Otto Mueller (* 16th October 1874 in Liebau , district Landeshut , province of Silesia ; † 24. September 1930 in Obernigk , district Trebnitz ) was a German painter and lithographer of Expressionism . He belonged to the artist group Brücke and is considered one of the most important expressionists today.
Life and work
From 1890 to 1894, at the request of his father, he completed an apprenticeship in lithography, followed by studies at the Dresden Art Academy until 1896 , for which he had received special permission, but where there were soon differences with his teacher Hermann Freye because he whose corrections did not want to tolerate.
In 1905 he married Maria ("Maschka") Mayerhofer (or Meyerhofer), who often served as his model and who remained his confidante even after the separation and two other marriages concluded by Mueller.
In 1908 he moved to Berlin . His model was sculptures by Wilhelm Lehmbruck , with whom he was friends; Since 1908 he has been painting the slim girl figures that are characteristic of him as well as the glue paints that he used with preference for his works. He tried in vain to join the Berlin Secession , and in 1910, together with other rejected artists, he founded the Neue Secession group , which held an exhibition in May under the motto “Rejected from the Berlin Secession 1910”. Through this he came into contact with members of the bridge and worked with this artist community from 1910 until it was dissolved in May 1913. Mueller, who was very similar in style to the other Brücke artists, preferred a subdued color scheme with a lyrical, decorative effect.
In 1915 he was drafted for military service in World War I and took part in battles in France and Russia as a soldier in the infantry. In 1917 he contracted pneumonia that almost cost him his life.
From 1919 he was a professor at the State Academy of Arts and Crafts in Wroclaw . He rejected any bourgeois adaptation and was part of the circle of the "Breslau artist bohemians". His wife Maschka divorced him in 1921 and returned to Berlin.
His gypsy portfolio with nine color lithographs from 1927 was the highlight of his work. He had visited Spalato and Sarajevo , as reported by his sister Emmy, where he was taken in by the gypsies and lived among them like one of their own. The pictures that were taken in Mueller's last three years from 1927 to 1930 also bear witness to Mueller's most artistic phase.
In 1930 Mueller died of pulmonary tuberculosis at the Obernigk pulmonary clinic near Breslau at the age of 55 .
The central theme in Mueller's work is the unity of man and nature, which he tries to express in numerous nudes in landscapes. In these pictures Mueller repeatedly depicts scenes from gypsy life.
Adam and Eve , 1918, Städel , Frankfurt am Main
Standing gypsy children, 1927, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Gypsy horse by the black water, 1928, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
- 1911: Three nudes in the forest , Hanover, Sprengel Museum
- 1915: Waldsee with two files , Dortmund, Museum am Ostwall
- 1916: Lovers between garden walls , Berlin, Brücke Museum
- 1919: Lovers , Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts
- 1924: Two girls , glue paint on burlap, 120 × 89.5 cm. Berlin, Villa Grisebach
- around 1926: Two girls in the reeds , Bernried, Museum of Fantasy , Buchheim Collection
- around 1926/1928: Standing gypsy children , Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum , Gm 1689 (loan from private collection)
- 1927: Gypsies with sunflowers , Saarbrücken, Saarland Museum
- around 1927: bathers , 120 × 88 cm
- around 1928: Gypsy horse on the black water , Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gm 1802 (loan from private collection)
- Two siblings.
- o. J .: Seated gypsy.
- 2018: PAINTER. MENTOR. MAGICIAN. Otto Mueller and his network in Breslau in the Hamburger Bahnhof - Museum für Gegenwart , until March 2019; then in Breslau
The collection of a few thousand exhibits of the art historian Hans Dieter Mück will be part of the core inventory of the Otto Mueller Museum, which opened on May 11, 2019 in the Thuringian town of Schmalkalden ; other collections are invited to join. Mück is chairman of the Otto Mueller Society he initiated. The building is a half-timbered building on Altmarkt 8 in the center of the small town. At the opening, erotic subjects by Otto Müller will be on view, known to be a focus of the painter's work.
- "Don't trust people ... They are all raw and heartless." (Quoted from Buchheim 1963, p. 11)
- Johanna Brade : Between bohemian artists and the economic crisis. Otto Mueller as professor at the Breslau Academy 1919–1930. Oettel, Görlitz 2004 ISBN 3-932693-84-1
- Lothar-Günther Buchheim : Otto Mueller. Life and work. Buchheim, Feldafing 1963. New edition 2006, ISBN 3-7659-1052-X
- Marlene Decker: Design elements in Otto Mueller's artwork. Project, Dortmund 1993 ISBN 3-928861-13-1 .
- Johann Georg von Hohenzollern , Mario-Andreas von Lüttichau (Hrsg.): Otto Mueller. A retrospective. Art hall of the Hypo-Kulturstiftung. Prestel, Munich 2003 ISBN 3-7913-2857-3 (with CD-ROM)
- Ulrich Klappstein: Faunic escapes. Arno Schmidt and the Brücke painter Otto Mueller . Neisse, Dresden 2015, ISBN 978-3-86276-180-7
- Gerhard Leistner (arrangement): Otto Mueller. Paradise lost. Works from the Karsch Collection. Exhib. Cat. Art Forum Ostdeutsche Galerie Regensburg 2006
- Mario-Andreas von Lüttichau : Otto Mueller. A romantic among the expressionists. DuMont, Cologne 1993, ISBN 3-7701-2981-4
- Mario-Andreas von Lüttichau: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 18, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-428-00199-0 , p. 328 f. ( ). In:
- Ursula Peters, Christiane Kupper (Red.): Modern times. The 20th Century Collection. (= Cultural-historical walks in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum , Volume 3.) Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2000 ISBN 3-926982-61-6
- Dieter W. Posselt: Otto Mueller An artist solitaire of the modern age. Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, ISBN 978-3-8334-5200-0 .
- Gerd Presler : The bridge. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2007 ISBN 978-3-499-50642-0
- Christian Saehrendt : The "bridge" between statecraft and ostracism. Expressionist art as a political issue in the Weimar Republic, the “Third Reich” and the Cold War. (= "Pallas Athene". Contributions to the history of universities and science, Volume 13). Edited by Rüdiger vom Bruch and Eckart Henning . Steiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 9783515086141 .
- Dagmar Schmengler u. a. (Ed.): Painter. Mentor. Magician. Otto Mueller and his network in Breslau , Heidelberg a. a .: Kehrer 2018. ISBN 978-3-86828-873-5
- Eberhard Troeger Otto Mueller. Crone, Freiburg 1979
- Literature by and about Otto Mueller in the catalog of the German National Library
- Materials by and about Otto Mueller in the documenta archive
- Works by Otto Mueller at Zeno.org .
- Biography and works of Otto Mueller
- Arnulf Scriba: Otto Mueller. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Otto Mueller on the website of the Brücke Museum
- Works by Otto Mueller in the Moritzburg Art Museum
- He was a cousin of Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann and was promoted by them for a while. ("Masterpieces of Art. Painting from AZ", Chur 1994, p. 525). Carl Hauptmann lent the main character of his novel Einhart, the Smile, his features.
- kuenstlerbund.de: Full members of the German Association of Artists since it was founded in 1903 / Mueller, Otto ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed November 19, 2015).
- Fig. In large format by Norbert Berghof (Red.): Picture portfolio Art in pursuit: Degenerate Art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. 18 examples. and booklet: life data and personal testimonials , both Neckar, Villingen 1998, without ISBN.
- Otto Mueller Museum in Schmalkalden should be a magnet for visitors , MDR from May 11, 2019, accessed May 12, 2019
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter and lithographer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 16, 1874|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Liebau , Landeshut i. Schles. , Province of Silesia|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 24, 1930|
|Place of death||Obernigk , Trebnitz district|