Transliteration (from Latin trans 'over' and litera (also littera) 'letter') describes in applied linguistics the literal translation of words from one script into another (e.g. Greek φ as ph, runic ᛜ as ng) . If necessary, diacritical marks are used so that a clear retransmission is possible.
Knowledge of the pronunciation rules of the original language is not sufficient in order to be able to pronounce transliterated words correctly. Transliteration is useful for the uniform sorting of authors and subject titles or other list elements from languages with non-Latin letters.
A distinction is made in transliteration (in the broader sense: transcription) between:
- Transliteration (literal transcription, rendering) as a script-based, literal, reversible translation of a word from one script into another, often with the help of diacritical marks . The person skilled in the art should be able to see the exact spelling of the word in the other script, if this cannot be shown in the original version (for example because no corresponding types or character sets are available).
- Transcription (in the narrower sense) ( phonetic transcription, reproduction) as a pronunciation-based representation of language with the help of a phonetically defined phonetic spelling or another basic alphabet as a phonetic spelling substitute. This should enable the non-native speaker to pronounce the word halfway correctly.
|Modern Greek word||Transliteration||transcription||Comments on the debate|
|Ελληνική Δημοκρατία||Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía||Elliniki Dimokratia||Δ, δ as in English th in this|
|Ελευθερία||Eleuthería||Eleftheria||Θ, θ as in English th in thing|
|βασιλεύς εν Ναυπλίω||basileús en Nauplíō||vasilefs en Nafplio||β as in German w; αυ / ευ as in German af / ef before hard consonants|
|Ευαγγέλιο||Euaggélio||Evangelio||ευ as in German ew before vowels and soft consonants; γγ as German ng|
|των υιών||tōn uiṓn||tone ion||υ / υι like German i|
|Μπερλίν, Ντακάρ, Γκέντ||Mperlín, Ntakár, Gként||Berlin, Dakar, Gent||μπ / ντ / γκ ( diagrams ) like German b / d / g|
Example of transcription and transliteration from a consonant script
Using the example of a Persian two-line line, the distinction between transliteration and transcription according to the specifications of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) from an Arabic language into a Latin language can be illustrated:
- Description: First line from the Mas̱nawī-ye ma'nawī ("Spiritual two-line lines") of Rumi : "Hear the flute what it says / how it complains of being separated"
- Source text: بشنو از نى چون حكايت ميكند / از جدائى ها شكايت ميكند
- Transliteration: BŠNW 'Z NY ČWN ḤK'YT MYKND /' Z ǦD''Y H 'ŠK'YT MYKND
- Transcription: bešnau az ney čūn ḥekāyat mīkonad / az ǧodā'ī-hā šekāyat mīkonad
- In Oriental Studies, the transliteration is done using capital letters to clearly distinguish it from the transcription .
- Vocalization according to the pronunciation common in today's Iran, which differs from "East Persian" in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and the Indian subcontinent.
- DIN 1460 transcription of Cyrillic alphabets of Slavic languages
- DIN 1460-2 Transcription of Cyrillic alphabets in non-Slavic languages
- DIN 31634 transcription of the Greek alphabet
- DIN 31635 Transliteration of the Arabic into the Latin script
- DIN 31636 Transliteration of the Hebrew into the Latin script
- DIN 32706 transcription of the Armenian alphabet
- DIN 32707 transcription of the Georgian alphabet
- DIN 32708 transcription of Japanese (August 2014 edition; refers to the Hepburn system and also describes in detail the transcription of punctuation marks )
- DIN 33903 legend Tamil
- DIN 33904 Transliteration Devanagari
- ISO 9 transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin
- ISO 233 International standard for the scientific transliteration of the Arabic into the Latin script
- ISO 259 Latin transliteration of Hebrew letters
- ISO 843 conversion of Greek letters into Latin
- ISO 3602 transcription of Japanese syllabary into Latin ( Kunrei system )
- ISO 9984 transliteration of Georgian script into Latin
- ISO 9985 transliteration of the Armenian script into Latin
- ISO 11940 transliteration of the Thai script
- ISO 11941 Transliteration of Korean script into Latin
- ISO 15919 Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indian scripts into Latin
- Eesti Keele Instituut - transliteration tables for various languages (the various systems - ISO, ALA-LC , DIN - that exist for the individual languages are also taken into account )
- Online Greek transliteration according to ISO 843. In: Greeklex.net. Retrieved July 23, 2020 .