Under transcription (from Latin trans , over 'and scribere , write') is understood in the narrow sense a transcription (the transfer of linguistic expressions from one writing system to another), which on the pronunciation is based, using a phonetically defined phonetics or other basic alphabets as a phonetic replacement. This should enable the non-native speaker to pronounce the word halfway correctly. In a broader sense is transcription a synonym for, circumscription '.
The transcription of spoken language is used, for example, in dialectology , where it is necessary to record acoustic evidence in writing as close as possible to the loudspeaker.
A distinction must be made between transcription in the narrower sense and transliteration as a script-based, letter-true, if necessary reversible conversion of a word from one script to another. Diacritical marks are often used for this. The person skilled in the art should be able to see the exact spelling of the word in the other script, if this cannot be shown in the original version (for example because no corresponding types or character sets are available).
|example 1||Example 2|
|Russian original||Александр Солженицын||Михаил Зощенко|
|German transcription||Alexander Solzhenitsyn (Solzhenitsyn *)||Mikhail Soschtschenko (Sostschenko *)|
|English transcription||Aleksandr (Alexander) Solzhenitsyn||Mikhail Zoshchenko|
|Slovenian transcription||Aleksander Solženicin||Mihail Zoščenko|
|Czech transcription||Alexandr Solženicyn||Mikhail Zoščenko|
|french transcription||Alexandre Soljénitsyne||Mikhail Zochtchenko|
|Polish transcription||Aleksander Sołżenicyn||Michaił Zoszczenko|
|Dutch transcription||Aleksandr Solzjenitsyn||Mikhail Zosjtsenko|
|Greek transcription||Aλεξάντερ Σολζενίτσιν||Μιχαήλ Ζόστσενκο|
|Serbian transcription||Александар Солженицин
|Hungarian transcription||Alekszandr Szolzsenyicin||Mihail Zoscsenko|
|亚历山大 • 索尔仁尼琴
[ jâlîʂántâ swǒɐ̀ɻɻə̌nnǐtɕʰín ]
|米哈伊尔 • 淑 雪 兼 珂
[ mìxáíèɻ ʂúɕɥɛ̀tɕjɛ́nkʰɤ́ ]
|scientific transliteration||Aleksandr Solženicyn||Mikhail Zoščenko|
|ISO transliteration||Aleksandr Solženicyn||Mihail Zoŝenko|
|phonetic transcription in the IPA||[ ɐlʲɪkˈsaˑndr sɐɫʒɨˈnʲiˑtsɨn ]||[ mʲɪχaˈiˑɫ ˈzɔˑɕːɪnkɐ ]|
|* Transcription customary in the GDR|
In Japanese, the transcription of Japanese into the Latin script is called Rōmaji (Rome symbol). There are different systems of transcription. Two well-known and recognized are the Hebon-shiki ( German Hepburn system ) and the Kunrei-shiki (German Kunrei system ). The former was spread by the American missionary James Curtis Hepburn and is more based on actual pronunciation; The latter was conceived by the Japanese government at the time and follows the system of the Kana table.
Examples: Japan's holy mountain, the 富士山 , (is often incorrectly rendered in German as " Fudschijama "), is written:
according to the Hepburn system: Fujisan
according to the Kunrei system: Huzisan
|Kana:||し ゃ||し ゅ||し ょ|
The pronunciation of Hebrew, which is reproduced in Latin transcription, is generally based today on the Israeli standard pronunciation. Regional forms of pronunciation, such as Yemeni or Ashkenazi-Eastern European, as well as historical forms of pronunciation (e.g. Biblical Hebrew) are hardly taken into account in the transcription.
Which orthographic system is used to represent the sounds depends on the writer and his / her cultural environment. The word “shalom”, for example, can also be written shalom, chalom, sjalom, szalom , etc., ie German, English, French, Dutch, Polish, etc. - there is no generally recognized, binding standard. In scientific contexts, and in some cases also in the media, a spelling based on English habits dominates today, at least in the area of consonants: sh for sh ; z for voiced s; ts for z; h, also kh for ch etc. In vowelism, the influence of German predominates, since here each letter has only one pronunciation: a, e, i, o, u . Occasionally French ou is also found for u (often in the spelling of the names of oriental Jews in whose countries French predominated); Lately, English-style spellings like oo (for u ) and ee (for i ) have become more common. None of these systems are consistently applied, and none are able to represent all sounds correctly. Think of the lack of distinction between voiced and unvoiced s in German or between ch and h in English; Hebrew itself has a separate letter for each of these sounds. Neither for the transcription of place names and personal names in Israeli passports nor for those on Israeli street signs do uniform rules apply. The non-Hebrew origin of numerous family names also complicates this; sometimes they are written as in the country of origin, sometimes in “simplified”, i.e. H. often anglicized form today. In the case of a name like "Weizman (n)", this means that the transcription Vaitsman also occurs. When examining the names of Israeli authors whose works have been translated into European languages, it can be seen that many, but by no means all, authors adapt the spelling of their names in Latin letters to the reading habits of the respective country; see. A. B. Yehoshua and A. B. Yehoshua, but Amos Oz throughout .
Using the example of Hebrew, the difference between a purely phonological and a morpho-phonological transcription can also be shown:
Kibuts vs. Qibbuṣ: The first transcription reproduces the Israeli pronunciation. The second is also based on the Hebrew alphabet: q stands for the letter ק (Kof), whereas according to this system k is reserved for כּ (Kaf). Kof and Kaf were two different sounds in Classical Hebrew; today they are pronounced the same, the distinction has only been preserved in the spelling. The doubling of the b also reflects a sound level that is no longer common today and for which the classic spelling provides for a point in the letter Bet. ṣ indicates the relationship with the historically related sound ṣ of the other Semitic languages; and S thus reflects an earlier debate that has been lost in modern Hebrew and the sound z (t) has been replaced. In the case of ṣ , it is a character that occurs in scientific transcription systems, while everyday transcription models are usually based solely on the Latin alphabet, without adding diacritical points to the specification. A common scientific form of representation is also ḥ or ḫ for ch, for example in tapuaḥ or tapuaḫ (apple). The use of the hyphen, which is often used to separate written Hebrew words into their component parts, is striking. For example, jad bajad (hand in hand) can also be written jad ba-jad .
Example of transcription and transliteration from a consonant script (Arabic) into Latin script
This example of a Persian two-line line illustrates the distinction between transliteration and transcription according to the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) from an Arabic language into a Latin language:
- Description : First line from the Mas̱nawī-ye ma'nawī ("Spiritual two-line lines") of Rumi : "Hear the flute what it says / how it complains of being separated"
- Source text : بشنو از نى چون حكايت ميكند / از جدائى ها شكايت ميكند
- Transliteration : BŠNW 'Z NY ČWN ḤK'YT MYKND /' Z ǦD''Y H 'ŠK'YT MYKND
- Transcription : bešnau az ney čūn ḥekāyat mīkonad / az ǧodā'ī-hā šekāyat mīkonad
Norms and common transcription systems
- DIN 1505-2 : Title information of documents and citation rules
- DIN 31635 : Transcription of the Arabic into the Latin script
- DIN 31636 : Transcription of the Hebrew into the Latin script
- ALA-LC : taken from various writing systems in the Latin script, used by the American Library Association (ALA) and the US Library of Congress (LC)
- BGN / PCGN : from various writing systems in the Latin script, used by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN)
- SASM / GNC : from various writing systems into the Latin script (including Pinyin for Chinese ), used in the People's Republic of China for their national and minority languages
- IPA : International Phonetic Alphabet
- Wikyrill-o-mat - automatic transcription (currently for Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Kazakh, Tajik, Kyrgyz, Mongolian and Armenian)
- Transcription - German-Russian transcription based on Duden. In: russisch-erleben.de. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
- Transliteration table. In: uni-oldenburg.de. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
- Transliteration and transcription. In: russisch-fuer-kinder.de. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
- Online Greek transcription. In: Greeklex.net. Retrieved July 21, 2020 .
References and comments
- Duden newsletter (September 3rd, 2010). In: duden.de. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
- In Oriental Studies, the transliteration is done using capital letters to clearly distinguish it from the transcription.
- Vocalization according to the pronunciation common in Iran today, which differs from "East Persian" in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and the Indian subcontinent.