Paul Hindemith

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Paul Hindemith in 1945, during his exile in the USA
Paul Hindemith at the age of 28 (1923)

Paul Hindemith (* 16th November 1895 in Hanau , † 28. December 1963 in Frankfurt am Main ) was a German composer of the Modern ( New Music ). In his early creative period, he shocked the classical concert audience with provocatively new types of sounds (sharp rhythms, glaring dissonances, inclusion of jazz elements), which earned him the reputation of a “public shock ”. During the time of National Socialism there was a ban on performing his works, to which he finally reacted by emigrating, first to Switzerland, then to the USA. In the meantime, his way of composing developed into a neoclassical style, which dealt in a new way with classical forms such as symphony , sonata and fugue . In doing so, he distanced himself from the romantic artist image of the genius inspired by inspiration and saw the composer and musician more as a craftsman. The emphasis on craftsmanship is also reflected in his theoretical writings, especially the instruction in composition . His theoretical system can be briefly described as a free tonality , which is differentiated from the traditional major-minor tonality as well as from Schönberg's twelve-tone atonality . He advocated “ music for use ” and saw it as the composer's duty to face social challenges and not to compose for a purely end in itself.

Hindemith embodies the type of universal musician who is equally versed in theory and practice. For example, he had extensive experience as an orchestral ( violin and viola ) and chamber musician (as a violist in the Amar Quartet ). As a conductor (especially his own works) he benefited from his perfect pitch and his largely professional command of all common orchestral instruments.


Postage stamp for the 100th birthday 1995

Hindemith came from a working-class family as the son of the painter Rudolf Hindemith and his wife Sofie (née Warnecke). He spent his early childhood in Rodenbach near Hanau. From the age of three to six, Paul Hindemith lived with his grandparents Hindemith in Naumburg am Queis in Silesia . In 1900 the family moved to Mühlheim am Main , where Paul completed his primary school and received his first violin lessons. In 1905 he moved with his family to Frankfurt am Main; there he finished elementary school at the age of fourteen.

The family roots are in Silesia. He comes from a long-established Silesian family of merchants and craftsmen from the Jauer and Lauban districts . His father Rudolf was born in 1870 in Naumburg am Queis in Silesia . He left his homeland as a young man and settled in Hanau around 1890, where he worked as a house painter. The father had his three children, Paul born in 1895, his sister Antonie (Toni) born in 1898 and his brother Rudolf born in 1900, musical lessons from early childhood and they performed under the name "Frankfurter Kindertrio". He gave them the training that he had been denied despite his musical disposition. The son Rudolf Hindemith , who found recognition as a cellist very early on, later also took up the profession of conductor and composer, but was overshadowed by his famous brother Paul. The father answered, despite his advanced age life of 44 years, in 1914 at the beginning of the First World War as a volunteer . He fell in September 1915 in the autumn battle in Champagne near Souain-Perthes as an infantryman in close combat.

Childhood and competition between two brothers

As children, the two highly musical brothers Paul and Rudolf (1900–1974) were the figureheads of the family; In their youth they began to play professionally together in the Amar Quartet , one of the leading groups in the new music scene of the twenties. The younger Rudolf (cello) soon quit because he often saw himself being left behind Paul, switched to the genre of brass music and jazz and, unlike Paul, stayed in Germany as a conductor .

Musical career

Memorial plaque on Berlin's Brixplatz
Hindemith's residence 1923–1927 in the Kuhhirtenturm in Frankfurt am Main
Amar Quartet (1922)
v. l. To the right: Maurits Frank , Licco Amar , Walter Caspar and Paul Hindemith

Paul learned the violin from the age of nine . Following a recommendation from his violin teacher Anna Hegner , he attended the Hoch Conservatory from 1908 and studied in Adolf Rebner's violin class. From 1912 he received composition lessons from Arnold Mendelssohn and Bernhard Sekles , with whom Theodor W. Adorno also studied. During the summer holidays he played in spa bands in Switzerland; In 1913 he was engaged as concertmaster at the Frankfurt New Theater.

From 1915 to 1923 he held the position of concertmaster at the Frankfurt Opera Theater. Hindemith was transferred to Alsace on January 16, 1918 as a military musician in an infantry regiment during World War I. From April, his unit was stationed in northern France and Belgium, where Hindemith experienced the atrocities of war. On December 5, 1918, he was released from military service.

In the Amar Quartet , founded in 1921, he sat at the viola stand until 1929. In 1923 Hindemith fulfilled the wish of the pianist Paul Wittgenstein for a piano concerto for the left hand. However, the pianist did not perform the work. It was only over 80 years later, after the score was surprisingly discovered in 2002, that it was premiered with the Berliner Philharmoniker .

One of Hindemith's favorite pianists at the time was the wife of the Frankfurt art historian Fried Lübbecke , Emma Lübbecke-Job , who had already performed his quintet in E minor (Op. 7) with the Rebner Quartet (see above) in 1918; in 1924 he dedicated his chamber music No. 2 (Opus 36).

In the same year he married the musician Gertrud Rottenberg, daughter of the Kapellmeister of the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra Ludwig Rottenberg and granddaughter of the former Mayor of Frankfurt Franz Adickes .

Through his friend and brother-in-law, the radio pioneer and then head of the Frankfurt station, Hans Flesch , Hindemith came into contact with the new medium in 1924. On Flesch's initiative, a number of commissioned works were subsequently created for the radio, including the 1929 musical audio image Der Flug der Lindberghs , a joint production with Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht . In 1927, the Berlin University of Music appointed Hindemith professor of composition. From 1929 Hindemith also taught at the Neukölln Music School founded in 1927.

Paul Hindemith with viola (1956), painting by Rudolf Heinisch

The composer's circle of friends included the Frankfurt painters Reinhold Ewald (1890–1974) and Rudolf Heinisch (1896–1956). Ewald, who lived in his neighborhood in Hindemith's childhood, designed title pages for scores (for example Sancta Susanna ). Hindemith remained close friends with Heinisch until his death. He was also his best man, drew his Amar quartet and painted Paul Hindemith about fifteen times between 1924 and 1956. His best-known picture by Hindemith, in the Städelsche Museum in Frankfurt since 1929, hung in the 1938 Nazi exhibition “Degenerate Art” in the category “Technically skilled, disposition verjudet” and was subsequently destroyed as “unusable”.

In the meantime, several of his works have premiered at the Donaueschinger Musiktage . When Hindemith's 3rd String Quartet Opus 16 was premiered there in 1921 by the Amar Quartet, at barely thirty years of age it earned him the reputation of the most influential and respected modern musician in Europe. From 1923 to 1930 he directed the Chamber Music Days together with Heinrich Burkard and Joseph Haas and made it one of the most important forums for new music. Since then, Hindemith has been one of the most important, but also most controversial, trendsetters in contemporary music in Germany.

Unfamiliar music

Paul Hindemith (right) making music (with viola) in Vienna in 1933.
v. l. to r .: Bronisław Huberman (violin), Pau Casals (cello), Artur Schnabel (piano)

For example, many of his choral works and songs still sound rough and unfamiliar and are  an interesting challenge, for example for the choir boys . The text templates he chose, among which there are many Christian poets in addition to Luther , aroused rejection in the rising National Socialism . Most of his almost 100 piano songs have remained undiscovered by interpreters to this day.

Hindemith's rather short-term interest in the new electrical instruments, which are in their first stages of development, fell during this time. Confronted with Jörg Mager for the first time in Donaueschingen in 1926 , he was particularly interested in the development of the Trautonium and suggested its first presentation in Berlin in 1930. His interest accompanied the development up to his 40th birthday, when his third and at the same time last composition for this instrument was performed for the first time by Oskar Sala .

Confrontation with the "Third Reich"

In the 1930s Hindemith increasingly relocated his musical activities as a violist to other European countries, and from 1937 concert tours also took him to the USA. His work was hindered more and more by the NSDAP . Nazi supporters did not doubt the musical ability of Hindemith as the "great man of his time", but agitated against his "intolerable sentiments". Adolf Hitler had already complained in 1929 about the fifth picture in the opera Neues vom Tage . Parts of his works were removed from the programs under the verdict of “ cultural Bolshevism ” or as “ degenerate art ”. As early as 1934, his works were banned from broadcasting on German radio. In the same year, Reich Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels publicly referred to him as an “atonal noise maker”. On November 25, 1934, Wilhelm Furtwängler drew attention to the situation of Hindemith with his article Der Fall Hindemith in the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung : No one of the younger generation did as much for the reputation of German music abroad as Hindemith. You couldn't afford to do without him. Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels reacted angrily.

Memorial plaque in Lenzkirch
House in Lenzkirch with memorial plaque (2010)

As a token of his solidarity with those persecuted by the regime, Hindemith played pieces by Bach on the viola on Christmas Eve 1933 in the Moabit remand prison in Berlin , where his brother-in-law Hans Flesch, among others, was incarcerated at that time. Between 1934 and 1935 he lived in Lenzkirch, Baden, and completed Mathis the painter there .

In 1935, Hindemith went to Turkey on behalf of the German government, protesting his students , to set up the Ankara Conservatory. He had taken a leave of absence from his position. From 1936 the performance of his works was banned, which led him to resign from his position in 1937. The climax of the confrontation with the Nazi system was the National Socialists' exhibition “ Degenerate Music ” in 1938 . This explicitly referred to the Jewish descent of his wife Gertrud.

Emigration and return

In 1938 Hindemith and his wife went into exile , initially to Switzerland . The couple left the country again in 1940 to go into exile in the United States . They settled in New Haven (Connecticut) , where Hindemith taught as a professor at Yale University until 1953. In 1940 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 1947 to the American Academy of Arts and Letters . In 1946 he received American citizenship .

At the end of the 1940s, Hindemith made a career as a conductor, primarily for classical music. Worldwide tours have allowed him to perform in musical centers such as the Vienna and Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra . In 1950 Hindemith accepted an honorary doctorate from the Free University of Berlin , and he also became an honorary member of the Wiener Konzerthausgesellschaft . 1950 honorary member of the International Society for Contemporary Music ISCM . In 1951 he received the Bach Prize of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg .

Alternating with Yale, Hindemith also taught in Zurich from 1951 , where a chair was established for him. In 1953 he moved back to Switzerland and lived in his Villa La Chance in Blonay near Vevey on Lake Geneva . In 1954 he conducted the unofficial debut of the Concentus Musicus Wien with Monteverdi's Orfeo at the Wiener Konzerthaus . In 1955 he was honored with the Goethe plaque of the city of Frankfurt am Main and awarded the Wihuri Sibelius Prize . In 1962 he received the Balzan Prize for Music and was accepted into the American Philosophical Society .

In 1957 Hindemith ended his teaching activities and then went his own musical path as a composer and conductor. He devoted himself more to conducting and went on tours to Asia and the USA. After the world premiere of his last composition on November 12, 1963 in Vienna, Hindemith returned to the Villa La Chance in Blonay . On his birthday he fell seriously ill and was admitted to the Marienhospital in Frankfurt am Main at his own request. There he died on December 28th of an inflammation of the pancreas .


Hindemith trained numerous composers. But there were also critical voices about his educational work. This is how the Austrian composer Gottfried von Eine judged :

“Hindemith was a really great master, we all know that, but he was a terrible teacher. Nothing came out of it because he tied people to himself. The opposite of Blacher . "

Peter Ré, who studied with Hindemith at Yale University, says in an interview:

“He was very selective about his students. I was fortunate to be one of them. [...] We were very worried about whether we were able to answer questions that he had for us, because he was ahead of us in a way. And we learned a lot of new things that we never had before in our back training. It was a wonderful experience but he was a very tough teacher and he would certainly harshly criticize you if you didn't know what you were doing. [...] He was very clear in correcting us when we showed him what we were doing. We were always amazed at his knowledge. […] You loved and you hated him. It could be terribly difficult with him. But the fact that he selected you was always a safety thing. "

“He was very picky about his students. I was lucky enough to be one of them. [...] We were very concerned about whether we could answer questions he asked us because he was in a way ahead of us. And we learned a lot of new things that we never had before in class. It was a wonderful experience, but he was a tough teacher and he was sure to criticize you if you didn't know your way around well. [...] He clearly corrected us when we showed him our work. His knowledge always amazed us. [...] You loved him and you hated him. It could be awfully difficult with him. But the fact that he had chosen one always gave a security. "

- Peter Ré

The Hindemith researcher Gerd Sannemüller also stated:

“Inwardly busy with the development of his strict theory of music and not ready to compromise, he [Hindemith - TE] gave his students little space to work more freely. The exclusive focus on this tone system was often seen as a restriction of artistic development possibilities; For this Adorno uses the hard word 'Gleichschaltung'. A distance to the students, who had different ideas, was therefore temporarily unmistakable in Hindemith's 13 years of teaching in North America. "

Hindemith Prizes

In honor of Paul Hindemith, two Paul Hindemith Prizes have been donated by the Hindemith Foundation , which also includes the Hindemith Music Center : the Hindemith Prize , which has been awarded at the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival since 1990, and the Paul- Hindemith Prize of the City of Hanau .

Catalog raisonné

Hindemith's estate is kept in the Hindemith Institute in Frankfurt am Main and edited in the form of a historical-critical complete edition. There you can also find detailed information about his life and work online.

Compositions (selection)

  • 1917: Drei Gesänge for soprano and orchestra, op.9 (considered the highlight of his early work)
  • 1918: Sonata in D for piano and violin , op.11 No. 2
  • 1921: In the fight with the mountains ( film music )
  • 1921/22: Suite 1922 (March (aerial act) - Shimmy - night piece - Boston - Ragtime)
  • 1921: 4th string quartet , op.22
  • 1922: Chamber music No. 1 , op.24a
  • 1922: The young maid (songs based on Georg Trakl), op. 23 No. 2
  • 1922: Sonata for solo viola , op.25 No. 1
  • 1923: Minimax - Repertory for Military Music , String Quartet
  • 1923: Piano music with orchestra for the left hand, op.29 (discovered in 2002 in the estate of Paul Wittgenstein , first performance in 2004)
  • 1923/24: The Life of Mary , op 27, song cycle for soprano voice and piano based on the poem cycle. The Mary's Life (1912) by Rainer Maria Rilke
  • around 1925: Overture to the “Flying Dutchman”, as it is played by a bad spa band at 7 am at the fountain from the leaf for a string quartet
  • 1925: Concerto for Orchestra , op.38
  • 1925: Rondo for three guitars
  • 1926: Works for mechanical piano ( Welte-Mignon )
  • 1926: Concert music for wind orchestra , op. 41 (Concertante Overture - six variations on the song Prinz Eugen, the noble knight - march; world premiere in Donaueschingen)
  • 1927: Eight pieces for flute alone
  • 1927: Chamber music No. 5 for viola and orchestra, op.36 No. 4
  • 1927: Chamber music No. 7 for organ, wind instruments and bass, op.46 No. 2
  • 1930s: numerous songs , choral and a cappella -Werke, some of them excited by rough tonality and text option offense (. Eg pulps read ), also seven pieces: In small electric musician favorites for three maid Tonien
  • 1931: The Incessant , Oratorio, created in collaboration with Gottfried Benn
  • 1931: Concertino for trautonium and string orchestra (first performance in Munich at the 2nd conference for radio music)
  • 1932: Three easy pieces for violoncello and piano
  • 1933: Concert piece for two alto saxophones
  • 1934: Mathis der Maler Symphony (on the fate of Matthias Grünewald )
  • 1935: Slow piece with rondo for Trautonium (obtained as a self-cut record from the Hindemith Institute)
  • 1935: Sonata in E for violin and piano
  • 1935: Der Schwanendreher - concert based on folk songs for viola and chamber orchestra
  • 1936: Three sonatas for piano
  • 1936–1955: one sonata each for every common orchestral instrument and piano, most between 1936 and 1942, including:
    • 1936: Sonata for flute and piano
    • 1939: Sonata for trumpet and piano
    • 1939: Sonata for clarinet and piano
    • 1941: Sonata for tuba and piano
    • 1949: Sonata for double bass and piano
  • 1937–1940: Three sonatas for organ
  • 1939: Concerto for violin and orchestra
  • 1940: Symphony in Eb
  • 1942: Ludus tonalis ( piano cycle )
  • 1943: Orchestral piece Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber (German symphonic metamorphosis of themes by Carl Maria von Weber , often to be found in an incorrect translation from English and the same back translation)
  • 1946 - A Requiem for Those We Love When Lilacs me recently blooming in the garden ' (Engl. When Lilacs Last in the Door Yard Bloom'd - A Requiem for Those We Love ), oratorio on a text by Walt Whitman
  • 1947: Apparebit repentina dies for mixed choir and brass
  • 1947: Clarinet Concerto ( dedicated to Benny Goodman )
  • 1948: Septet for wind instruments
  • 1951: Symphony in B-flat for Concert Band (Moderately fast, with vigor - Andantino grazioso - Fugue, rather broad)
  • 1958: Pittsburgh Symphony
  • 1963: Concerto for Organ and Orchestra for the inauguration of the Philharmonic Hall in New York
  • 1963: Mass for mixed choir (SATB) a capella. (Hindemith's last work; the world premiere on November 12, 1963 in the Piarist Church in Vienna he conducted himself.)

Stage works


  • Instruction in composition
    • I. Theoretical part , Schott, Mainz 1937
    • II. Exercise book for the two-part movement , Schott, Mainz 1939
    • III. Exercise book for the three-part setting , Schott, Mainz 1970
  • Exercises for students of harmony (Traditional Harmony) , Schott, Mainz 1949, ISBN 978-3-7957-1602-8
  • Exercise book for elementary music theory (Elementary Training for Musicians) , Schott, Mainz 1975, ISBN 3-7957-1604-7
  • A Composer's World (original version on the composer in his world )
  • Composer in his world: Weiten und Grenzen , Atlantis Musikbuch, Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-254-00191-5
  • Mathis the painter: Opera in seven pictures , Apollo-Verlag, Mainz 1945
  • Johann Sebastian Bach. An obligatory legacy , Insel Verlag, Wiesbaden 1953 ( Insel-Bücherei 575/2)
  • Paul Hindemith: Testimony in Pictures , Schott, Mainz 1961
  • The Composer as Graphic Artist , Atlantis-Musikbuchverlag, Zurich 1995
  • Dying waters , Lambert Schneider, Gerlingen 1963


Music Mile Vienna

The following eponyms refer to his name: The asteroid (5157) Hindemith is named after him. The Paul Hindemith School in the Gallus district of Frankfurt is an integrated comprehensive school that was created in 1985 by merging three schools .


Hortense by Gelmini led in 1974 with their "Orchestra Gelmini" and the pianist Fany Solter the Four Temperaments by Paul Hindemith (1940) on, motives, it has also painted in 1985 in four scenes and characterized in four poems of 2005. She presented everything together in a finissage in 2005 , with the music being accompanied by a dance performance.

The English composer William Walton wrote his Variations on a Theme by Hindemith (1962–1963) on the first theme of the 2nd movement from Hindemith's Cello Concerto (1940) .

See also


  • Martin Andris: Music non-stop. Paul Hindemith's conceptions of history before the end of the Weimar Republic (= Rombach Sciences. Litterae series. Vol. 236). Rombach, Freiburg i.Br./Berlin/Wien 2019, ISBN 978-3-7930-9920-8 .
  • Friedrich Wilhelm BautzHindemith, Paul. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 876-879.
  • Ingrid Bigler-Marschall: Paul Hindemith . In: Andreas Kotte (Ed.): Theater Lexikon der Schweiz . Volume 2, Chronos, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-0340-0715-9 , p. 843 f.
  • Siglind Bruhn : Hindemith's great stage works . Hindemith Trilogy Volume I. Edition Gorz, Waldkirch 2009. ISBN 978-3-938095-11-9 .
  • Siglind Bruhn: Hindemith's great vocal works . Hindemith Trilogy Volume II. Edition Gorz, Waldkirch 2010. ISBN 978-3-938095-14-0 .
  • Siglind Bruhn: Hindemith's great instrumental works . Hindemith Trilogy Volume III. Edition Gorz, Waldkirch 2012. ISBN 978-3-938095-15-7 .
  • Peter Donhauser: Electric sound machines. The pioneering days in Germany and Austria . Böhlau, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-205-77593-5 .
  • Walter GerstenbergHindemith, Paul. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-428-00190-7 , pp. 176-178 ( digitized version ).
  • Arkadi Junold: The operas of Paul Hindemith. An overview . Arkadien-Verlag, Berlin 2010. ISBN 978-3-940863-16-4 .
  • Achim Heidenreich: Paul Hindemith's seven chamber music works: origin, analysis, reception , Mainz 2004, dissertation
  • Wolfgang Huschke: Paul Hindemiths Ahnen In: Genealogie . Issue 10, October 1987, p. 705 ff.
  • Rüdiger Jennert: Paul Hindemith and the New World. Studies on the American Hindemith reception . Schneider, Tutzing 2005. ISBN 3-7952-1181-6 .
  • Günther Metz: Hindemith and mechanical music . In: From Freiburg into the world - 100 years of Welte-Mignon. Automatic musical instruments . Augustinermuseum, Freiburg 2005, pp. 154–156.
  • Günther Metz: The Hindemith case. Attempt to re-evaluate . Wolke Verlag, Hofheim 2016. ISBN 978-3-95593-070-7 .
  • Rainer Mohrs: The organ music by Paul Hindemith. Considerations for a new Hindemith picture . In: Musica sacra 115, 1995, pp. 458-475.
  • Gerd Sannemüller : Hindemith as a music teacher. In: Zeitschrift für Musikpädagogik 2 (1977) 4, pp. 49–58
  • Susanne Schaal: Hindemith and Dresden . In: Matthias Herrmann, Hanns-Werner Heister (Ed.): Dresden and advanced music in the 20th century. Part I: 1900-1933 . Laaber, 1999, ISBN 3-89007-346-8 , pp. 289-296 ( Musik in Dresden , 4).
  • Give me a viola . In: Der Spiegel . No. 24 , 1950 ( online - a Hindemith portrait as the title).
  • Heinz-Jürgen Winkler: Fascinated by Early Music: Paul Hindemith and Emanuel Winternitz . In: Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography . 29, No. 1-2, 2004, ISSN  1522-7464 , pp. 14-19.

Web links

Commons : Paul Hindemith  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The London Times in an obituary: “Dr. Paul Hindemith - One of the Founding Fathers of Modern Music ". Dec. 30, 1963, page 12.
  2. Christiane Albiez: The Hunt for the Lost Concert: Paul Hindemith - Piano Music with Orchestra, Op. November 29 , 2004, accessed on February 8, 2019 (when she wrote the article, Christiane Albiez was still Christiane Krautscheid).
  3. By chance the picture survived thanks to a reproduction in the Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft series. Frankfurt celebrates Hindemith ; Frankfurt 1995; P. 2 and 59. Paul Hindemith: The private logbook ; Munich 1995, p. 519 with numerous references. Franz Roh : Degenerate Art ; Hannover 1962, p. 189. Hans Mersmann: Modern music ; Potsdam 1929; P. 208 panel X.
  4. Angele Kerdaon: Homage to Paul Hindemith. The Black Forest Music Festival… In: Südkurier . March 1, 2013, accessed February 7, 2019 .
  5. ↑ In addition PH: The so-called "Yellow Book". Suggestions for expanding musical life. (sc. in Turkey). The title page printed, the remaining pages as a facsimile. Manufactured by Otto Strese, Berlin-Steglitz. 82 pages with 16 documents. There was also a so-called “Blue Book” on the same subject, about which nothing more is currently known.
  6. ^ Members of the American Academy. (PDF) Listed by election year, 1900–1949. Elected in 1940. In: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, October 5, 2017, accessed February 7, 2019 .
  7. ^ Members: Paul Hindemith. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed April 4, 2019 .
  8. ^ ISCM Honorary Members
  9. ^ Member History: Paul Hindemith. In: American Philosophical Society, accessed September 30, 2018 .
  10. ^ A b Thomas Eickhoff: Political Dimensions of a Composer's Biography in the 20th Century - Gottfried von One. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-515-07169-5 , p. 61.
  11. Peter Ré Student of Paul Hindemith Yale University School of Music 1948 on YouTube , accessed February 7, 2019 (interview in English).
  12. ^ Grenz, Artur at OperissimoTemplate: Operissimo / maintenance / use of parameter 2
  13. ^ Neil W. Levin: Artists: Robert Strassburg (1915-2003). In: December 11, 2018, accessed February 7, 2019 .
  14. Composer's Geneologies: A Compendium of Composers, Their Teachers and Their Students . Pfitzinger, Scott. Roman & Littlefield. London UK & New York USA 2017. P. 522 ISBN 978-1-4422-7224-8 , limited preview in Google Book search
  15. ^ Concerto for two alto saxophones: Paul Hindemith. In: Retrieved February 7, 2019 .
  16. (5157) Hindemith. In: The Minor Planet Center, accessed February 7, 2019 .
  18. Hindemith - The Four Temperaments - Part 1 - Conductor Hortense von Gelmini, excerpt from a one-off dance performance in the former gallery of the Libertas Foundation per Veritatem, YouTube .
  19. ^ Andres Briner , Dieter Rexroth , Giselher Schubert : Paul Hindemith. Life and work in pictures and text. Atlantis / Schott, Zurich / Mainz 1988, p. 170.