Academy of Fine Arts Munich
|Academy of Fine Arts Munich|
|founding||May 13, 1808|
|Students||676 ( WS 2012/13)|
The Academy of Fine Arts in Munich is one of the most important and, taking into account the educational institutions that preceded it, also one of the oldest art universities in Germany.
The prehistory of the academy goes back far into the 18th century, even before the 1770 by Elector Maximilian III. Joseph founded the so-called "drawing school", which already had the name "academy" in its name ("drawing school, respectively painter and sculptor academie"). This should be taken into account in the apparently late establishment in 1808 by King Maximilian I of Bavaria as the “Royal Academy of Fine Arts”. Its first director was Johann Peter von Langer , formerly head of the Düsseldorf Art Academy . The philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling became the first general secretary . Von Langer was followed by Peter von Cornelius in 1824 . In addition to the Academy, the Royal School of Applied Arts in Munich was founded in 1868 . In 1886 the academy moved into the prestigious new building on Akademiestraße / Leopoldstraße near the Siegestor . In addition to its role as a training center, the academy was soon also an artists' society. The landscape painters of the first generation (e.g. Max Joseph Wagenbauer , Joseph Wenglein , Johann Jakob Dorner the Younger , Simon Warnberger , Franz Xaver von Meixner ) were stylistically trend-setting for the development of the Munich school located in the vicinity of this academy , but are not so became known as their successors.
From 1852 to 1920 no women were admitted to study at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich . Up-and-coming artists could only receive artistic training at expensive private schools or at the newly founded women's academy of the Munich Artists ' Association. It was not until the winter semester 1920/1921 that women were admitted to study under the same conditions as men.
In the middle of the 19th century, the Munich Academy had a leading reputation worldwide. It taught here z. B. the painters Franz von Defregger and Franz von Stuck as well as the sculptors Adolf von Hildebrand and Ludwig Schwanthaler . Franz von Lenbach was a student at the time . The academy experienced a heyday under Wilhelm von Kaulbach († 1874), his successor Karl Theodor von Piloty († 1886) and Nikolaus Gysis († 1901).
Above all, the later reputation of its students shows the importance of the academy at the turn of the century: The students included Lovis Corinth , Otto Mueller , Wassily Kandinsky , Alfred Kubin , Paul Klee , Franz Marc , Richard Riemerschmid , Max Nonnenbruch , Otto Greiner , Bruno Paul , Giorgio De Chirico , Ernst Oppler and Fritz Schaefler .
Between the wars and National Socialism
After the First World War, the academy quickly lost its importance, and the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic left a repressive climate. In 1924 German Bestelmeyer took over the supervision of the arts and crafts school as government commissioner and intensified cooperation with the academy. After 1933 , the academy was an important place of activity for National Socialist cultural policy . Nazi artists like Adolf Ziegler and the sculptor Josef Thorak were appointed to the academy, while “ non-Aryan ” professors were dismissed. President Karl Caspar (since 1922), who had already been largely disempowered , was retired in 1937. Under the subsequent leadership of Bestelmeyer, so-called "decay art since 1910" was removed from the holdings of the Academy.
Bestelmeyer died in 1942 and received a pompous state funeral. After his death, Bernhard Bleeker took over the management of the academy on a temporary basis. The academy building was largely destroyed in a bomb attack in July 1944, with extensive collections of works of art, plaster casts and costumes as well as the archive being lost. The art library that had been outsourced was largely preserved and, with around 90,000 volumes, is one of the best of its kind today. However, it is only intended for internal use.
In October 1945, former NSDAP members and artists from the Nazi era were dismissed by the military government, and Adolf Schinnerer took over the provisional management. In 1946 the Academy of Applied Arts was incorporated. After 1946 the academy was renewed with the appointment of Franz Xaver Fuhr and Toni Stadler (all two in 1946), Albert Fessler (1945), Charles Crodel (1952), Sep Ruf (1953) and Georg Meistermann (1964). In 1953 the academy was given its current name. In the post-war years, however, the Munich Academy found it difficult to break away from its National Socialist character and to join international modernism. The most controversial example of a neglected denazification was Hermann Kaspar , who was one of the cultural celebrities of the Third Reich and who again worked as a professor of painting from 1956 to 1972.
In the 1950s, the artist group SPUR was formed at the academy . On June 26, 1967, the "University Group of Socialist Art Students (HSK)" was constituted at the academy. In 1968 several pieces by the anti-theater around Rainer Werner Fassbinder were performed in the academy , the student representatives (AStA) showed the documentation on the "Hermann Kaspar case". The Academy was closed on February 22nd, 1969 by the Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs Ludwig Huber , an administrative court ruling overturned this closure. In 1978, the appointment of Franz Bernhard Weißhaar by the ministry again led to heated arguments. In 1989 the AkademieGalerie was built on the mezzanine floor of the Universität subway station . In 2005, the modern extension building was inaugurated at Akademiestrasse 2.
- Wieland Schmied , Rector from 1988 to 1993
- Ben Willikens , Rector from 1999 to 2004
- Nikolaus Gerhart , Rector and President from 2004 to 2010
- Dieter Rehm since 2010; confirmed in 2018
The older building of the academy was designed by Gottfried von Neureuther and built between 1876 and 1885 as a pompous three-wing complex of a palatial Wilhelminian style building in the neo-renaissance style. Neureuther consistently used pilaster templates on the facades of the academy to further structure the wall surfaces. The outside staircase with bronze equestrian figures of Castor and Pollux comes from Max von Widnmann , the rear auditorium extension was added in 1911/12 by Friedrich von Thiersch . After being destroyed in the war, the academy was repaired by Sep Ruf in the 1950s . With the general renovation of the historic old building, the listed garden was also prepared and a residential and studio building was built there.
On October 26, 2005, the modern extension by the architects Coop Himmelb (l) au was opened in the style of deconstructivism . In the new building there are plastic workshops, sculpture studios, photo workshops, screen printing and multimedia workshops as well as parts of the administration. Thanks to the "Foundation of the Munich Art Academy" established by Ben Willikens , the realization of the new building and the restoration of the old building were made possible.
In addition to the academy's classic range of painting and sculpture courses, the Academy's range of courses was expanded considerably after the Second World War. The arts and crafts school and training for teaching at grammar schools were incorporated.
There are therefore the undergraduate courses
- Free art with sculpture , stage design and costume, photography , glass, goldsmithing, graphics, ceramics, painting, media art as well
- Art education with sculpture, graphics, painting and media.
Interior design has been offered as a graduate degree since 1978, as a bachelor's degree in interior design from the 2010/11 winter semester and as an interior design master's degree from the 2013/14 winter semester . There are also two postgraduate courses ( architecture as well as visual design and art therapy ).
There is a cross-course and cross-class offer
- Theory chairs for art history , art education and philosophy (aesthetic theory), the
- Study workshops for ore casting , photography , plaster casting and stucco , glass processing, glass painting and mosaic , goldsmithing , wood, ceramics, plastics, lithography , painting technique, metal, new media, media education , paper and recycling, etching , screen printing , stone carving, typography and letterpress
as well as the cx center for interdisciplinary studies and various project classes .
The students exhibit for the public in the academy building during the annual exhibition. In the AkademieGalerie in the Universität U-Bahn station , students and graduates of the academy exhibit their works. The exhibition room, which is around 8 meters deep and 20 meters long, is separated from the rest of the mezzanine floor by a glass wall and can be seen from there over its full length. Other regular exhibitions take place in the cube in Petuelpark .
Winner of the Bavarian State Government's debut award from the AdBK Munich
- 1998: Markus Barthuber, Hinrich Horstkotte
- 2004: Lena Bröcker, Martin Herler
- 2005: Andrea Faciu, Susanne Wagner
- 2006: Patricia Kaiser, Fumie Sasabuchi, Michael Vogel
- 2007: Karen Irmer, Carsten Recksik
- 2014: Sarah Zagefka
The debut award is a grant from the Bavarian State Ministry for Research, Science and Art.
Prize winner of the Munich Art Academy Foundation
Lothar Späth Prize
- 2002 Farida Heuck with Schleusernet
- 2003 Nick Boetticher
- 2004 Alexander Laner
- 2005 Shirin Damerji
- 2006 Franka Kaßner
Manfred Bischoff Prize
- 2003 Bernhard Bindl
- 2004 Uta-D. Carpenter
- 2005 Katharina Gaenssler
- 2006 Frank Hutter
- 2007 Inga Charlotte Taubert
Laura and Lorenz Reibling Prize
- 2006 Zhao Bin
- 2007 Uta Gruber-Ballehr
- 2008 Till Schilling
Graf-Ingram-von-Königsdorff Memorial Prize
- 2006: Susanne Uhl
- 2007: Martha Diglio Hupfer
- 2008: Masayo Oda-Sachs
- 2011: Robin Thomas
Exam award for art education (for outstanding artistic achievements)
- 2007: Kathrin Thalmann
- 2008: Franz Wanner
- 2009: Katrin Wilhelm, Madelleine Schollerer, Anita Edenhofer
- 2010: Jasmine Dürr, Lisa Degele, Nicola von Thun
- 2011: Maria Berauer, Korbinian Jaud, Constanze Stumpf
Well-known students and professors
Many important artists have taught or studied in Munich. You can find an overview in the list of members of the Academy of Fine Arts Munich .
- Nikolaus Gerhart, Walter Grasskamp, Florian Matzner (eds.): 200 years of the Academy of Fine Arts Munich . Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7774-4205-1 .
- Walter Grasskamp, Birgit Jooss (eds.): Branko Senjor. 1960s - years of transition. Photographs from the Munich Art Academy . Munich / Berlin 2006.
- Walter Grasskamp: 190 years of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich . Published by the Rector of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich.
- Anna Mary Howitt: To an art student in Munich . London 1853 (digitized volume 1)
- Birgit Jooss: The "fateful amalgamation of producing and teaching artists" - the academy director Peter Cornelius and the "Cornelius School". In: León Krempel, Anthea Niklaus (eds.): Cornelius - Prometheus - Der Vordenker. Munich 2005, pp. 18–31.
- Birgit Jooss, Christian Fuhrmeister (Ed.): National Identities - International Avant-garde. Munich as the European center of artist education. In: zeitblicke. 5 (2006), No. 2. (online)
- Birgit Jooss: The “joyful collaboration” of the Munich Art Academy in the “national survey of the people”. The years 1924 to 1944. In: Volker Probst, Max Brunner and Adolf Hofstetter (eds.): Gestalt - Form - Figur. Hans Wimmer and the Munich School of Sculpture. Passau / Güstrow / Berlin 2008, pp. 49–60.
- Birgit Jooss: "To serve only pure art" - The University of Fine Arts in Munich after 1945. In: Iris Lauterbach (Ed.): Art history in Munich 1947. Institutions and people in reconstruction. Munich 2010, pp. 41–58.
- Birgit Jooss: The Munich School of Sculpture. Figurative work under the sign of tradition. In: G. Ulrich Großmann (Ed.): Anzeiger des Germanisches Nationalmuseums. Nuremberg 2010, pp. 135–169.
- Birgit Jooss: Between studying antiquity and master class. Everyday teaching at the Munich Art Academy in the 19th century. In: Eliza Ptaszynska (ed.): Ateny nad Izarą. Malarstwo monachijskie. Stuida i szkice / Athens on the Isar. Munich painting. Studies and sketches. Suwałki 2012, pp. 23–45.
- Wolfgang Kehr: History of the Munich Art Academy in Pictures . Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-940666-03-1 .
- Monika Meine-Schawe: "... to do everything that can only be asked for in art matters". The Munich Academy of Fine Arts before 1808. In: Oberbayerisches Archiv. 128 (2004), pp. 125-181. (Text as PDF)
- Karl Heinz Meißner: On the history of the Academy of Fine Arts. In: Christoph Stölzl (ed.): The twenties in Munich. Munich 1979, pp. 141-149.
- Wolfgang Ruppert: The modern artist. On the social and cultural history of creative individuality in cultural modernity in the 19th and early 20th centuries . Frankfurt am Main 1998.
- Wolfgang Ruppert, Christian Fuhrmeister (ed.): Between German art and international modernity. Forms of artist training 1918 to 1968 . Weimar 2007.
- Eugen von Stieler: The Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. Festschrift for the centenary . Munich 1909.
- Thomas Zacharias (ed.): Tradition and contradiction. 175 years of the Munich Art Academy . Munich 1985
- Walter Grasskamp: Academy of Fine Arts Munich . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria
- Academy of Fine Arts Munich - Official website
- The digital edition of the matriculation books of the Munich Art Academy 1809–1920 with entries from around 13,000 students
- Directory of current students and graduates
- Times views: national identities - international avant-gardes
- Federal Statistical Office: Number of students by type of university, state and university, WS 2012/13, pp. 66–113 (accessed on November 3, 2013)
- Birgit Jooss: Matriculation online - The digital edition of the matriculation books of the Munich Art Academy (1809–1920).
- Bernhard Lypp (ed.): Schelling and the Academy of Fine Arts. (= Series of publications by the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. Volume 6). 2002, ISBN 3-935515-02-2 .
- Section on Hermann Kaspar, in: Franz Dewald: the painterly work with œuvre directory
- Extension of the academy: Coop Himmelb (l) au (PDF; 644 kB)
- www.muenchenarchitektur.com . Architectural highlights> Cultural and educational buildings> Extension for the Academy of Fine Arts Munich. Accessed June 30, 2013.
- Anhaltisches Theater: Hinrich Horstkotte