a few months, then he was given leave in early November after a nervous breakdown. Kirchner became dependent on medication (initially veronal , later morphine ). He was born in Germany in the Dr. Oskar Kohnstamm treated in Königstein im Taunus , where in the summer of 1916 he created a cycle of five murals created using the encaustic technique . The poor artist's first stays in a sanatorium were financed by a few museum people and art collectors, such as Ernst Gosebruch , Karl Ernst Osthaus , Botho Graef and Carl Hagemann , who had noticed his work.
The artist's desperation is reflected in the self-portraits of these years - the drinker and self-portrait as a soldier . Despite military service and illness, Kirchner began to create large-format paintings, including the triptych of women bathing .
Since 1914 Kirchner reached the public through the work exhibitions of the Jenaer Kunstverein supervised by Botho Graef and Eberhard Grisebach . In 1917 Kirchner donated 34 etchings, 83 woodcuts and 125 lithographs to Jena as the Botho Graef Memorial Foundation , thus establishing the effect it had after the First World War.
Portrait of a Woman , 1907, Saint Louis Art Museum , Missouri
Marzella , 1909/10, Moderna Museet , Stockholm
Naked people playing , 1910, Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich
Three Bathers , 1913, Art Gallery of New South Wales
Gut Staberhof on Fehmarn , 1913, Kunsthalle Hamburg
Self-Portrait as a Soldier , 1915, Allen Memorial Art Museum , Oberlin, Ohio
“The highest task of monumental design”, quote from Max Sauerlandt on the wall paintings from 1916
In 1917 Kirchner moved to Switzerland , to Davos . While he, disabled with symptoms of paralysis, believed that he would never be able to paint again, his partner Erna Schilling in Berlin laid the foundation for his success and for his financial independence through eager sales. In Davos he was looked after by Lucius Spengler and in particular by his wife Helene. It was thanks to Kirchner's rigor and iron will that he was weaned from medication in 1921. This weaning was the beginning of a phase of relatively stable health in Kirchner's life. From the mid-1920s onwards he suffered increasingly from the harsh winters in Davos, which affected his health, and from years of severe depression from Erna Schilling.
Although Kirchner's art had enjoyed solid recognition in circles open to modern art since around 1920, in his own opinion it was not sufficiently appreciated in art criticism. That is why he himself took care of this recognition by writing various articles about his own art under the pseudonym Louis de Marsalle and only giving the right to free reproduction of his pictures to those art writers who were willing to have their texts approved by him beforehand.
Not only because of this, Kirchner was considered a difficult person. His suspicion bordered on the pathological. He approved exhibitions and publications only with detailed contracts, the wording of which imposed almost unacceptable obligations on his business partners, while he reserved all freedoms to himself. He could be charming and engaging as well as insulting and hurtful. His anger hit everyone who mentioned his previous affiliation with the bridge, referred to him as an expressionist or linked his art to alleged role models.
At the end of 1925 Kirchner left Switzerland for the first time in nine years and traveled via Frankfurt / M. (Visiting his art dealer Schames and Carl Hagemann ), Chemnitz (visiting his mother), Dresden (visiting Will Grohmann ) to Berlin. On the almost three-month trip, he received high recognition throughout, but he hoped in vain that he would be offered a professorship in Germany.
From 1925 onwards, Kirchner's painting style became increasingly two-dimensional, at the end of the twenties he developed a very personal, always representational, but highly abstract style. A planned order for a large wall painting in the Folkwang Museum in Essen fertilized his late work, but failed due to human problems between the client ( Ernst Gosebruch ) and Kirchner. In the last years of his life, he created constructive pictorial compositions that were less abstract, but strongly influenced by light and shadow problems .
After the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists , he initially remained a member of the Prussian Academy of the Arts , but was finally excluded in July 1937. In the same month, 639 works by Kirchner were removed from museums in Germany and confiscated, 32 of which were shown as part of the defamatory exhibition "Degenerate Art" , including the self-portrait as a soldier . Some of these works were later shown posthumously at documenta 1 (1955), documenta II (1959) and also documenta III in 1964 in Kassel .
Kirchner committed suicide in Davos on June 15, 1938 with a shot to the heart. According to the literature on Kirchner, the motive for the suicide was the artist's deep disappointment over the defamation of his works in Germany. It is now known from Kirchner's correspondence with his doctor Frédéric Bauer that he had been addicted to morphine again since 1932. His suicide probably also had something to do with a reduction in his morphine dose forced by Kirchner in 1938. This thesis is also supported by Kirchner's farewell letter to his friend, the architect and sculptor Erwin Friedrich Baumann , in which he warns of the danger of drugs. On May 10th, he applied to the community of Davos to get married to Erna Schilling, but withdrew it on June 12th. At the time of the suicide, according to his partner, who was officially allowed to bear the name Kirchner, the painting Sheep Herd (1938) was on the easel.
Although Kirchner's utterances and actions repeatedly give evidence of self-stylization, depressive delusions and contradicting reactions, he consistently tried to follow his ideal of the free artist. Despite skepticism about the commercialization of art, Kirchner established himself as an "exhibition artist" and made use of the patronage of his patrons such as Carl Hagemann.
Appreciation after 1945
After the Second World War , Kirchner's work was initially only shown in solo exhibitions. Since the retrospective Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938, organized on the occasion of his 100th birthday , which was first shown in the National Gallery in Berlin (then in the Haus der Kunst in Munich , in the Museum Ludwig in the Kunsthalle Cologne and in the Kunsthaus Zürich ), there has been a steady increase of observing exhibitions on the artist's work.
An important factor here is the Kirchner Museum in Davos , which opened in 1992 and has the most extensive collection on the artist outside of Germany and has organized numerous exhibitions. The Städel Museum in Frankfurt has the largest collection of works by Kirchner in Germany. This museum honored him in 2010 with the exhibition "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: Retrospective".
As part of the series "German Painting of the 20th Century", Deutsche Post issued a special postage stamp in 2002 with the motif of his painting "Rotes Elisabeth-Ufer".
Estate and Estate Administration
The reduction of Kirchner after the death of Erna Schilling (1945) in the art Basel , conducted by Georg Schmidt kept to 1954, inventoried and provided in the ink with the estate stamp and an alphanumeric entry.
The estate administration was then handed over by the artist's heirs to Roman Norbert Ketterer , who carried out this task with great commitment from 1954 until his death in 2002. The current administrators of the estate are his children Ingeborg Henze-Ketterer and Günther Ketterer.
In 2010, in a process before the Tiergarten district court in Berlin, it became known that the LKA Berlin had secured a replica of the Basel estate stamp from the art forger Tom Sack in 2005. By this point in time, an indefinite number of Kirchner forgeries bearing this stamp should have come into circulation.
"Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archive" in Wichtrach
The "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archive" was founded in 1979 and was in Campione d'Italia until 1993 . Today it is located in Wichtrach near Bern , managed by Wolfgang Henze, and includes documentation on the artist's oeuvre and a library on his life and work, as well as general materials on Expressionism .
The aim is to collect all of the texts and images of his works that have ever appeared by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, as well as information on participation in exhibitions and offers on the art market. In addition, the archive supports exhibitions and publications on the artist and expressionism and is responsible for questions of authenticity.
Kirchner Museum Davos
In 1917 Kirchner moved to Davos. Almost his entire oeuvre , especially his early work, has survived there, as it was thus spared the bombings of World War II. In total there are almost 30,000 works, which makes the artist one of the most productive of the 20th century.
Roman Norbert Ketterer and his wife Rosemarie Ketterer donated the new building for the Kirchner Museum Davos, which was planned and built by the Zurich architect team Gigon / Guyer . It was inaugurated on September 4, 1992. The museum also contains an archive in which documents relating to the artist's life and work are kept, including certificates, manuscripts and correspondence.
Kirchner Association Davos
The "Kirchner Association Davos" sees itself in close cooperation with the "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Foundation" as a sponsoring association to support the activities of the Kirchner Museum Davos. Founded on January 9th, 1982, it provides ideal and financial support in the areas of collection and preservation of works of art as well as in the scientific processing, mediation and organization of exhibitions on the artist and his environment.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Foundation Davos
The "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Foundation Davos" is also committed to the preservation and further dissemination of the memory of the artist and his work. She heads the Kirchner Museum Davos and is the owner of its collection and supports and promotes exhibitions and publications on the artist and his environment.
The Kirchnerhaus- Verein Aschaffenburg was founded in 2011 to give the painter's birthplace a worthy use and to create public awareness that Kirchner was an Aschaffenburg. He was born in Aschaffenburg in 1880 and spent the first years of his life in the town house, which has remained almost unchanged to this day. In 2013 the association set up a documentation room on Kirchner's childhood in the family's former apartment on the upper floor. Exhibitions, lectures and art educational offers have been implemented in the rooms on the ground floor since 2014.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Association Fehmarn
The "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Association Fehmarn", founded in 1992, has set itself the task of tracking down and preserving Kirchner's traces on the Baltic island of Fehmarn. The "Documentation of E. L. Kirchner's time on Fehmarn" is shown in photos and reproductions in the house of the city library in the city park in Burg auf Fehmarn .
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Biberach
The Braith Mali Museum in Biberach permanently shows up to around 62 works by the artist that came to the museum because his brother lived in Biberach.
Kirchner as namesake
Dispute over the return of the "Berlin street scene"
The Berlin street scene is a picture by Kirchner from 1913 from the series of street scenes, eleven paintings created between 1913 and 1915. This cycle is considered to be one of the most important works of German Expressionism . In August 2006, the then Berlin Senator for Culture Thomas Flierl announced that the State of Berlin would return the painting to the heiress of the Jewish art collector Alfred Hess, who lived in Great Britain. In 1980 the State of Berlin acquired the picture for around 1.9 million DM and exhibited it in the Berliner Brücke Museum . After checking the claim of the heiress, it was classified as Nazi looted art and restituted in accordance with the Washington Declaration . The return was controversial and sparked heated reactions and lingering discussions. On November 8, 2006, the work was auctioned at Christie's auction house in New York and was acquired by the Neue Galerie in New York for over 30 million euros .
Kirchner's work can be roughly divided into the following categories
A special phenomenon among the paintings are the canvases painted on both sides and the double canvases (one on top of the other covered with canvas). During the initial inventory, 10 years after the artist's death, the latter were included in the estate as individual, independent works and stretched on new stretcher frames. The former is known to date from 138 canvases painted on both sides by Kirchner (backside pictures). Due to special frame constructions, some of these pictures can be presented in exhibitions simultaneously from the front, in catalogs referred to as recto , and from the back, so-called verso . Kirchner gave the reason that the canvases were too expensive.
Selection of his works
- 1908: Variety parade. Oil on canvas, 253 × 200 cm
- 1909: Woman lying down in a white shirt. Oil on canvas, 95 × 121 cm, signed cat. 15, ill. P. 96, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (D115; Gordon 1968, no.725 verso),
- 1909/1910: Moroccans. Oil on canvas, 80.5 × 70.6 cm, cat. 7, ill. P. 64, Kunsthalle Mannheim (D55; not in Gordon 1968, no. 306 verso),
- 1910: Fränzi with cat (artist, Marcella). Oil on canvas, 105 × 72 cm. The stamp KN Da / Ba 11 on the painting was removed after 1968. (D99 - Gordon 1968, No. 626 verso),
- 1910: Fränzi, in front of a carved chair. Oil on canvas, 71 × 49.5 cm
- 1910/20: Nude with hat. Oil on canvas, 195 × 64.5 cm, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main
- 1911: Female half-nudes with hat . 76 × 70 cm, Museum Ludwig , Cologne
- 1911: lying. Oil on canvas, 95 × 170 cm, Museum Kunstpalast , Düsseldorf
- 1911: unicyclist. Oil on canvas, 80 × 90 cm.
- 1911: Dancing woman. (Wooden statue) 90 cm high, Stedelijk Museum , Amsterdam
- 1912: Women bathing between white stones. 28.6 x 27.5 cm
- 1912: Seagull hunters. Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main
- 1912/13: Varieté (English dance couple). Oil on canvas, 151 × 120 cm, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main
- 1913: Woman in front of a mirror. Oil on canvas, 101 × 75 cm
- 1913: Bay on the Fehmarn coast. Oil on canvas, loan from a private collection to the Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main
- 1913: Judgment of Paris (back side bathers on Fehmarn ). Oil on canvas, 113 × 91.5 cm, Collection Wilhelm Hack Museum , Ludwigshafen am Rhein
- 1913: Two women with sinks (The Sisters). Oil on canvas, 121 × 90.5 cm, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main; The owner is the Städelsche Museums-Verein.
Cycle of street scenes 1913–1915:
- 1913: Five women on the street . Museum Ludwig, Cologne
- 1913: Berlin street scene . Neue Galerie Museum for German and Austrian Art, New York
- 1913: the street . Museum of Modern Art , New York
- 1913: Street scene in Berlin . Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto
- 1914: street scene. (1922) Private property, Switzerland
- 1914: Street with a red cocotte. (1925) Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection
- 1914: Friedrichstrasse Berlin. State Gallery Stuttgart
- 1914: Leipziger Strasse with electric train. ( Small townscape. ) Folkwang Museum , Essen
- 1914: Two women on the street. Art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, Düsseldorf
- 1914: Potsdamer Platz . New National Gallery, Berlin
- 1915: women on the street. From the Heydt Museum , Wuppertal
- 1914 tram and railroad. Oil on canvas, 71 × 81 cm, Museum for Art and Cultural History of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- 1914: Rhine bridge in Cologne . Oil on canvas, 120.5 × 91 cm, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
- 1915: The red tower in Halle. Oil on canvas, 120 × 91 cm, Museum Folkwang, Essen
- 1915: Self-portrait as a soldier. Oil on canvas, 69 × 61 cm, Allen Memorial Art Museum (AMAM), Ohio
- 1916/1920: village with blue paths. Oil on canvas, 80 × 70 cm, Museum am Ostwall, Dortmund
- 1917/1920: the sick person's bath. Oil on cardboard, 53 × 39 cm
- 1918: Alpine kitchen . Oil on canvas, 121.5 × 121.5 cm
- 1919: Winter moon landscape. Oil on canvas, 120 × 121 cm
- 1919: Red Alphaus. Oil on canvas, 120.5 × 151 cm
- 1919/20: Tinzenhorn - Zügen Gorge near Monstein . Oil on canvas, 119 × 119 cm, Kirchner Museum Davos
- 1920: cows in the forest. Oil on canvas, 65 × 55 cm
- 1921: Davos in the snow.
- 1922/1923: Naked woman at the window. 15.8 x 11.8 cm
- D111 (Gordon 1968, No. 709 recto), 1922/1923: The Flute Player (Hans Staub). Oil on canvas, 118 × 89 cm, signed upper left Cat. 14, ill. P. 91, Kirchner Museum, Davos
- 1923: Male nude figure. (Wooden statue)
- 1923: Black Spring. Oil on canvas, 150 × 90 cm
- 1923: Next to Heerstrasse. Illustrations for the book of the same name by Jakob Bosshart
- 1923: The Klosters mountains. Oil on canvas, 120.5 × 120.5 cm, Belvedere , Vienna
- 1924: Umbra Vitae. Illustrations for the posthumously published volume of poetry by Georg Heym
- 1924: The couple in front of the people. ( Free humanity in a hostile environment. ) Oil on canvas, 150.5 × 100.5 cm
- 1926: The bridge near Wiesen . Oil on canvas, 120 × 120 cm
- 1926/27: An artist community. Oil on canvas, 168 × 126 cm
- 1931: Naked Reclining Woman Oil on canvas, 150 × 90 cm
- 1931: horsewoman . Oil on canvas, 200 × 150 cm
- 1934: The ice hockey player. (Watercolor over pencil, 47.8 × 36.6 cm), Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
- 1935: archers . Oil on canvas, 195 × 130 cm
- 1937: Shepherds in the evening. Oil on canvas, 120 × 90 cm
- 1937: the violinist. Oil on canvas, 150.5 × 75.5 cm
- 1938: flock of sheep . Oil on canvas, 101 × 120 cm
Annual DKB exhibitions until 1936
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a member (later also on the board) of the German Association of Artists from 1910 . Until the dissolution of the DKB by the National Socialists, Kirchner took part in the following annual exhibitions:
- 1912: Kunsthalle Bremen
- 1913: Kunsthalle Mannheim
- 1921: 16th exhibition of the German Association of Artists , Alte Kunsthalle , Hamburg
- 1927: Graphic exhibition of the German Association of Artists , Dresden
- 1928: German Association of Artists. 96. Large art exhibition of the Kunstverein Hannover e. V. , Künstlerhaus Sophienstrasse , Hanover
- 1929: State House , Cologne
- 1930: Exhibition building on Interimtheaterplatz, Stuttgart
- 1931: Exhibition halls Norbertstrasse, Essen
- 1936: Painting and sculpture in Germany 1936 , Hamburger Kunstverein (last DKB exhibition, forcibly closed after 10 days. Kirchner exhibited there, among other things, the watercolor drawing ice hockey players .)
Exhibitions in Switzerland
- Exhibition of graphics by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Davos in the Galerie Aktuaryus Zurich, Bahnhofstrasse 66, June 10 to July 12, 1927. With an introduction by Louis de Marsalle (ie Ernst Ludwig Kirchner).
- The Kunsthalle Bern organized a large, retrospective exhibition of Kirchner's works in 1933 under its progressive-minded director Max Huggler . The printed catalog shows that 105 oil paintings, 129 drawings and 12 wooden figures were shown. At the same time, the graphic works (27 woodcuts, 21 etchings and 2 lithographs) were exhibited in the Gutekunst & Klipstein art dealer ( August Klipstein ) at Amthausgasse 6. The catalog is preceded by an introduction by Max Huggler (p. 9–13) and a text, allegedly by “Louis de Marsalle” (p. 14–16), a pseudonym of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: The name Marsalles is marked with a cross as a sign that Kirchner wanted his bogus biographer to die with this text.
Solo exhibitions after his death
- 1973: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Watercolors and hand drawings. Kunsthalle Tübingen
- 1974: Galerie Roswitha Haftmann Modern Art, Zurich
- 1980: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938. Retrospective: National Gallery Berlin , House of Art , Munich, Museum Ludwig , Cologne, Kunsthaus Zurich , Galerie Roswitha Haftmann Modern Art, Zurich
- 2007: The trip to Germany in 1925, 1926. Chemnitz art collections
- 2010: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Retrospective . Städel Museum, Frankfurt. Curator: Felix Krämer . More than 180 works by Kirchner.
- 2014: Colonist Kirchner. Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich
- 2015: The double Kirchner. The two sides of the canvas. Kunsthalle Mannheim
- 2016: All Kirchner! The museum as a cabinet of curiosities. Kirchner Museum Davos .
- 2016/2017: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Hieroglyphics. Hamburger Bahnhof - Museum of the Present , Berlin.
- 2017: Kirchner - The Berlin Years . Kunsthaus Zurich , Zurich. Catalog.
- 2018/19: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Dream trips . Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany , Bonn, curated by Katharina Beisiegel (Art Center Basel) in collaboration with the Kirchner Museum Davos and with Thorsten Sadowsky.
- 2019: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The painter as a photographer . Museum der Moderne Salzburg .
The traveling exhibition in the USA, initiated by the German federal government under the name German watercolors, drawings and prints: A midcentury review, took place in 1956. This retrospective documented the high standing that Kirchner already possessed at that time. Kirchner was represented with seven works, more than any other of his well-known colleagues.
In addition, the museums of the city of Aschaffenburg have a graphic collection by Kirchner, from which works are regularly shown.
- Exhibition of graphics by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Davos [at] Galerie Aktuaryus Zurich, Bahnhofstrasse 66, June 10 to July 12, 1927. [With an introduction by L. de Marsalle], 1927.
- Letters to Nele and Henry van de Velde. Piper, Munich 1961. (Piper library; 163)
- Davos diary. A representation of the painter and a collection of his writings. [Ed .:] Lothar Grisebach. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1968. ( Dumont documents )
- Hans Delfs et al. (Eds.): Kirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff, Nolde, Nay ... Letters to the collector and patron Carl Hagemann. Ostfildern 2004.
- Hans Delfs (Ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, The entire correspondence. Zurich 2010.
- Correspondence Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Dr. Frédéric Bauer. Magazine V: Frédéric Bauer. Kirchner Museum Davos, Davos 2004.
- Watercolors, drawings, prints. Württemberg Art Association; Württemberg State Gallery, May 29 - July 4, 1948. Hatje, Stuttgart 1948, 12 sheets.
- Claus Zoege von Manteuffel : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Paintings and graphics from the Dr. Frédéric Bauer. Davos. Verlag Nürnberger Presse, Nuremberg 1952.
- Drawings 1906–1925. Exhibition July 1 - August 27, 1967 [exhibition catalog]. State Art Collections Kassel 1967.
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Watercolors and hand drawings. Catalog publication for exhibitions in the Kunsthalle Bremen 1972 and in the Kunsthalle Tübingen 1973. Bremen 1972.
- Annemarie Dube-Heynig: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-428-00192-3 , pp. 658-661 ( version ). In:
- Eberhard W. Kornfeld : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Tracing his life. Catalog of the collection of works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the Kirchner House in Davos. Published on the occasion of the exhibition Ernst Ludwig Kirchner at the Kunstmuseum in Basel from November 18, 1979 - January 27, 1980. Kornfeld, Bern 1979, ISBN 3-85773-010-2 .
- Albert Schoop: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in Thurgau: The 10 months in Kreuzlingen 1917–1918. Verlag Kornfeld, Bern 1992, ISBN 3-85773-028-5 .
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. From Jena to Davos. An exhibition on the 90th anniversary of the Jena Art Association. Leipzig 1993, ISBN 3-363-00596-2 .
- Lucius Grisebach : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938. Taschen, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-8228-8800-1 .
- Gerd Presler : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The sketchbooks. "Ecstasy of first sight". Karlsruhe / Davos 1996, ISBN 3-925521-25-9 .
- Lothar Grisebach: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's Davos diary. New edition by Lucius Grisebach. Hatje, Ostfildern b. Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-7757-0622-4 .
- Gerd Presler: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. His women, his models, his pictures. Prestel-Verlag, Munich 1998.
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Mountain Life. The early Davos years 1917–1926. [On the occasion of the exhibition Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Mountain Life. The early Davos years 1917–1926. Kunstmuseum Basel, September 27, 2003 to January 4, 2004]. With contributions by Bernhard Mendes Bürgi… Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2003, ISBN 3-7757-1331-X .
- Kirchner Association Davos: Erna and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, an artist couple. [Ed .: Roland Scotti]. Kirchner Association, Davos 2003, ISBN 3-9522328-3-1 . (Magazin / Kirchner Museum Davos; 4).
- Karin von Maur : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: the painter as a sculptor. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit, 2003, ISBN 3-7757-1309-3 .
- Christian Saehrendt : EL Kirchner: Bohème identity and national broadcast. Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al., 2003, ISBN 3-631-50128-5 .
- Norbert Wolf : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938. On the edge of time. Taschen, Cologne / London / Los Angeles / Madrid / Paris / Tokyo 2003, ISBN 3-8228-2121-7 .
- Wolfgang Maier-Preusker : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938. Woodcut cycles from the Maecenas collection . Vienna, 2004.
- Ulrike Nürnberger: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Lithographs. Michael Haas Gallery, Berlin. Galerie Haas, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-9800605-1-9 .
- Barbara Alms (Ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Big city, eros, culture. Catalog of an exhibition at the Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst . Hauschild Verlag, Bremen 2005.
- Jutta Hülseweg-Johnen (ed.): EL Kirchner and the bridge. Self-portraits - artist portraits. Catalog Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Bielefeld 2005.
- Annette Baumann: Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland ., 2007.
- Jürg Düblin: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Paul Camenisch: a difficult relationship , Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 2009. E-Periodica
- Andreas Gabelmann: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. An artist's life in self-testimonies. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2010, ISBN 978-3-7757-2526-2 .
- Gerd Presler (Ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, facsimile of the sketchbook 159. Galerie Koch, Hanover 2012
- Eberhard Grisebach : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Edited and with an afterword by Lucius Grisebach. Piet Meyer Verlag, Bern 2014, ISBN 978-3-905799-27-9 .
- Gerd Presler: Kirchner. Lines in ecstasy. The Robert Lehman Collection. in: WELTKUNST May 2016, pp. 42–49 (with eight unknown drawings by Kirchner)
- Gerd Presler: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Expressionism on paper. Hieroglyphics - sacred signs. Galerie Utermann Dortmund 2017.
- Katharina Beisiegel (Ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The sketchbooks / The Sketchbooks. Kirchner Museum Davos / modo, Freiburg im Breisgau 2019, ISBN 978-3-86833-275-9
- The double Kirchner. Documentary, Germany, 2010, 26 min., Script and director: Barbara Dickenberger, production: Hessischer Rundfunk , arte , synopsis by ARD .
- Konstanze Rudert: Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig . In: Institute for Saxon History and Folklore (Ed.): Saxon Biography .
- Literature by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the German Digital Library
- Search for Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Publications by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the Helveticat catalog of the Swiss National Library
- Kirchner Museum in Davos
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archive in Wichtrach / Bern
- Materials by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the documenta archive
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner on kunstaspekte.de
- From the enfant terrible to the pillar saint. NZZ , April 24, 2010
- Works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner from the Moritzburg Art Museum in the museum-digital object collection
- Kirchnerhaus in Aschaffenburg
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner In: E-Periodica
- Works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in the Europeana
Notes and individual references
- Gerd Presler: The bridge. Pp. 48-51.
- Gerd Presler: The bridge. P. 144.
- Gerd Presler: The bridge. P. 52 f., 123 f.
- Poster of the Muim Institute , www.artnet.de, accessed on October 20, 2017.
- Quoted from the web link of the Kirchner Museum Davos.
- Dietrich Reinhardt: Kirchner's stays in Fehmarn. In: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Verein Fehmarn, accessed on September 2, 2011.
- Roland Scotti (ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - The photographic work . Benteli Verlag, Bern 2005, ISBN 978-3-9522328-8-0 , p. 318 .
- Steffen Krautzig: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner on Fehmarn . Morio, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-945424-41-4 , p. 72 .
- Quoted from the Kirchner Museum Davos.
- The basis is the directory completed by Charles Crodel on September 20, 1919, see: Rausch und disenchantment: the picture collection of the Jenaer Kunstverein, fate of a collection of the avant-garde in the 20th century, Jena 2008, p. 18 and: Documentation on the inventory of Botho Graef Memorial Foundation of the Jena Art Association .
- The five individual wall pictures from 1916 put together. The quote comes from: Max Sauerlandt: Travel reports 1925–1932. Christians, Hamburg 1971, p. 49; About the recently discovered images: "The color photographs were commissioned by the Hamburg museum director Max Sauerlandt from the Grand Ducal Luxembourg court photographer Franz Schilling in Königstein and recently found." From: Museum Giersch (Ed.): Expressionism in the Rhine-Main area . Artist - dealer - collector. Petersberg 2011, p. 23 and note 22 on p. 25; The images were scanned from: Städel Museum (ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner retrospective. Exhibition catalog Frankfurt am Main 2010, pp. 226–227 u. P. 25, picture credits: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, p. 304.
- Hans Bolliger: Bibliography I, 8, 9, 14, 20, 28. In: Claus Zoege von Manteuffel: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, drawings and pastels. Stuttgart 1974.
- Hans Delfs (Ed.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, The entire correspondence. Zurich 2010.
- Ingrid Mössinger and Beate Ritter (eds.): Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Die Deutschlandreise 1925–1926. Catalog exhibition Chemnitz 2007.
- Ernst Klee : The culture lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , p. 307.
- In 1938, too, photos of his works were displayed accordingly. Around August 1938 at an NSDAP celebration for the 15th anniversary of the Neustadt an der Aisch branch . See Wolfgang Mück: Nazi stronghold in Middle Franconia: The völkisch awakening in Neustadt an der Aisch 1922–1933. Verlag Philipp Schmidt, 2016 (= Streiflichter from home history. Special volume 4); ISBN 978-3-87707-990-4 , p. 188.
- How did Ernst Ludwig Kirchner die? In: Die Zeit, June 22, 2009, accessed June 30, 2014.
- Magazin V, Frédéric Bauer, Kirchner Museum Davos (ed.), Davos 2004.
- see also: Correspondence between EL Kirchner and EF Baumann. Der Spiegel May 5th, 1980.
- Quoted from the biography of the Kirchner Museum, Davos.
- Martin Schieder: Patronage. The artist's point of view. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and his relationship to Carl Hagemann, in: Thomas W. Gaehtgens and Martin Schieder (eds.): Patronage. Studies on the culture of citizenship in society, Berlin 1998, pp. 125–144
- Report on the exhibition in the Städel Museum, Frankfurt
- Eberhard W. Kornfeld: The history of the estate of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner from 1938 until today. Galerie Kornfeld Verlag, Bern 2017, pp. 9-14.
- Wolfgang Henze: The Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archive in Wichtrach / Bern and the clarification of the authenticity questions about Kirchner. In: Bild und Wissenschaft, research articles on the life and work of Alexej von Jawlensky , Volume 1. Locarno 2003, pp. 35–44.
- Ketterer. The man with the flair. In: Der Spiegel 35/1060, pp. 42–54
- See court report of November 2, 2010, berlinkriminell.de , accessed on October 21, 2015.
- Wolfgang Henze: The Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archive in Wichtrach / Bern and the clarification of the authenticity questions about Kirchner. In: Bild und Wissenschaft, research articles on the life and work of Alexej von Jawlensky , Volume 1. Locarno 2003, pp. 35–44.
- Homage to Roman Norbert Ketterer. In: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - 90 drawings for 90 years. Aust. Kat., Galerie Henze & Ketterer, Wichtrach / Bern, catalog 62, 2001, pp. 5–8.
- Statutes of the Kirchner Verein Davos, p. 1
- commercial register of the Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Foundation Davos
- Kirchnerhaus Aschaffenburg
- Website of the Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Association Fehmarn
- Minor Planet Circ. 41573
- Magdalena M. Moeller : Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The street scenes 1913–1915. Munich 1993.
- The double Kirchner. Edited by Inge Herold, Ulrike Lorenz and Thorsten Sadowsky. Kunsthalle Mannheim, Kirchner Museum Davos, Wienand, p. 144
- Hans-Dieter Fronz: The two sides of a canvas. In: Südkurier of April 2, 2015.
- lying. 1911 by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , in the Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf
- The road at moma.org
- A temporarily hidden flute player. In: Terra Grischuna , 1/2014, pp. 56–59.
- The Frankfurt expert for book illustration Ulrich von Kritter (1910–1999) wrote about these works: “This work by Kirchner is like a prelude to his well-known illustrative main work, Georg Heyms Umbra Vitae .” ( Book illustration in the 20th century in Germany, Austria and in Switzerland. p. 92.)
- kuenstlerbund.de: Full members of the Deutscher Künstlerbund since it was founded in 1903 / Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on November 24, 2015)
- all information from: 1936 banned images. 34th annual exhibition in Bonn. Exhibition catalog. Berlin 1986, pp. 52, 53.
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. [Catalog of the exhibition in the] Kunsthalle Bern from March 5 to April 17, 1933. Buchdruckerei KJ Wyss Erben, Bern 1933. -  pages with 5 illustrations in the text and plates I – XIV and XVI – XXII.
- Ludmila Vachtova . Roswitha Haftmann . P. 93
- Ludmila Vachtova. Roswitha Haftmann . P. 95
- Ingrid Mössinger and Beate Ritter (eds.), Exhibition catalog, Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz, Wienand Verlag, Cologne, ISBN 978-3-87909-910-8
- Rose-Maria Gropp: A man with nerves for the new. In the fever of acceleration: the first retrospective for Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in thirty years brings together a unique panorama of works in Frankfurt, in: FAZ No. 94, April 23, 2010, p. 35.
- Hamburger Bahnhof - Museum für Gegenwart , accessed on October 12, 2016.
- German watercolors, drawings and prints [1905-1955]. A midcentury review, with loans from German museums and galleries and from the collection Dr. H. Gurlitt. American Federation of Arts, New York 1956. ( Digitized , Hathi Trust)
- Kirchner in the museums of the city of Aschaffenburg
|SURNAME||Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Marsalle, Louis de (pseudonym)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German expressionist painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 6, 1880|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Aschaffenburg|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 15, 1938|
|Place of death||Frauenkirch-Wildboden near Davos , Switzerland|