The State Bauhaus , now mostly just Bauhaus , was an art school founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 . In terms of type and concept, it was something completely new at the time, as the Bauhaus represented a merger of art and craft . Today, the historic Bauhaus, the most influential educational institution in the field of architecture , art and design in the 20th century. The Bauhaus was temporally in parallel with and in the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933 and is today considered the home of the avant-garde of theClassical modernism in all areas of free and applied art and architecture. The response from the Bauhaus continues to this day and has a major impact on the image of modernist currents .
The Bauhaus emerged in Weimar through the merger of the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Art in Weimar with the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Applied Arts, founded in 1907 by Henry van de Velde . It became the direct forerunner of the Bauhaus, which then began its work in van de Velde's school buildings. In 1925 the company moved to Dessau - from 1926 in the Bauhaus Dessau building . In 1932 the Bauhaus had to move to Berlin ; It was closed in 1933.
The influence of the Bauhaus was so significant that colloquially the term Bauhaus is often equated with modernity in architecture and design. Laypeople often speak of the Bauhaus style in this context , but it is problematic in terms of architecture and art history to consider the developments at the Bauhaus in isolation and to use Bauhaus as a style term (e.g. as an architectural style or furniture style ). Rather, the designs and works of the teachers and students at the Bauhaus are seen as part of longer-term and transnational trends and classified under terms such as functionalism , classic modernism , new objectivity , international style or new building .
In the Bauhaus, the traditionally separate areas of fine arts , applied arts and performing arts were linked on the basis of the school's own concept, which in turn had a strong impact on painting, performing arts and music .
The original intentions of Henry van de Velde and Walter Gropius were to emancipate art from industrialization and to revive handicrafts . In doing so, they formed an alternative to the aesthetics of historicism , in which handcrafted ornaments were serially copied through industrial mass production. The term “art” was not used to describe the avant-garde of the time, but rather the formal language of contemporary designers for production in the style of bygone eras. With the return to craftsmanship, the design intention was linked to experimentally and manually developing a new design language that does justice to the industrial manufacturing process.
A guiding principle of the Bauhaus was to combine architecture as a total work of art with the other arts. That is why the Bauhaus proclaimed in its founding manifesto of 1919: “The ultimate goal of all artistic activity is construction”. In the course of development, however, today's industrial and graphic design in particular results from these ideas. In architecture, modular construction has established itself not only in industrial plants, but also in the creation of inexpensive living space, for example in satellite cities of mega-metropolises.
The “Staatliche Bauhaus” was conceived by the founder Walter Gropius as a working group in which the distinction between artist and craftsman should be abolished. Through their work, the Bauhaus employees wanted to eliminate social differences and contribute to understanding between peoples. In terms of intention and results, there were many similarities and connections with the Deutscher Werkbund founded in 1907 , of which Walter Gropius was a member until 1933.
“The ultimate goal of all artistic activity is construction! […] Architects, sculptors, painters, we all have to go back to the craft! [...] The artist is an enhancement of the craftsman. "
The predecessor organization for the Bauhaus was the "Arts and Crafts Seminar" founded by Henry van de Velde in 1902 and the "Arts and Crafts Institute", which was conceived as a teaching institution a little later and started teaching in 1907. Van de Velde established a considerable number of the methods and principles for which the later Bauhaus became famous. The Belgian architect was inspired, among other things, by Japanese interior design from the Edo period .
1919 to 1925 - Weimar
The Bauhaus in Weimar was on 12 April 1919 from the union of the Grand Ducal Saxon Academy of Fine Arts in Weimar and the 1915 resolution Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar . At the suggestion of Henry van de Velde , the previous director of the Grand Ducal Saxon University, Walter Gropius was appointed as his successor. This gave the new school its name.
As a teacher, Gropius was able to win important artists such as Lyonel Feininger (1919), Johannes Itten (1919), Gerhard Marcks (1919), Paul Klee (1921) and Oskar Schlemmer (1921) as well as Wassily Kandinsky (1922) for the Bauhaus. The apprenticeship at the Bauhaus consisted of the preliminary course and work in the workshops. These were led by the artists, who called themselves masters of form , and the master craftsmen. In the beginning, a romantic return to industrial production methods was mixed with modern design approaches. Bauhaus projects such as the “ Haus Sommerfeld ” were still very expressionistic in this phase . Theo van Doesburg , a founding member of the De Stijl movement, had a great influence on the teachers and students of the Bauhaus from 1921 to 1922 . He was not officially active at the Bauhaus - Gropius had refused a permanent position for Doesburg as a master - but gave private courses on architectural design in Weimar. In particular, the return to simple cubic forms can be attributed to his work.
In 1923 the constructivist László Moholy-Nagy came as the successor to the painter Johannes Itten, who stood for holistic ideas about life reform. Also in 1923 Josef Albers became a teacher. The joint preliminary course , in which emphasis was placed on a diverse and comprehensive education of the students, is exemplary and still formative for training at art and design schools around the world . In 1920 Adolf Meyer set up an architecture department; There was, however, no systematic architectural training at the Bauhaus. The model house “Am Horn” in Weimar in 1923 was the first project that was consistently shaped in terms of architecture and furnishings by the New Objectivity , as dictated in particular by the Dutch direction “De Stijl”. In public, these buildings were considered "cold", "barren" and "machine".
From 1922, at the urging of the Thuringian state government, a first exhibition was designed to show the results of the new university so far. The Bauhaus itself considered this point in time too premature to show anything more than the contours of the new and at this point in time still unique educational system. Despite this, Walter Gropius concentrated the university's strengths on organizing the Bauhaus exhibition of 1923 , which was on view at three exhibition locations in Weimar from August 15 to September 30.
The exhibition was introduced by the so-called Bauhaus week . This was very well received by the public and the press. Gropius opened the Bauhaus week with a lecture on art and technology - a new unit . This was followed by lectures by Kandinsky ( On Synthetic Art ) and the Dutch architect Oud on the development of modern Dutch architecture. Oskar Schlemmer's Triadic Ballet was performed in the German National Theater as well as a concert with six piano pieces (including four world premieres) by Ferruccio Busoni and the first performance of the Marienlieder by Paul Hindemith ; Kurt Schmidt's Mechanical Ballet could be seen in the Jena Theater . On the final day, a matinee under the direction of Hermann Scherchen brought the repetition of the first performance of Stravinski's story about the soldier . The day ended with a lantern festival, fireworks, dance and the demonstration of reflective color light games by Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack . The exhibition was accompanied by the publication of the manifesto STAATLICHES BAUHAUS IN WEIMAR 1919–1923 in an edition of 2,600 copies, 2000 in German, 300 in English and 300 in Russian. The cover design came from Herbert Bayer .
One of the most important components of the exhibition was the model house "Am Horn" , a test house based on a design by Georg Muche , which was built by Walter March and Adolf Meyer from Gropius' architecture office. The equipment was a joint effort by all of the Bauhaus workshops.
After the balance of power had changed after the state elections in Thuringia in February 1924, the government under Richard Leutheußer ( DVP ) cut the budget by 50 percent. As a result, other cities offered the teachers and students new locations (for example the mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer , who then founded the Cologne factory schools ). Financially and politically under pressure from the Thuringian government, the Council of Masters decided to move to Dessau in 1925 . The aircraft manufacturer Hugo Junkers offered funding there, and there was also a stable, social-democratic and liberal-oriented majority in this industrial city. Gropius fought for the use of the Bauhaus name at the new location in court; Those who stayed in Weimar after 1925 were no longer allowed to use the institution's name. Numerous teachers then left the Bauhaus, including the architect Adolf Meyer, who went to the New Frankfurt project , and the graphic artist Karl Peter Röhl , who moved to the Frankfurt Städelschule .
1925 to 1932 - Dessau
In 1925 the company moved to Dessau . It was there that the first pieces of furniture were made from the new material tubular steel , such as the B 3 club chair by Marcel Breuer . Mart Stam and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed the first cantilever chairs . Cooperation with industry began. In order to present the work done at the Bauhaus and important modern tendencies, the book series Bauhaus books was published from 1925 to 1930 . In addition, the magazine bauhaus has been published every quarter since December 1926 .
On December 4, 1926, the new Bauhaus building designed by Walter Gropius was inaugurated. The fully glazed workshop wing on the street side was particularly impressive, as were the " Masters ' Houses " built at the same time and also designed by Gropius , which functioned as residential houses and how the Bauhaus building consistently and exemplary combined the developed ideas of living and working. The lights for the new building were mainly designed by Marianne Brandt .
On April 1, 1928, Gropius resigned as director. At his suggestion, the Swiss architect Hannes Meyer became the new director who not only gave the Bauhaus the motto “People's needs instead of luxury needs”, but also intensified cooperation with industry and brought about a concentration on the subject of architecture. Meyer, who represented left-wing socialist positions, remained director until his immediate dismissal by the mayor of Dessau on August 1, 1930.
From 1930 the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe headed the Bauhaus in Dessau. In 1931 the NSDAP won the municipal elections in Dessau and in 1932 pushed through the closure of the state Bauhaus. The KPD voted against, the SPD abstained. Ludwig Mies tried to continue the Bauhaus as a private institution by moving to Berlin.
In 1945 the Bauhaus building in Dessau was partially destroyed. It was reconstructed in 1976 .
1932 to 1933 - Berlin
In 1932 the Bauhaus was relocated to Berlin-Lankwitz as a private institution ; but as early as 1933 the institution was finally forced to dissolve itself by the National Socialists through repression such as house searches, sealing of the rooms and the arrest of students.
Many Bauhaus members emigrated and thus contributed to the international dissemination of the ideas of the Bauhaus.
From the 1930s onwards, Jewish Bauhaus architects built more than 4,000 buildings in Tel Aviv. This White City has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2003 . Tel Aviv has the largest collection of buildings in the world that can be attributed to the design ideas of the Bauhaus.
The National Socialists were against Dessau Modernism, but through the former Bauhaus student Fritz Ertl , according to Jean-Louis Cohen (2014), the sober functionalism of the Bauhaus emerged in the architecture of the Auschwitz concentration camp .
Some of the protagonists of the Bauhaus, such as Josef Albers , Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , subsequently emigrated to the USA , where - with a special focus on Black Mountain College - the influence soon began the Bauhaus teaching and design concept became clear. Methods and tenets of the Bauhaus quickly gained acceptance, particularly in architecture, but also in product and communication design .
László Moholy-Nagy himself continued the Bauhaus concept from 1937 in American exile as the New Bauhaus in Chicago (now the IIT Institute of Design ). Originally, Walter Gropius was to become its director, but he had accepted a call as professor for the "Graduate School of Design" at Harvard University and then recommended Moholy-Nagy.
After the end of World War II In 1953 in Ulm , the School of Design ( HfG Ulm ), the first of the Bauhaus graduates Max Bill was passed and designed along the lines of the Bauhaus, further introduced a similar objective design idea and, among other things, the new influences of the International Typographic Style in bound their commercial jobs and graphics, but deliberately avoided art.
In 1961 the Darmstadt art gallery showed the “Bauhaus” exhibition. Darmstadt was also the seat of the Bauhaus archive; The new archive building was also to be built on the Mathildenhöhe according to plans by Gropius before it was poached to Berlin.
At the beginning of the 1970s, a number of furniture and utility objects came onto the market as licensed re-editions, which to this day shape the misconception of a uniform Bauhaus style. A characteristic of this furniture is the renunciation of the original colors in favor of the colors black, white and chrome.
In 1996, the Bauhaus building in Dessau, which since 1986 by the "Bauhaus Dessau - Center of Design" was used in the UNESCO - World Heritage added. Today it is the seat of the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation, founded in 1994 .
In 2008, a Bauhaus Museum was built in the White City of Tel Aviv.
The Bauhaus and photography
The Bauhaus played a special role in the history of art, design and architecture. When the school was founded in 1919, it initially had little to do with photography. In 1923 Walter Gropius opened the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar with a lecture called "Art and Technology - A New Unit". This shows that a change had taken place within the school. The school's creative goal was not just building; the possibilities of industrial production were to be increasingly used. In the school's workshops, objects such as lights, chairs and entire kitchen equipment were created that were intended for mass production and were intended to supplement the mere construction.
It was this turn to industrial design and the creation of objects that gave photography at the Bauhaus a decisive boost. The 1923 exhibition was accompanied by an extensive catalog that contained not only images of architecture but also some images of objects designed and built at the Bauhaus. It quickly became clear that the medium of photography offered advantages for the school's appearance. Thanks to photography it was now possible to present the objects created to a wider public. So far, however, external photographers have been commissioned to take photos of the desired things, which further burdened the school's already relatively narrow budget.
Lucia Moholy finally gave the impetus to relocate photography activities to the Bauhaus. Her husband Lászlo Moholy-Nagy was already known for his photographic experiments at the Bauhaus. In addition, it was she who designed the aforementioned exhibition calendar together with Walter Gropius. In the summer of 1923, Lucia Moholy completed an apprenticeship as a reproduction photographer with the Weimar photography master Otto Eckner. In the following years, between 1924 and 1928, a comprehensive inventory of product photos and architectural images was created, which shape the image of the school to this day. Lucia Moholy's style was technical, documentary and clear.
This may be because she learned her craft rather than self- taught. Their aim was less to experiment with the medium of photography itself. Rather, she tried to show what was being depicted clearly, realistically and objectively. Lászlo and his wife were soon no longer the only ones at the Bauhaus who dedicated themselves to photography. Especially under the influence of the experimental photography of Lászlo Moholy-Nagy, a lively photography scene developed around 1927 at the Bauhaus, which not only captured architecture and object shots, but also scenes of everyday life and portraits. There were also photo collages and montages.
Although one often speaks of Bauhaus photography when seeing things in a new way , this is not entirely correct. For example, until 1929 there was no permanent photography course in the school's curriculum. It was not until 1929 that the photography department was founded and Walter Peterhans took over the management. Here the students learned photographic theory and precise vision. The term Bauhaus photography as a designation of a style is also incorrect because the many different approaches of teachers and students can hardly be summarized under one term.
Structure of the course
The course at the Bauhaus was divided into three sections. The preliminary apprenticeship consisted of half a year of form lessons and material exercises. After that, he was accepted into the workshop . It was possible to choose between different training workshops. The third section consisted of the building theory . This consisted of working on the construction with a conditional duration. As a conclusion, a master craftsman's certificate was awarded by the Chamber of Crafts and, if particularly talented, the Bauhaus. Some of the students at the Bauhaus continued to work as masters at the Bauhaus after completing their vocational training .
|Bauhaus workshop||Form master||Foreman|
|Bauhaus printing||Lyonel Feininger|
|Stained glass||Josef Albers , Johannes Itten|
|Metal workshop||Johannes Itten , László Moholy-Nagy , provisional Marianne Brandt , Alfred Arndt||Christian Dell , Naum Slutzky|
|Furniture workshop||Johannes Itten (1919–1922), Walter Gropius (1922–1925), Marcel Breuer (1925–1928)||Anton Handik|
|Weaving workshop||Georg Muche||Gunta Stölzl , acting as Anni Albers|
|Wall painting workshop||Oskar Schlemmer , Wassily Kandinsky , Alfred Arndt||Heinrich Beberniss|
|Bauhaus stage||Lothar Schreyer , Oskar Schlemmer|
|Ceramic workshop||Gerhard Marcks||Max Krehan|
|architecture||Walter Gropius , Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Hannes Meyer , Adolf Meyer|
|Exhibition design||Joost Schmidt|
|Doctrine of harmonization||Gertrud Grunow|
Other protagonists of the Bauhaus
Teapot (by Marianne Brandt ) 1924
Desk lamp (by Christian Dell )
Tubular steel chair (by Marcel Breuer )
British Pavilion 1934 - Levante Fair
On April 4, 2019, the first day of issue, Deutsche Post AG issued a postage stamp with a face value of 70 euro cents in the Design from Germany series . The design on the theme of 100 years of Bauhaus comes from the graphic designers Sibylle Haase-Knels and Fritz Haase from Bremen.
- Walter Gropius: State Bauhaus in Weimar 1919–1923. (Ed. By the State Bauhaus, Weimar and Karl Nierendorf in Cologne), Bauhaus Verlag, Weimar / Munich 1923. Cover design by Herbert Bayer (Bauhaus Manifesto)
- Bauhaus books . Series of publications. Albert Langen, Munich 4.1925-1930.1929.
- Hans M. Wingler (Ed.): New Bauhaus Books. New series of the Bauhaus books founded by Walter Gropius and László Moholy-Nagy . Series of publications. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1925ff., Kupferberg, Mainz 1965ff. (Reprint)
Literature (alphabetical list)
- Bauhaus Cooperation Berlin Dessau Weimar gGmbH (Hrsg.): Bauhaus travel book . Prestel, 2017, ISBN 978-3-7913-8244-9 .
- Kirsten Baumann : Bauhaus Dessau. Architecture, design, idea. Jovis, Berlin 2007.
- Anja Baumhoff: The Gendered World of the Bauhaus. The Politics of Power at the Weimar Republic's Premier Art Institute, 1919–1931. Peter Lang, Frankfurt / Berlin / New York 2001, ISBN 3-631-37945-5 .
- Anja Baumhoff: Bauhaus. In: Hagen Schulze, Etienne Francois (ed.): German places of memory. Studies on the historical philosophy of Pierre Nora. CH Beck, Munich, ISBN 3-406-47223-0 , pp. 584-600.
- Herbert Bayer : 50 years of Bauhaus. Exhibition organized by the Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart, art building on Schloßplatz, May 5 to July 28, 1968. Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart 1968.
- Torsten Blume, Burghard Duhm: Bauhaus.Bühne.Dessau - change of scenery. edition bauhaus, Volume 21. Jovis, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-936314-81-6 .
- Marty Bax: Bauhaus Lecture Notes 1930–1933. Theory and practice of architectural training at the Bauhaus, based on the lecture notes made by the Dutch ex-Bauhaus student and architect JJ van der Linden of the Mies van der Rohe curriculum. Architectura & Natura, Amsterdam 1991, ISBN 90-71570-04-5 .
- Friedrich von Borries , Ines Weizman, Philipp Oswalt , Regina Bittner, Ulrike Müller , Burcu Dogramaci, Sharon Golan Yaron: Contributions in Bauhaus. APuZ 13-14, 2019. 
- Magdalena Droste: Bauhaus 1919–1933. Reform and avant-garde. Taschen, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8228-2222-1 .
- Magdalena Droste: Bauhaus. Updated edition. Taschen, Cologne 2019, ISBN 978-3-8365-7279-8 and ISBN 978-3-8365-6551-6 .
- Michael Eckardt (ed.): Bauhaus walk: in Weimar on the trail of the earlier Bauhaus. Publishing house of the Bauhaus University, Weimar 2009, ISBN 978-3-86068-378-1 .
- Hans Christian Feldmann, Sonja Lucas: Streifzüge zum Bauhaus , MONUMENTS Publications of the DSD , Bonn 2019, ISBN 978-3-86795-150-0 .
- Jeannine Fiedler, Peter Feierabend (Ed.): Bauhaus. Könemann bei Tandem, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-89508-600-2 .
- Dorothea Fischer-Leonhardt: The gardens of the Bauhaus. Modern design concepts. Jovis, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-936314-34-2 .
- Thomas Flierl , Philipp Oswalt (ed.): In the dispute of the interpretations: Conflicting Interpretation. Hannes Meyer Bauhaus, Leipzig 2018, ISBN 978-3-95905-150-7 .
- Boris Friedewald : Bauhaus. Prestel, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-7913-4201-6 .
- Nicholas Fox Weber: The Bauhaus Gang. Masters of the Modern. Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86922-480-0 .
- Peter Hahn (Ed.): Bauhaus Berlin: Dissauation Dessau 1932; Berlin closes in 1933; Bauhausler and Third Reich. A documentation. Kunstverlag Weingarten, Weingarten 1985, ISBN 3-8170-2002-3 .
- Peter Hahn , Michael Siebenbrodt , Hardt W Hämer, Magdalena Droste, Jenny Anger, Manfred Ludewig, Rolf Bothe: The Bauhaus weaves. The textile workshop of the Bauhaus. G & H Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-931768-20-1 .
- Wulf Herzogenrath , Stefan Kraus (ed.): Erich Consemüller. Photographs Bauhaus-Dessau. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-88814-310-1 .
- Bernd Hüttner, Georg Leidenberger (ed.): 100 years of Bauhaus. Diversity, Conflict and Effect , Metropol, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-86331-458-3 .
- Joachim W. Jacobs: Bauhaus and outdoor space planning . In: The garden art . 6 (1/1994), pp. 157-168.
- Ulf Meyer: Bauhaus. Prestel, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-7913-3613-4 .
- Jean Molitor, Kaija Voss: Bauhaus. A photographic journey around the world. be.bra verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-89809-152-7 .
- Ulrike Müller: Bauhaus women: masters in art, craft and design. Elisabeth Sandmann, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-938045-36-7 .
- Ursula Muscheler: The red Bauhaus. A story of hope and failure. Berenberg, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-946334-10-1 ( reading sample ).
- Sebastian Neurauter: The Bauhaus and the exploitation rights - an investigation into the practice of exploitation of rights at the Bauhaus 1919-1933. Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-16-152477-6 .
- Winfried Nerdinger (Ed. In collaboration with the Bauhaus Archive, Berlin): Bauhaus Modernism in National Socialism. Between ingratiation and persecution. With contributions by Ute Brüning, Magdalena Bushart, Magdalena Droste, Peter Hahn, Ekkehard Mai, Winfried Nerdinger, Rolf Sachse, Renate Scheper, Wolfgang Voigt and Sabine Weißler. Prestel, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7913-1269-3 .
- Winfried Nerdinger: The Bauhaus: Workshop of Modernity. Beck, Munich 2018 (= CH Beck Wissen. 2883). ISBN 978-3-406-72760-3 .
- Press reviews (excerpts) for the State Bauhaus Weimar. Wagner, Weimar 1924, urn : nbn: de: gbv: wim2-g-3883674 .
- Philipp Oswalt (Ed.): Hannes Meyer's new Bauhaus apprenticeship: From Dessau to Mexico. Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-0356-1724-5 .
- Philipp Oswalt: Bauhaus brand 1919–2019. The victory of the iconic shape over use. Zurich 2019, ISBN 978-3-85881-620-7 .
- Brigitte Salmen et al .: Bauhaus ideas - Um Itten, Feininger, Klee, Kandinsky: From the expressive to the constructive. Murnau Castle Museum, 2007, ISBN 3-932276-24-8 .
- Walter Scheiffele: bauhaus junkers social democracy - a force field of modernity. form + Zweck, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-935053-02-9 .
- Michael Siebenbrodt : Bauhaus Weimar, Designs for the Future; Bauhaus Weimar, drafts for the future. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2000, ISBN 3-7757-9030-6 .
- Michael Siebenbrodt: Weimar art collections. Bauhaus museum. Weimar 2006, ISBN 3-422-06584-9 .
- Michael Siebenbrodt, F. Simon-Ritz (Ed.): The Bauhaus Library. Attempt at a reconstruction. Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2009, ISBN 978-3-86068-377-4 .
- Michael Siebenbrodt, Lutz Schöbe: Bauhaus 1919–1933. Parkstone International / Kroemer, New York 2009, ISBN 978-1-85995-628-1 .
- Frank Simon-Ritz, Klaus-Jürgen Winkler, Gerd Zimmermann (eds.): But we are! We want! And we can do it! From the Grand Ducal Art School to the Bauhaus University. 1860-2010. Volume 1 (1860-1945). Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2010, ISBN 978-3-86068-419-1 .
- Ré Soupault : Bauhaus. The heroic years of Weimar. Verlag Das Wunderhorn, Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88423-332-0 .
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- Manfred Sundermann (Ed.): Mechanical city? Junkers. Dessau. Dessau 2002, ISBN 3-936383-06-5 .
- Wolfgang Thöner, Ute Ackermann: The Bauhaus is alive. Henschel, Leipzig 2009. ISBN 978-3-86502-208-0 .
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- Susanne Weiß, Art + Technology = Design? Materials and motifs of aviation in modern times. Böhlau, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-412-20495-2 .
- Ines Weizman (Ed.): Dust & Data. Traces of the Bauhaus across 100 Years. Spector Books, Leipzig 2019, ISBN 978-3-95905-230-6 .
- Rainer Wick: Bauhaus pedagogy. DuMont, Cologne 1982, 1994, ISBN 3-7701-1268-7 .
- Hans M. Wingler: The Bauhaus. 1913–1933 Weimar Dessau Berlin and the successor in Chicago since 1937. DuMont, Cologne 1968/2002, ISBN 3-8321-7153-3 .
- Tom Wolfe : Living with the Bauhaus (“From Bauhaus to our house”). From the American by Harry Rowohlt . EVA, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 3-86572-638-0 .
- Annett Zinsmeister (Ed.): “Update.” 90 years of Bauhaus - what now? JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86859-102-6 .
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