Wassily Kandinsky

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Wassily Kandinsky, around 1913
Monogram by Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky ( Russian Василий Васильевич Кандинский / Vassily Kandinsky , academic. Transliteration Vasilij Vasil'evič Kandinskij ; December 4 . Jul / 16th December  1866 greg. In Moscow , † 13 December 1944 in Neuilly-sur-Seine , France ) was a Russian painter , graphic artist and art theorist who also lived and worked in Germany and France. With Franz Marc he was the founder of the editorial group Der Blaue Reiter , which opened its first exhibition in Munich on December 18, 1911. The Blue Rider emerged from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München , founded in 1909, of which he was temporarily chairman. In the Weimar Republic he worked as a teacher at the Bauhaus .

Kandinsky was an expressionist artist and one of the pioneers of abstract art . According to his own statements, he is often named as the creator of the first abstract picture in the world, which may, however, be pre-dated with the year 1910 instead of 1913. Recent research indicates that in 1907 the painter Hilma af Klint had already created an abstract painting with The Ten Largest, No. 2, Childhood, Group I.

life and work

childhood and education

Port of Odessa , 1898, Tretyakov Gallery , Moscow

Wassily Kandinsky was born into a wealthy tea merchant family from Moscow, which soon moved to Odessa . The father, Wassily Kandinsky senior, came from Eastern Siberia, the mother was Lydia Tichejewa from Moscow. The parents separated in 1871, so that he was raised mainly by his aunt Elizabeth Tichejewa. Until 1885 he traveled with his father to his hometown Moscow every year. He received drawing and painting lessons. After graduating from high school in 1885 at the humanistic high school in Odessa, he began to study law , economics and ethnology at Lomonossow University in Moscow in 1886 . During his studies he painted and attended art exhibitions.

In 1889 Kandinsky undertook an expedition to the northern Urals Mountains to study the Syrian legal system there. He was fascinated by the mythical, abstract paintings on the drums of this ancient people. The influence of these impressions can be clearly seen in Kandinsky's early work. In 1892 he finished his studies with the legal state examination and married his cousin Anna Tschimiakin. The following year he became assistant to the law faculty at Moscow University, received his doctorate with a dissertation on the lawfulness of workers' wages and was appointed as attaché of the law school.

In 1895 Kandinsky worked as the artistic director of a printing company in Moscow. In 1896 he refused an appointment at the University of Dorpat , decided to paint and moved to Munich , where he first attended Anton Ažbe's private painting school from 1897 to 1899 and met Alexej von Jawlensky for the first time . From 1900 he studied at the Munich Art Academy with Franz von Stuck .

Foundation of the phalanx and meeting with Gabriele Münter

Portrait of Gabriele Münter , 1905, Lenbachhaus , Munich
Kandinsky's Art Nouveau poster for the first Phalanx exhibition in 1901
The Blue Rider, 1903

In 1901, together with Wilhelm Hüsgen and other artists, he was one of the founders of the artist group Phalanx and head of the associated “School for Painting and Life Drawing”. However, the response was so low that the exhibition and teaching operations had to be stopped in 1904. During the class there he met Gabriele Münter , who became his partner. Although he was already married in Russia, he got engaged to her in 1903 during a summer vacation in Kallmünz . In 1902 Kandinsky was exhibited for the first time in the Berlin Secession .

From 1903 to 1904 he made trips to Italy , the Netherlands and North Africa , as well as visits to Russia. From 1904 he was represented in the Salon d'Automne in Paris. From 1906 to 1907 he spent in the French city of Sèvres near Paris, where he painted, for example, The Colorful Life . Münter reported interesting facts about their stay together:

"When I was in Sèvres with K. [Kandinsky] in 1906–7, K. didn't look around for Matisse, Picasso or other greats."

In the meantime, despite his stay abroad, Kandinsky had become a full member of the German Association of Artists and took part in its third annual exhibition in 1906 in the Grand Ducal Museum in Weimar. After their return to Munich in 1908, the couple left for Lana in South Tyrol that spring , where both still painted in the late Impressionist style .

Murnau and the New Artists' Association Munich

Gabriele Münter's house in Murnau , the so-called " Russian House ". Photo from 2006
Wassily Kandinsky: Rocks , woodcut 1909 (membership card of the NKVM)

Murnau am Staffelsee was a crucial station for Kandinsky's artistic development . It was there in the summer of 1908 that he and Münter began a meaningful collaboration with Marianne von Werefkin and Alexej Jawlensky . “Under the stylistic and technical influence of Werefkin and Jawlensky”, Münter and Kandinsky were “inspired” to make that “great leap from painting nature more or less impressionistically to feeling a content, to abstracting to give an extract”. In a short time, Kandinsky and Münter developed into expressionist painters through their far more progressive painting colleagues . In that year he got to know Rudolf Steiner , whose theosophy and later anthroposophy inspired and influenced his later work.

Murnau, Dorfstrasse , 1908

After their first stay in Murnau together, the relationship between the two painter couples may have deteriorated for a short time. There is a lot to suggest, because at Christmas 1908 Werefkin, Jawlensky, Adolf Erbslöh and Oscar Wittenstein came up with the idea of ​​creating the New Munich Artists' Association (NKVM) in the Werefkin's “pink salon” . In any case, Münter and Kandinsky were initially not involved in the project. Kandinsky was still annoyed at this years later, which to a certain extent explains his hesitant behavior when he was offered in January 1909 to take over the chairmanship of the NKVM. Kandinsky was a member of the Berlin Secession from 1908 . Due to a difference of opinion with the painter Charles Johann Palmié , Kandinsky introduced the so-called "four square meter clause" into the statutes of the NKVM, which he was supposed to violate in 1911 willingly. The association was entered in the municipal register of associations in Munich on May 10, 1909. The goal of this association was to “organize art exhibitions in Germany and abroad”. Within this circle, there were three important group exhibitions in the modern gallery Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich. During this time he developed into abstract painting.

Acquaintance with Franz Marc

Impression III (concert) , 1911

On January 1, 1911, Kandinsky and Münter stayed in Marianne von Werefkin's studio apartment at 23 Giselastrasse in Munich; Franz Marc came there for the first time. The following day they attended a concert by Arnold Schönberg in Munich , accompanied by Alexej Jawlensky and Helmuth Macke . Impressed by Schönberg's new music, Kandinsky painted the picture Impression III (concert) shortly afterwards and wrote a letter to the composer unknown to him, which triggered a discussion of the content in which Kandinsky's “Theses on the relationship between dissonances in art in the current Painting as in the musical composition of Schönberg [...] were taken up and continued. ”On February 4, 1911, Franz Marc became a member of the NKVM and at the same time appointed third chairman of the association.

The blue Rider

When there were more and more disagreements in the NKVM, which were sparked by Kandinsky's increasingly abstract painting - he was required to have "works that were as understandable as possible" - Kandinsky resigned the chairmanship of the NKVM in January 1911. He remained a member of the association for the time being. In June he developed plans for his own activities outside the NKVM. He intended to publish a “kind of almanac”, which he initially wanted to call “The Chain”. He won over Franz Marc to participate by offering him the joint editing of the book Der Blaue Reiter .

The Last Judgment / Composition V , 1911

In the summer, Kandinsky and Marc decided to split off from the NKVM. They secretly prepared their own counter-exhibition to the NKVM exhibition for the coming winter. Kandinsky painted the legendary abstract painting with the meaningful title The Last Judgment / Composition V, which with over five square meters clearly violated the statutes of the NKVM. On December 2nd the picture was presented to the jury and consequently failed. Pretending to “protest”, Kandinsky and Marc left the NKVM Münter and Alfred Kubin joined them. More than 20 years later, Kandinsky revealed his and Marc's plan for the first time: "Since we both sensed the 'noise' earlier, we had prepared another exhibition."

In 1938 Kandinsky remembered the time of resignation and the founding of the Blue Rider when he wrote to Galka Scheyer , who represented Die Blaue Vier in America: “I am writing to you on the NKVM paper, in which I 2– Was first chairman for 3 years. The letterhead is mine. My job ended with a nice row that led to the establishment of the 'Blue Rider'. Old times! The NKVM was founded in 1908, and I resigned at the end of 1911. Immediately afterwards, with the help of Franz Marc, I organized an exhibition for the editorial staff of B. [lauen] R. [eiter] at Thannhauser. Our halls were close to the rooms of the NKVM exhibition. It was a sensation. Since I foresaw the 'noise' in good time, I had prepared a wealth of exhibition material for the B.R. So the two exhibitions took place at the same time. The first copies of the 'Spiritual in Art' lay on the tables of the Thannhauser Gallery. 'The revenge was sweet'! "

Cover illustration of the almanac Der Blaue Reiter von Kandinsky, 1912

On December 18, 1911, the first exhibition of the Der Blaue Reiter editorial team was opened in the modern Thannhauser gallery in Munich. Kandinsky's book On the Spiritual in Art, especially in Painting , was published to accompany the exhibition . This is a publication, the forerunner to the book entitled Basic Problems of Painting. Has a book for artists and learners . It comes from Werefkins and Jawlensky's pupil Rudolf Czapek . Kandinsky knew and owned Czapek's treatise. Strikingly, however, he does not quote Czapek's work. Astonishing similarities and similarities can be found in the comparison of the two books. The influence on abstraction in his first theoretical compendium, which he had already written in 1910, was also influenced by the latest physical discoveries of Max Planck and Albert Einstein and the anthroposophical movement around Rudolf Steiner. Kandinsky formulated the fundamentals of the synaesthetic effect of color: “... seeing must of course be related not only to taste, but also to all other senses, ... some colors can look uneven, piercing, while others are perceived as something smooth, velvety so that one would like to stroke them ”. Synesthesia was prepared by Henry van de Velde , Wilhelm Worringer's book Abstraction and Empathy (1907) and the eurythmy of the anthroposophists.

The almanac “Der Blaue Reiter” appeared six months later, in May 1912, by Piper Verlag . At the request of the publisher Piper, the word “Almanach” had to be removed from the title woodcut by Kandinsky before going to press. Planned further editions were no longer published, but a second edition with a new foreword by Marc was reprinted in 1914. The thoughts gathered in these writings were of fundamental importance for the further development of abstract painting. In 1912 Kandinsky designed a perfume bottle for the oldest perfume factory in the world, Johann Maria Farina opposite Jülichs-Platz in Cologne.

Return to Russia

Improvisation 27, Garden of Love II , 1912, was on the Armory Show
Portrait of Nina Kandinsky (1917)
Moscow , Burdenko 8. Kandinsky lived here from 1915 to 1921.
Fugue , 1914

A year before the start of the First World War , Kandinsky was represented in the Armory Show in New York with Improvisation No. 27 and with seven pictures in the First German Autumn Salon in Berlin . After the German declaration of war against Russia on August 1, 1914, he could not stay in Germany and fled to Switzerland with Gabriele Münter on August 3 . From there in November he traveled on to Russia via Zurich without Münter and settled in Moscow .

Kandinsky received various professorships and founded an "Academy of Art Studies". On February 11, 1917, he married Nina Nikolajewna Andreevskaja for the second time , after he had been divorced from his first wife in 1911 and had broken up with Gabriele Münter after a last meeting in Stockholm in 1916.

After the October Revolution , Kandinsky became a member of the Department of Visual Arts (IZO) in the Narkompros in January 1918 . In 1920, however, he assumed his most important function as the first director of the Institute for Artistic Culture (INChUK) in Moscow, where he met the leading artists of the Russian avant-garde, Malevich , Tatlin and Rodchenko . As a result of the revolution, Kandinsky lost his fortune, which, thanks to an inheritance from an uncle, was not insignificant. In 1920 his son Vsevolod, born in 1917, died.

The conditions in Soviet Russia - the restrictions on artistic freedom by the new rulers - became increasingly unbearable for him. The couple left for Berlin via Riga in December 1921 , and in June 1922, following Walter Gropius' call, Kandinsky began teaching at the workshop for wall painting at the Bauhaus in Weimar . Although he was able to leave the country legally and took twelve of his paintings with him, the rest of them remained in the Moscow Museum's depot.

Teacher at the Bauhaus

Sign , 1925, oil on cardboard, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Home of Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky in the Masters' House Estate in Dessau , Ebertallee 69/71

Until the Bauhaus in Dessau was closed in 1933 by the National Socialist city ​​administration, Kandinsky worked as a teacher in Weimar , Dessau and Berlin , where he came into contact with Russian constructivism . During this time, the geometric structures in his pictures finally prevailed. Kandinsky first lived in Gropius' apartment in Weimar, then in a guest house at Cranachstrasse 7a and finally, from autumn 1923, in a small, furnished apartment at Südstrasse 3 (today: Wilhelm-Külz-Strasse). In Dessau he was one of the residents of the Bauhaus Masters' Houses together with Paul Klee .

In 1924 he founded the artist group Die Blaue Vier with Lyonel Feininger , Paul Klee and Alexej von Jawlensky . In 1926 his theoretical work appeared: Point and Line to Surface . In 1928 he acquired German citizenship . In 1929 his first solo exhibition of watercolors and drawings took place in the Zack Gallery in Paris.

In 1930 he met Solomon R. Guggenheim in Dessau . Hilla von Rebay , who was able to persuade Guggenheim to put together a collection of abstract contemporary art, brokered this encounter . Guggenheim bought some paintings; Gradually, with over 150 works, it became one of the largest collections of Kandinsky works that can be seen in the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, today's Guggenheim Museum .

New beginning in France - the late years

Composition X , 1939, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen , Düsseldorf
At rest , 1942, private property

After the Bauhaus was closed by the National Socialists in 1933, the Kandinsky couple emigrated to France and moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine near Paris, where they moved into an apartment on 135 Boulevard de la Seine. Kandinsky found it difficult to gain a foothold here, as abstract art received little recognition and cubist and surrealist works predominated in the galleries. Only two small avant-garde galleries stood up for him: Jeanne Bucher with her small Montparnasse gallery and Christian and Yvonne Zervos, who ran their gallery in the office of the art magazine Cahiers d'Art . In 1934 he took part in the exhibition of the artist movement Abstraction-Création in Paris . In 1936 he took part in the Abstract and Concrete exhibitions in London and Cubism and Abstract Art in New York. In 1939 the couple took French citizenship and he finished his last major work in the field of “compositions”, Composition X.

In 1937 57 of his works were confiscated by the National Socialists in German museums and 14 of them were shown in the exhibition Degenerate Art in Munich. In the same year he took part in the Paris exhibition Origines et Développement de l'Art International Indépendant at the Musée Jeu de Paume . In 1944, his last exhibition, which he witnessed, took place in the Paris gallery l'Esquisse. Wassily Kandinsky, who painted daily until the end of July 1944, died on December 13th of that year in Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Some of his works were shown posthumously at documenta 1 (1955), documenta II (1959), documenta III (1964) and also documenta 8 in 1987 in Kassel .

The much younger Nina Kandinsky survived her husband by 36 years. She had made it her business to manage his estate. She made it possible to sell or donate her left paintings to large museums, for example she donated 30 paintings and watercolors to the Center Pompidou in Paris . In September 1980 she was the victim of a robbery in her house in Gstaad , Switzerland.

As part of the series “ German Painting of the 20th Century ”, the Deutsche Bundespost issued a 170-pfennig special postage stamp with the motif of Murnau with a rainbow in 1992 .

Color theory

Colors and shapes

Kandinsky possessed an extraordinary artistic intelligence and had a keen sense for color and shape. He assigned deeper meanings and associations to the colors and contrasted them in pairs of opposites:

  • Blue (cold, heaven, supernatural, infinity and calm, concentric) - yellow (warm, earthly to intrusive, aggressive, eccentric)
  • Black (dark) - white (light)
  • Red Green
  • Orange - purple

Kandinsky started from synesthesia (merging of different sensory impressions) and assigned different other sensory impressions to the colors, the color blue, for example, the properties "soft" and "aromatic", the color yellow, however, "sharp" and "pungent".

“The point is the original element, the fertilization of the empty surface. The horizontal is a cold, supporting base, silent and 'black'. The vertical is active, warm, 'white'. The free lines are flexible, 'blue' and 'yellow'. The surface itself is heavy at the bottom, light at the top, left like 'far away', right like 'house'. "

- Wassily Kandinsky : Point and Line to Area (1926)

Furthermore, he tried to prove that certain colors belong to certain shapes:

  • Blue - circle
  • Red - square
  • Yellow - triangle

Parallels to music

Improvisation 26 , 1912, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus , Munich
Composition IX , 1936, Musée National d'Art Moderne , Paris

With the increasing degree of abstraction in his pictures, Kandinsky developed a kind of grammar that made it possible for him to work in the non-representational. He used music as a model, where it is possible to express feelings through notes. Similar to music, he divided his works into three groups:

  • "Improvisations": unconscious, sudden processes in "inner nature", the character
  • "Impressions": impressions from the outside world
  • “Compositions”: slowly forming expressions of character that are examined and worked out almost meticulously; the conscious is in the foreground.

The basic idea behind these pictures is hearing colors and seeing sounds. The aim of art is color harmony and touching the human soul. To do this, he arranges “color sounds” into “color symphonies ” which - similar to the tones and sounds in music - trigger feelings of harmony or dissonance.


  • the shape = a piano key
  • bright yellow = high trumpet tones
  • light blue = flute
  • dark blue = cello
  • deeper blue = tone of a double bass
  • deep, solemn blue = sound of a deep organ

Kandinsky and Japonism

Although Kandinsky apparently never commented on Japanese art, Japanese woodcuts in his estate show that he not only collected Far Eastern art, but also dealt with it. The objects that have survived include three stencils (katagami) from the 19th century and prints, etc. a. Leaves from Hokusai , Hiroshige , Kuniyoshi . These explain Japanese influences on his work, e.g. B. that in his pictures with medieval, Biedermeier or Russian scenes there are occasionally typical “Japanese motifs, such as flocks of birds or cloud formations”. Another striking motif, which Kandinsky examined with almost scientific meticulousness in 1909 and examined in his painting Nature Study from Murnau I / Kochel-Straight Street, which is located in Munich's Lenbachhaus , is the "Japanese forced perspective". In connection with Japonism among the artists of the Blue Rider Circle, it is worth mentioning that Kandinsky's correspondence with Marc was given the knowledge that the latter had his name or monogram cut in Japanese characters in East Asian soapstone in order to use them as a stamp: "What a fine stamp you have there."



Kandinsky was a synaesthetist , so he felt colors not only as optical, but also z. B. also as acoustic stimuli. He assigned sounds, smells, shapes, etc. to colors. He perceived yellow as a "pointed" color that increased in connection with the pointed shape of the triangle. So he tried to paint pictures of how to compose music; he spoke of "color sounds" and compared the harmony of colors with the harmony of sounds. Kandinsky also saw the dangers for abstract art and wrote that the beauty of color and form was not a sufficient goal of art.

First abstract watercolor , created in 1910 or 1913, possibly a study for Composition VII
Composition VII , 1913

The largest collection of Kandinsky's works, with over 150 works, is in the Guggenheim Museum in New York.


Original edition, 1911
Bauhaus Books Volume 9, Munich 1926
  • Wassily Kandinsky: On the Law of Workers' Wages , 1893 (dissertation)
  • Wassily Kandinsky: About the Spiritual in Art. Especially in painting. Original edition from 1911 by R. Piper, Munich (3rd edition 1912, online at uni-heidelberg.de ). Revised new edition, Benteli Verlag, Bern 2004, ISBN 3-7165-1326-1
  • Wassily Kandinsky / Franz Marc: The Blue Rider. Original edition from 1912. Piper Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-24121-2 (complete, unchanged original text with all illustrations and documentary appendix, edited by Klaus Lankheit )
  • Wassily Kandinsky: Klänge , with 12 woodcuts in color and 44 black-and-white woodcuts. R. Piper, Munich, 1913
  • Wassily Kandinsky: Point and Line to Area. Contribution to the analysis of the painterly elements . Bauhaus Books No. 9, Munich 1926 (online) . 8th edition, Benteli, Bern 2002, ISBN 3-7165-0182-4
  • Wassily Kandinsky: Lessons at the Bauhaus. Lectures, seminars, exercises 1923–1933 . Edited by Angelika Weißbach. Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-7861-2724-6


  • Wassily Kandinsky. The sound of color. Documentary, Germany 2008, 26 min. Director: Angelika Lizius, Production: arte , first broadcast: January 25, 2009
  • Wassily Kandinsky. Director: André S. Labarthe, 56 min. Arthaus Musik GmbH 2010 (1986), ISBN 978-3-941311-95-4

radio play

  • Sounds . Two-part radio play. Kandinsky's volume Klänge , published by Piper Verlag in Munich in 1912 with woodcuts and prose poems, forms the basis of the project of the radio play and media art department of the BR. More than 100 years after its publication, a new, pop-socialized generation of artists is sounding out which interaction Kandinsky's work is able to trigger in a new context. With the speakers Helga Fellerer, Detlef Kügow, Gabriel Raab, Kathrin von Steinburg, Sebastian Weber. The artists Jeff Beer , Glenn Jones, Sophia Domancich , Antye Greie , David Grubbs, Lydiahaben , Chris Cutler , Saam Schlamminger , Federico Sánchez, Wrekmeister Harmonies, Emily Manzo. Realization: Various Artists, Karl Bruckmaier . BR 2015. As a podcast in the BR radio play Pool.

Audio image / feature

  • Ute Mings: Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin and Co., Die Neue Künstlervereinigung München (1909–1912) , Bayerischer Rundfunk 2, 2009


  • Thomas Krens (preface): Rendezvous. Masterpieces from the Center Georges Pompidou and the Guggenheim Museums . Guggenheim Museum Publications, New York 1998, ISBN 0-89207-213-X
  • Götz Adriani (Ed.): Kandinsky, major works from the Center Georges Pompidou Paris . Conception of the exhibition and catalog: Götz Adriani and Fabrice Hergott. Translator: Dieter Kuhaupt. Catalog publication at Kunsthalle Tübingen , DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4787-1
  • Kandinsky in Munich, 1896–1914 . Guggenheim Foundation, 1982 ( online )

Prix ​​Kandinsky

The Prix ​​Kandinsky was founded by Nina Kandinsky in memory of her husband. The prize was intended to promote young painters who worked in the field of abstraction and Informel and was awarded from 1946 to 1961. The Prix Kandinsky has nothing to do with the Kandinsky Prize , which has been awarded since 2007 by the Russian ArtChronika Foundation with the support of Deutsche Bank in Moscow.

Web links

Commons : Wassily Kandinsky  - Collection of Images
Wikisource: Wassily Kandinsky  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. The name Wassily Kandinsky used here corresponds to the artist's own spelling in Latin letters
  2. Wassily Kandinsky, Biography (English)
  3. Susanna Partsch: The 101 most important questions about modern art , Beck, Munich 2006, p. 48 limited preview in the Google book search
  4. Julia Voss: The conqueror of the throne . In: FAZ , April 18, 2011 (with images of the preliminary study for the cycle The ten largest from 1907, a diary page with drawings from 1919, The Swan from 1920 and a photo by the artist)
  5. Ulrike Becks-Malorny: Wassily Kandinsky . Taschen, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-8228-3538-8 , pp. 8, 192 .
  6. The Magic of Siberia. Wassily Kandinsky as ethnographer and shaman , kuenstlerfilm.ifa.de, accessed on December 9, 2015
  7. Ulrike Becks-Malorny: Wassily Kandinsky . Taschen, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-8228-3538-8 , pp. 192 .
  8. s. Kandinsky, Wassily in: Harald Olbrich (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Kunst. Architecture, fine arts, applied arts, industrial design, art theory. Volume III: Greg – Konv , EA Seemann Verlag, Leipzig 2004. ISBN 3-86502-084-4 (p. 623f)
  9. Norbert Göttler: Der Blaue Reiter , Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, p. 16 ff.
  10. Clelia Segieth, Etta and Otto Stangl, gallery owner-collector-museum founder, Cologne 2000, p. 158
  11. s. List of members in the catalog of the 3rd German Artist Association , Weimar 1906. p. 48 and the illustration of the Old Russian Knight on p. 77 online (accessed on March 18, 2016)
  12. Bernd Fäthke: Werefkin and Jawlensky with their son Andreas in the "Murnauer Zeit" . In exh. Cat .: 1908-2008. 100 years ago, Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin in Murnau , Murnau 2008, p. 54
  13. ^ Johannes Eichner: Kandinsky and Gabriele Münter. On the origins of modern art , Munich 1957, p. 89
  14. Brigitte Salmen, Annegret Hoberg: Around 1908. Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky and Werefkin in Murnau . In exhibition cat .: 1908–2008. 100 years ago, Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin in Murnau , Murnau 2008, p. 16
  15. Becker, Kurt E .: Anthroposophy. Revolution from within, guidelines in Rudolf Steiner's thinking . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-596-23336-4 , p. 73
  16. Valentine Macardé: Le renouveau de l'art russe picturale 1863-1914 , Lausanne f 1971 S. 135th
  17. Annegret Hoberg, Titia Hoffmeister, Karl-Heinz Meißner: Anthology . In exh. Cat .: The Blue Rider and the New Image, From the “New Munich Artists' Association” to the “Blue Rider” , Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich 1999, p. 29
  18. Klaus Lankheit (eds.): Wassily Kandinsky / Franz Marc, Briefwechsel , Munich 1983, p. 29
  19. Wording: "Every full member has the right to exhibit two works without a jury, as long as they do not exceed the area of ​​4 square meters (2 by 2 m) ..." Cf. Annegret Hoberg, Titia Hoffmeister, Karl-Heinz Meißner: Anthologie . In exh. Cat .: The Blue Rider and the New Image, From the “New Artists' Association Munich” to the “Blue Rider” , Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich 1999, p. 31
  20. ^ Meißner: Franz Marc, Letters, Writings and Records . 1980, p. 39.
  21. ^ Annegret Hoberg: A new mission in art - Murnau, Munich and the Blue Rider . In: Volker Rattemeyer (ed.): The spiritual in art. From the Blue Rider to Abstract Expressionism . Museum Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden 2010, p. 33 f.
  22. Klaus Lankheit, Der Blaue Reiter Precisions, in exh. Cat .: Kunstmuseum Bern 1986, p. 225
  23. Klaus Lankheit (ed.): Wassily Kandinsky / Franz Marc. Correspondence , Munich 1983, p. 41
  24. Bernd Fäthke: Der Blaue Reiter , exhibition of the Kunsthalle Bremen , Weltkunst, 70th year, No. 5, May 2000, p. 905
  25. Bernd Fäthke: Marianne Werefkin , Munich 2001, p. 178
  26. ^ Annegret Hoberg: Franz and Maria Marc , Munich 2004, p. 72
  27. Wassily Kandinsky: Our friendship. Memories of Franz Marc . In: Klaus Lankheit: Franz Marc in the judgment of his time , texts and perspectives, Cologne 1960, p. 48
  28. This two-sided letter is published in full with the handwritten signature of Kandinsky by: Bernd Fäthke, Alexej Jawlensky: Heads etched and painted, Die Wiesbadener Jahre, Galerie Draheim, Wiesbaden 2012, p. 56 ff., Fig. 54 and 55. ISBN 978-3-00-037815-7
  29. ^ Mario-Andreas von Lüttichau: Die Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich, in: Avant-garde and audience: on the reception of avant-garde art in Germany 1905–1933, Cologne-Weimar-Wien: Böhlau 1992, p. 299 ff.
  30. Wassily Kandinsky: About the Spiritual in Art, especially in Painting , Munich 1912, (1st edition) (The first edition was published by Piper in Munich at the end of 1911 with the imprint 1912)
  31. ^ Rudolf Czapek: Basic Problems of Painting, A Book for Artists and Learners , Leipzig 1908
  32. Bernd Fäthke: Jawlensky and his companions in a new light , Munich 2004, p. 109
  33. Wassily Kandinsky , nrw-museum.de, accessed on March 15, 2015
  34. ^ Brigitte Salmen: Introduction . In exh. Cat .: The Almanac “Der Blaue Reiter”, pictures and sculptures in originals , Schloßmuseum des Marktes Murnau, Murnau 1998, p. 11
  35. The Blue Rider. Preface to the second edition , zeno.org, accessed on April 9, 2011
  36. ^ Kandinsky bottle
  37. Ulrike Becks-Malorny: Kandinsky , p. 94
  38. Thomas Krens (preface): Rendezvous. Masterpieces from the Center Georges Pompidou and the Guggenheim Museums . Guggenheim Museum Publications, New York 1998, p. 647
  39. Hans-Peter Riese: The seven Russian years. The famous and unknown Kandinsky in Moscow. In: From the avant-garde to the underground. Texts on Russian Art 1968–2006 , p. 66. Wienand Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-86832-017-6
  40. ^ Felix Philipp Ingold : Action Philosophers Ship. How the Soviet power got rid of the “bourgeois” intelligentsia , in the FAZ of December 19, 2003 .
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  65. ↑ Table of contents by arte
  66. ^ BR - Radio Play and Media Art, Program 2016/1
  67. ^ BR radio play Pool - Kandinsky, Klänge