Arnold Schönberg (born September 13, 1874 in Vienna , Austria-Hungary , † July 13, 1951 in Los Angeles , United States ) was an Austrian composer , music theorist , composition teacher , painter , poet and inventor . He came from a Jewish family, emigrated to the USA in 1933 and became a citizen of the United States in 1941 . After his emigration he wrote to Arnold Schoenberg .
Together with Igor Stravinsky, Schönberg is considered to be “one of the most influential composers of the early 20th century after Claude Debussy ” and was the central figure of the Second Vienna School (also known as the Vienna Atonal School ). Their endeavors to "think the tonality in its late romantic manifestation through to the end" led to the twelve-tone technique between 1906 and 1909 and between 1904 and 1911 after the major-minor tonality was abandoned . Around 1920, parallel to the less well-known Josef Matthias Hauer, Schönberg developed the theoretical formulation of this new compositional technique, which was later developed into serial music and taken up by numerous composers of new music . In July 1921, Arnold Schönberg composed the Prelude to the Piano Suite Op. 25 in the Villa Josef in Traunkirchen , the first piece using the twelve-tone technique he developed.
Until the First World War
Arnold Schönberg's father, the shoemaker Samuel Schönberg, was born on September 20, 1838 in Szécsény, Hungary ( Austrian Empire ); from 1852 he lived in Vienna, where he died on December 31, 1889. The mother Pauline was born as Pauline Nachod on April 7, 1848 in Prague ( Bohemia ) and grew up in Prague. She died in Berlin on October 12, 1921 . Arnold Schönberg was born in Brigittenau 393 in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna (today: Obere Donaustraße 5). He had two younger siblings.
In his own words, Schönberg's musical career began at the age of nine as a violinist and self-taught composer . He attended secondary school in Vereinsgasse in Leopoldstadt . During this time he composed marches and polkas . After his father's death in 1889, he was forced to provide for the family. He left school on January 20, 1890 and began an apprenticeship as an employee at the Viennese private bank Werner & Co. During these years he could only pursue his enthusiasm for music as a spectator at open-air concerts in the Augarten and in the Vienna Prater ; He invested part of his wages in numerous visits to the opera, in which he particularly preferred the stage works by Richard Wagner .
According to our own memories Schoenberg owed his consistent artistic development three people: first, it was Oscar Adler , who gave him a basic knowledge of music theory, poetry and philosophy, David Josef Bach , who in Schoenberg a broad awareness of ethics, morality and the "resistance against vulgarity und Allerweltsvolkstümlichkeit ”, and finally Alexander von Zemlinsky , whom Schönberg met in 1895 when he joined the amateur orchestra“ Polyhymnia ”as a cellist. The conductor recognized Schönberg's talent and in 1898 helped him to (successfully) perform the first string quartet in D major (without opus number) in the Bösendorfer Hall of the Wiener Musikverein . Schönberg took composition lessons from Zemlinsky for a few months. According to his own admission, he learned most of it by studying the works of great composers - especially Brahms , Wagner , Mahler , Bach and Mozart .
Thanks to Zemlinsky, Schönberg was able to gain a foothold in the musical life of Vienna and its surroundings. After the termination of the bank post, he took over conducting at the Mödlinger choral society "Freisinn", the men's choir Meidling and the position of choirmaster of the metalworkers' society of Stockerau.
On October 7, 1901, Schönberg married Zemlinsky's sister Mathilde (1877–1923) at a registry office in Pressburg , after she had become pregnant in the spring of 1901. The church wedding took place eleven days later in the Lutheran City Church in Dorotheergasse in Vienna. Arnold Schönberg and Mathilde Zemlinsky had two children, Gertrud (1902–1947) and Georg (1906–1974). Richard Gerstl , who supported Schönberg in his painting, had a relationship with Mathilde.
Schönberg's first student was Vilma von Webenau . She took harmony and composition lessons from him from 1898/99 and even followed him when he moved to Berlin in December 1901. He followed a call from Ernst von Wolzogen and temporarily took over the musical direction of the Überbrettl literary cabaret, which was founded in January 1901 . At the end of 1902, Richard Strauss tried to get Schönberg to work at this important training center through mediation with the director of the Stern Conservatory Gustav Hollaender . It was planned to set up a small class for Schönberg from January 1, 1903, but this probably never happened. In the late summer of 1903 Schönberg returned to Vienna, where he made personal acquaintance with Gustav Mahler.
The following years, up to the outbreak of World War I, were characterized by the creation of important works: his first two string quartets and the 1st Chamber Symphony (1906, premiered 1907), the premieres of which were accompanied by scandalous scenes, the Gurre-Lieder and his harmony theory ( 1911) and Pierrot Lunaire (1912); The scandal or waddling concert of March 31, 1913 , which he conducted, became famous .
In 1910 his application for a composition professorship at the Vienna Academy was rejected, whereupon he returned to Berlin as a lecturer at the Stern Conservatory a year later. In 1915 he was drafted into the military and trained as a reserve officer. Initially, however, Schönberg was postponed, only to be called up again in 1917. He did his service in a military band. During the war, Schönberg joined the nationalism of his compatriots , at least in private correspondence with Alma Mahler .
After the First World War
After the end of the war, Schönberg moved to Mödling near Vienna to Bernhardgasse 6. The villa was the composer's residence from 1918 to 1925 and is currently known as the Schönberg House . On November 23, 1918, he founded the “ Association for Private Musical Performances ” in Vienna , which had set itself the task of performing new works and / or works that Schönberg and his group considered important. Numerous composers such as Bartók , Busoni , Debussy , Mahler , Pfitzner , Ravel , Reger , Scriabin , Strauss and Stravinsky were represented with their compositions in the association's concert programs. The performance of symphonic works took place in arrangements for chamber ensemble, some of which are still played today.
In 1921 he founded the method of "composition with twelve tones that are only related to one another" ( twelve-tone technique ), a composition technique that he did not teach and about which he rarely spoke. After the death of his wife Mathilde on October 18, 1923 in Mödling , he married Gertrud Kolisch, the sister of his pupil Rudolf Kolisch, on August 28, 1924 . He had three children with her: Nuria (* 1932, later wife of the composer Luigi Nono ), Ronald (* 1937) and Lawrence (* 1941).
Many years passed before Schönberg was fully recognized as a composer. In 1925 the Prussian minister of education, Carl Heinrich Becker , appointed him to the Prussian Academy of Arts as a successor to Ferruccio Busoni at the suggestion of the music advisor in the Prussian ministry of education, Leo Kestenberg , where he took on a master class in composition as a civil servant with the title of professor . With the appointment, Schönberg had acquired Prussian citizenship at the same time. The professorship at the academy was withdrawn from him for racist reasons by the Nazi legislation in September 1933. For this reason, while in exile in Paris on July 24, 1933 - in the presence of the painter Marc Chagall - he rejoined the Jewish faith, which he had given up in 1898 in order to be baptized as a Protestant. He wrote to Anton von Webern : “For 14 years I had been prepared for what has now come. In this long time I was able to prepare myself thoroughly for it and, albeit with difficulty and with many fluctuations, finally finally detached myself from what bound me to the Occident. I've made up my mind to be a Jew for a long time . ”A month later, he emigrated to the United States. Gerhard von Keussler took over his master class .
In the USA
After a year in Boston and New York, Schönberg worked for years as a professor, first at the University of Southern California , then at the University of California, Los Angeles . In 1941 Schönberg obtained American citizenship. Like many other emigrants, Schönberg lived in a suburb west of Los Angeles. His house at 116 North Rockingham Avenue was only a few hundred meters from the house where the writer Thomas Mann and his family lived in 1940 (441 North Rockingham Avenue).
Schönberg completed some of his best-known works in the United States, including his fourth string quartet (1936), his setting of Kol Nidre (1938), a piano concerto (1942) and " A Survivor from Warsaw " (1947) for speaker, male choir and orchestra, which addresses the experiences of a man in the Warsaw Ghetto . During this time he also wrote four of his theoretical books: Models for Beginners in Composition (models for beginners in composition lessons, 1943), Structural Functions of Harmony (The form-forming tendencies of harmony, ed. 1954), Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint (preliminary exercises in counterpoint , ed. 1963) and Fundamentals of Musical Composition (bases of musical composition, ed. 1967), some of which were completed by his assistant Leonard Stein . From 1948 to 1950 a controversy arose between Schönberg and Thomas Mann about his novel Doctor Faustus , in which the "invention" of the twelve-tone technique is attributed to the hero of the novel, a fictional person named Adrian Leverkühn. On September 14, 1949, he was awarded the citizenship certificate of his hometown Vienna.
On July 13, 1951, Schönberg succumbed to a heart condition after suffering a heart attack in 1946; the composer, who was afraid of the number 13, died on a Friday the 13th. When Schönberg died, three of his works with religious content were unfinished, namely the cantata Die Jakobsleiter , the opera Moses und Aron and the cycle Modern Psalms . Moses and Aron , however, became a great success in the two-act form; the dramatic juxtaposition of prophet and priest is one of Schönberg's most expressive works.
Schönberg's extensive estate (music manuscripts, text manuscripts, historical photos, Schönberg's library, etc.) was initially kept in the Arnold Schoenberg Institute at the University of Southern California , Los Angeles. In 1998 these materials were transferred to the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna , where they have since been viewed by archive users. In May 2011 the estate was included in the UNESCO Memory of the World register .
Work and effect
Schönberg's first compositions are usually attributed to the late or post-Romantic period. They are characterized by richly differentiated instrumentation . Schönberg experiments with a wide variety of instrumentations, from chamber music to very large orchestras (for example in the Gurre songs ). The 1st Chamber Symphony for 15 instruments (1906) and the Second Chamber Symphony for 19 instruments, which began in the same year but was not completed until 1939, play an important bridging role . Numerous compositions by Schönberg were premiered in the Wiener Musikvereinssaal.
Often sat Schoenberg with the literature of the romance and the fin de siècle apart: He wrote orchestral songs, delivered contributions to choral and oratorio literature ( Peace on Earth by Conrad Ferdinand Meyer , Gurrelieder by Jens Peter Jacobsen / Robert Franz Arnold ) and for program music (string sextet Verklierter Nacht after Richard Dehmel , symphonic poem Pelleas and Melisande after Maurice Maeterlinck ).
In Schönberg's view, the phase of so-called “free atonality” led to a dead end in terms of composition, since a new catalog of materials and rules had to be drawn up for each new composition. After numerous attempts he wrote to his student Josef Rufer in July 1921: "Today I have discovered something that will ensure the superiority of German music for the next hundred years."
In 1921 Schönberg developed his "method of composing with twelve only related notes" in Mödling, also known as "twelve-tone technique" or "dodecaphony". This method developed independently of that of the composer Josef Matthias Hauer , who had also developed a twelve-tone composition technique, which, however, has little in common with Schönberg's method. With this new system, Schönberg now believed that he was in a position to theoretically give each work an internal structure. Originally only intended as a personal solution to a personal conflict, the twelve-tone technique was enthusiastically adopted by his students, although Schönberg never taught it himself in his theory lessons. His immediate pupils made them accessible through analysis from the works. Textbooks by others appeared later, e.g. B. in 1940 Studies in Counterpoint (German: twelve-tone counterpoint studies ) by Ernst Krenek . From 1945 the twelve-tone technique was quickly adapted by many composers, such as Igor Stravinsky in Agon (1953–57). Theodor W. Adorno paid tribute to twelve-tone music in his Philosophy of New Music (1949). Schönberg used the twelve-tone technique for his main work until the end of his life. He returned to the tonal system for occasional works such as the suite in the old style (G major for string orchestra 1934) or Variations for wind orchestra in G minor op.43a (1943).
Schönberg also wrote the libretti himself for the operas The Happy Hand and Moses and Aron as well as for oratorios and other vocal works ( The Jacob's Ladder , A Survivor from Warsaw , Israel exists again , Modern Psalm ). Trained through his extensive teaching activities and ongoing correspondence, as well as through the pressure of constantly having to defend his works and theories in public, he acquired an apodictic , often polemical style that combines analytical sharpness with seriousness and occasional pathos. Several of his essays and essays can be seen as the basic texts of the musical aesthetics of the 20th century.
The influence of Schönberg on the music of the 20th century cannot be overestimated. The radical developments in composition technique and its theoretical foundations, which led from atonality through twelve-tone technique to serial music and finally to electronic music , were initiated by him. However, he and his successors have not yet conquered the general public - despite Schoenberg's hope expressed in a letter to Hans Rosbaud dated May 12, 1947: “But I wish nothing more (if at all) than that I would be considered a better kind of Tchaikovsky - for God's sake: a little better, but that's all. At most, that my melodies are known and whistled. "
In 1946 he was elected an honorary member of the International Society for Contemporary Music ISCM ( International Society for New Music ).
Students, performers and friends
Around Schönberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern and other students and interpreters formed a circle of like-minded people called the Vienna School . In addition to the Viennese school, there was also a Berlin school around Arnold Schönberg.
Well-known interpreters from the first half of the twentieth century stood up for Schönberg, including the pianists Artur Schnabel and Eduard Steuermann , the conductors Hans Rosbaud and Hermann Scherchen, and Schönberg's brother-in-law, the violinist Rudolf Kolisch.
Schönberg was close friends with the Viennese architect Adolf Loos , whom he had met in the salon of Eugenie Schwarzwald . Loos campaigned all his life for the performance of Schönberg's compositions, some of which he even secretly subsidized (including the famous scandal concert in 1913 ("Watschenkonzert")). Schönberg was also very much influenced by Adolf Loos in his attitude towards questions of artistic morality and truth. Schönberg's demand “Music should not adorn, it should be true” can be placed in direct relation to Loos' aesthetics, in particular to his struggle against every form of applied art and for the dignity of pure and visual art that is not influenced by any "Prostitute" concessions to a public taste.
Schönberg as a painter
In the years 1906–1912 and 1913 Schönberg occupied himself intensively with painting. Hugo Heller organized his first exhibition with 50 paintings and drawings for him in his bookstore in 1910. During his lifetime, his pictures were involved in ten exhibitions, including the Der Blaue Reiter show initiated by his friend and colleague Wassily Kandinsky . He had given his painting Nocturnal Landscape (1910) and his Self-Portrait (from behind) (1911) to the exhibition.
In terms of content, Schönberg's 361 pictures comprehensive work is divided into several genres: In addition to numerous self-portraits and portraits, his “visions” and “looks” in particular have a high degree of expressiveness, and there is also a number of landscape portraits and stage designs for his own works. As in his musical works, Schönberg's way of composing the paintings created between 1906 and 1911 is freely associative; he does not paint for a “beautiful, lovable” picture, but rather to “fix his subjective feelings” (Wassily Kandinsky), they are inner results Need to look at.
In contrast to his compositional activity, which he himself mastered masterfully through an autodidactic study of the "old masters", Schönberg regarded himself as an amateur in visual terms. He had neither theoretical nor aesthetic training, but according to his own statements he was a good draftsman with a reliable feeling for proportions and measurements. The extent to which Schönberg saw his painting in connection with his music is not clear from the available sources. On the one hand, he says: “Painting and my music have nothing in common. My music is the result of purely musical theory and should only be evaluated in terms of its purely musical characteristics. ”(1913). On the other hand, “it was the same for me as composing. It gave me the opportunity to express myself, to share my emotions, ideas and feelings; that is perhaps the key to understanding these images - or not. ”(1949). In fact, because of Schönberg's dilettantism as a painter, one medium does not seem to be derived from the other; the equally expressive, but theoretically sophisticated basic structure of his musical oeuvre bears no relation to the immediate spontaneity of the paintings.
In spite of many critical statements about his amateurism, the pictorial work gained more and more importance after Schönberg's death and today stands as an independent position between contemporary painters such as Oskar Kokoschka , Egon Schiele , Richard Gerstl , Gustav Klimt , Max Oppenheimer and Albert Paris Gütersloh .
Inventions and designs
In the 1920s, Schönberg conceived a chess variant called coalition chess for four players, which is played on a 10 × 10 board with 36 pieces that he designed himself from simple materials. During a visit from the world chess champion Emanuel Lasker , however, he hid his invention and commented on it with the words "That would be just as bad for Lasker as it would be for me to write a composition."
In addition, there are various furniture designs, plans for a mechanical typewriter, self-designed playing cards and a method for written documentation of a tennis game (Schönberg was a passionate tennis player). In addition, Schönberg improved and tinkered with office supplies for his everyday work, such as a rastral for drawing five music lines at the same time, a space-saving travel music stand, twelve-tone row sliders in various shapes, tape rollers and pen holders.
Schönberg is also the namesake of the Arnold Schönberg Prize , which has been awarded since 2001.
- Quartet (D major) for two violins, viola and violoncello (1897)
- op.1 Two songs for a baritone voice and piano (1898)
- op. 2 Four songs for voice and piano (1899)
- op. 3 Six songs for a medium voice and piano (1899–1903)
- op. 4 transfigured night , sextet for 2 violins, violas 2 and 2 cellos (1899)
- Gurre songs (1900-1911). Cantata for solos, choir and orchestra.
- op. 5 Pelleas and Melisande (based on the drama by Maurice Maeterlinck) Symphonic poem for orchestra (1902–1903)
- op. 6 Eight songs for voice and piano (1903–1905)
- op. 7 Quartet (D minor) for 2 violins, viola and violoncello (1904–1905)
- op. 8 Six orchestral songs (1903–1905)
- op.9 & op.9b Chamber symphony for fifteen solo instruments (large orchestra) (1906)
- op. 10 Second Quartet (F sharp minor) for two violins, viola, cello and a soprano part (1907–1908)
- op.11 Three piano pieces (1909)
- op.12 Two ballads for voice and piano (1907)
- op.13 Peace on Earth for mixed choir a cappella (1907)
- op. 14 Two songs for voice and piano (1907–1908)
- op. 15 15 poems from "The Book of Hanging Gardens" by Stefan George for voice and piano (1908–1909)
- op.16 Five orchestral pieces in the original version for large orchestra (1909, revised 1922)
- op. 17 " Expectation " monodrama in one act, poem by Marie Pappenheim (1909)
- Three pieces for chamber ensemble (1910)
- op. 18 " The Happy Hand " Drama with Music (1910–1913)
- op.19 Six Little Piano Pieces (1911)
- op. 20 " Herzgewächse " (Maurice Maeterlinck) for high soprano, celesta, harmonium and harp (1911)
- op. 21 Three times seven poems from Albert Giraud's »Pierrot lunaire« (1912) (German by Otto Erich Hartleben ) for a speaking voice, piano, flute (also piccolo), clarinet (also bass clarinet), violin (also viola) and violoncello
- op. 22 Four songs for voice and orchestra (1913–1916)
- Jacob's Ladder (1915–22). Oratorio (fragment)
- The Iron Brigade (1916). March for string quartet and piano
- op. 23 Five Piano Pieces (1920–1923)
- op. 24 Serenade for clarinet, bass clarinet, mandolin, guitar, violin, viola, violoncello and a deep male voice (4th movement: Sonnet by Petrarch) (1920–1923)
- op. 25 Suite for piano (1921–1923)
- op. 26 quintet for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon (1923–1924)
- op.27 Four pieces for mixed choir (1925)
- op. 28 Three satires for mixed choir (1925–1926)
- op. 29 Suite for small clarinet, clarinet, bass clarinet, violin, viola, violoncello and piano (1925–1926)
- op. 30 Third String Quartet (1927)
- op. 31 Variations for Orchestra (1926–1928)
- op. 32 " From today to tomorrow " Opera in one act Libretto: Max Blonda [Gertrud Schönberg] (1928–1929)
- op.33a & op.33b piano pieces (1929/1931)
- op. 34 music to accompany a movie scene (threatening danger, fear, catastrophe) (1929–1930)
- op. 35 Six pieces for male choir (1929–1930)
- Old Style Suite (G major) for string orchestra (1934)
- op. 36 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (1934–1936)
- op.37 Fourth String Quartet (1936)
- Moses and Aron (1923–1937). Opera in 3 acts (fragment)
- op. 38 & op. 38b Chamber Symphony No. 2 (in E flat minor) for small orchestra (1906–1939)
- op. 39 Kol nidre for speaker (Rabbi), mixed choir and orchestra (G minor) (1938)
- op. 40 Variations on a Recitative for Organ (in D) (1941)
- op.41 Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte (Lord Byron) for String Quartet, Piano and Reciter (1942)
- op.42 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1942)
- op.43a & op.43b Theme and Variations for Full Band (Orchestra) (1943)
- op.44 Prelude for Mixed Chorus and Orchestra (for the Genesis Suite , 1945)
- op.45 String Trio (1946)
- op.46 A Survivor from Warsaw for Narrator, Men's Chorus and Orchestra (1947)
- op.47 Phantasy for Violin with Piano Accompaniment (1949)
- op.48 Three songs for low voice (and piano) (1933)
- op.49 Three folk song movements for mixed choir a cappella (1948)
- op.50A Three times a thousand years for mixed choir a cappella (1949)
- op.50B Psalm 130 for Mixed Chorus a cappella (six voices) (1950)
- op.50C Modern Psalm for speaker, mixed choir and orchestra (unfinished) (1950)
- Harmony . Vienna 1911; exp. 3rd edition Vienna 1922.
- The musical thought and the logic, technique and art of its representation. [1934-36], ed. and over. by Patricia Carpenter and Severine Neff, New York 1995.
- Models for Beginners in Composition , Los Angeles 1942, expanded 2nd edition 1943 and by Leonard Stein rev. 3rd edition 1972; German as models for beginners in composition lessons , ed. by Rudolf Stephan, Vienna 1972.
- Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint [1936–50], ed. by Leonard Stein, London 1963; German as a pre-school of counterpoint , ed. by Leonard Stein and Friedrich Saathen, Vienna 1977.
- Fundamentals of Musical Composition [1937-1948], ed. by Gerald Strang and Leonard Stein, London 1967; German as foundations of musical composition , trans. by Rudolf Kolisch and ed. by Rudolf Stephan, Vienna 1979.
- Structural Functions of Harmony , London 1954, German as The form-building tendencies of harmony , ed. by Erwin Stein, Mainz 1954.
Essays and essays
Style and thought. Essays on Music [1909–1950]. Collected writings 1. [not published more], T: Gudrun Budde, Ed: Ivan Vojtech. (Frankfurt 1976). - Most extensive collection of writings in German to date. Part I corresponds to the essay collection Style and Idea (New York 1950) prepared by Schönberg himself .
I. Style and Thought.
- The relationship to the text. 1912.
- Mahler. 1912.
- New music, outdated music, style and thought. 1930/45.
- Brahms, the progressive. 1933/47.
- Composition with twelve notes. 1935.
- A dangerous game. 1944.
- Training the ear through composing. 1939.
- Heart and mind in music. 1946.
- Criteria for evaluating music. 1946.
- Symphonies from folk songs. 1947.
- Human rights. 1947.
- On revient toujours. 1948. (About tonality)
- The blessing of the sauce. 1948. (Via Nadia Boulanger )
- Its my fault. 1949.
- To the quays. 1949.
II. Essays on music.
- An interview. 1909.
- About music criticism. 1909.
- Problems of art class. 1910.
- Franz Liszt's work and essence. 1911.
- Parsifal and Copyright. 1912.
- The Simplified Study and Conducting Score. 1917. (About the notation of op.22).
- Composition seminar. 1917.
- Music. 1919.
- Certainty. 1919.
- The modern piano reduction. 1923.
- The future of orchestral instruments. 1924.
- On some points of the question of whether one should conduct chamber music. 1924.
- A new twelve-tone font. 1924.
- Tonality and structure. 1925.
- Mind or Knowledge. 1925.
- Mechanical musical instruments. 1926.
- Problems of harmony. 1927.
- The lucky hand. 1928.
- Interview with myself. 1928.
- On the question of modern composition lessons. 1929.
- My audience. 1930.
- National music . 1931.
- Lecture on op.31. 1931.
- Discussion on the Berlin radio. 1931.
- On the theory of composition. 1931.
- Analysis of the 4 orchestral songs op.22.1932.
- The first American radio broadcast. 1933.
- Why no great American Music. 1934.
- Some objective reasons. 1934.
- Fascism is not an export item. 1935.
Seven short lectures.
- USC broadcast. 1934.
- What can people expect from music? 1935.
- Expelled into paradise. 1934.
- Education in contemporary music. 1938.
- The Jewish situation. 1933.
- We young Jewish artists. 1935.
- Success and worth. 1935.
- How to get lonely 1937.
- How can a music student make a living? 1939.
- Art and film. 1940.
- Support the little master. 1940.
- Some problems for the educator. 1944.
- Composition with twelve notes. 1935.
- Turning point. 1948.
- Self-analysis (maturity). 1948.
- Copyright. Copyright. Explanation. A letter. 1949.
- To the round table in San Francisco about modern art. 1949.
- Review. 1949.
- Comments on the four string quartets. 1949.
- Analysis of “Pelleas and Melisande”. 1949.
- Analysis of the Chamber Symphony. 1949.
- Task of the teacher. 1950.
- JS Bach. 1950.
- Program notes on "Transfigured Night". 1950.
- Letters . Ed. Erwin Stein. Mainz 1958.
- The correspondence between Arnold Schönberg and the publishing house CF Peters . Edited by Eberhardt Klemm . In: Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft , vol. 15 (1971), pp. 5-66.
- Arnold Schönberg - Wassily Kandinsky: Letters, pictures and documents from an extraordinary encounter . Edited by J. Hahl-Koch. Salzburg 1980.
- Arnold Schoenberg Correspondence: a Collection of Translated and Annotated Letters Exchanged with Guido Adler, Pablo Casals, Emanuel Feuermann and Olin Downes . Ed. EM Ennulat. Metuchen NJ 1991.
- Correspondence of the Vienna School, Vol. 1: Alexander Zemlinsky - Correspondence with Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Franz Schreker . Ed. Horst Weber. Darmstadt 1995.
- Correspondence of the Vienna School, Vol. 3: Correspondence between Arnold Schönberg and Alban Berg , Ed. Thomas Ertelt, 2 volumes. Mainz 2006.
- Dear Miss Silvers . Original sound recordings 1931–1951 . Edited by Klaus Sander. supposé, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-932513-74-9 .
- Children's stories such as The Princess and Africa , which Schönberg recorded as a speaker on audio media and which have been available as audio books since 1999.
- 1996: Arnold Schönberg - Blick , Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau, Munich
- Mödling , Lower Austria: In Schönberg's Mödlinger home, where he lived between 1918 and 1925, his work during this time is documented and presented by the Arnold Schönberg Center .
- Article in the music lexica MGG 2 ( Christian Martin Schmidt ) and New Grove, second edition 2001 (OW Neighbor).
- Theodor W. Adorno : Philosophy of the new music . 6th edition, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1991.
- Pierre Boulez . 1991a. Schoenberg is Dead (1952). In his Stocktakings from an Apprenticeship , collected and presented by Paule Thévenin, translated by Stephen Walsh, with an introduction by Robert Piencikowski, 209-14. Oxford, Clarendon Press, New York: Oxford University Press , ISBN 0-19-311210-8 .
- Juliane Brand, Christopher Hailey (Eds.): Constructive Dissonance: Arnold Schoenberg and the Transformations of Twentieth-Century Culture . University of California Press, Berkeley 1997.
- Siglind Bruhn : Schönberg's Music 1899–1914 as reflected in the cultural change. From tone poetry to play of timbres. Edition Gorz, Waldkirch 2015, ISBN 978-3-938095-20-1 .
- Carl Dahlhaus: Schönberg and others: collected essays on new music . Mainz 1978.
- Martin Eybl: The Liberation of the Moment: Schönberg's Scandal Concerts of 1907 and 1908. A documentation . Böhlau, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-205-77103-6 .
- Sabine Feisst: Schoenberg's new world. The American years . Oxford University Press, New York [u. a.] 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-537238-0 .
- Beat A. Föllmi : Tradition as a hermeneutic category in Arnold Schönberg. Haupt, Bern u. a. 1996, ISBN 3-258-05461-4 .
- Eberhard Friday: Schönberg. 11th edition, Rowohlt, Reinbek 2000, ISBN 3-499-50202-X .
- Walter Frisch: The Early Works of Arnold Schoenberg, 1893–1908 . University of California Press, Berkeley 1993.
- Manuel Gervink : Arnold Schönberg and his time. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2000, ISBN 3-921518-88-1 .
- Peter Gradenwitz : Arnold Schönberg and his master students. Zsolnay, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-552-04899-5 .
- Gerold W. Gruber: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 390-393 ( version ). In:
- Constantin Grun: Arnold Schönberg and Richard Wagner. 2 volumes, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress, Göttingen 2006, (Volume 1): ISBN 3-89971-266-8 , (Volume 2): ISBN 3-89971-267-6 .
- Matthias Henke : Arnold Schönberg. dtv, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-31046-4 .
- Matthias Herrmann: Arnold Schönberg in Dresden. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-910184-84-7 .
- Hartmut Krones : Arnold Schönberg: Work and Life. Edition Steinbauer, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-902494-03-4 .
- René Leibowitz : Schoenberg et son École. Paris 1947.
- Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn (eds.): "Arnold Schönberg's» Berlin School «." Ed. By Ludwig Holtmeier, music concepts 117/118 . edition text + kritik, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-88377-715-3 .
- Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn (eds.): Schönberg's association for private musical performances. Music Concepts 36 . edition text + kritik, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-88377-170-8 .
- Heinz-Klaus Metzger and Rainer Riehn (eds.): Schönberg and the spoken word. Music Concepts 112/113 . edition text + kritik, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-88377-660-2 .
- Christian Meyer and Therese Muxeneder (eds.): Arnold Schönberg - Catalogie Raisonné. Self-published by Arnold Schönberg Center, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-902012-07-2 (paperback) and Christian Brandstätter Verlag, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-85498-412-X (hardcover).
- Alexander L. Ringer: Arnold Schönberg: Life at work. Metzler, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-476-01906-3 .
- Josef Rufer : The work of Arnold Schönberg. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1959.
- Matthias Schmidt: Schönberg, Arnold. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .
- Robert Schmitt Scheubel (Ed.): Chronique scandaleuse. … Schönberg, this Einstein of music… Reviews of Arnold Schönberg's works , consassis.de, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-937416-23-6 .
- Robert Schmitt Scheubel (Hrsg.): The Übelklinger - Watschenkonzert. Early reviews of Arnold Schönberg's works , consassis.de, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-937416-61-8 .
- Arnold Schönberg: Style and Thought. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-596-23616-9 .
- Arnold Schönberg: "Styles rule, thoughts win". Selected writings . Schott, Mainz 2007, ISBN 978-3-7957-0486-5 .
- Nuria Schönberg-Nono: Arnold Schönberg 1874–1951. Life story in encounters. Ritter, Klagenfurt 1998. (Extensive collection of images and documents).
- Giselher Schubert : Studies on instrumentation in early Schönberg. Dissertation. University of Bonn 1973. Published as Schönberg's early instrumentation. Koerner, Baden-Baden 1975, ISBN 3-87320-559-9 .
- Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt : Arnold Schönberg: Life, Work, Environment. Zurich 1974. Reprint: Piper / Schott, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-492-18239-9 .
- Sheet music and audio files by Schoenberg in the International Music Score Library Project
- Works by and about Arnold Schönberg in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Arnold Schönberg in the German Digital Library
- Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna : biography, list of works and pictures, etc.
- Literature on Arnold Schönberg in the bibliography of the music literature
- Janca Imwolde: Arnold Schönberg. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Entry on Arnold Schönberg in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Complete Schönberg discography (until January 2006) ( Memento from July 2, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- Arnold Schönberg on arts in exile
- Song portal
- Music video for Peace on Earth op.13
References and footnotes
- he was appointed professor at the Prussian Academy of the Arts in 1925 (he was sworn in as a civil servant on May 27, 1926), Schönberg had also acquired Prussian citizenship.
- Charles Rosen : Arnold Schoenberg , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London 1996, ISBN 978-0-226-72643-4 , p. 2
- Riemann Musiklexikon 2012, article Wiener Schule , vol. 5, p. 431.
- The latter according to Riemann Musiklexikon 2012, vol. 5, article Wiener Schule , p. 431.
- Hauer created - according to Riemann Musiklexikon 2012, vol. 2, article Hauer p. 343 - with Nomos op. 19 (1919) the first 12-note work before Schönberg.
- Walter Boyce Bailey: The Arnold Schoenberg Companion , Greenwood Press, 1998, ISBN 9780313287794 , p. 13
- Manuel Gervink: Arnold Schönberg und seine Zeit , Laaber-Verlag, 2000, p. 13 f.
- Bundesrealgymnasium Vereinsgasse , Österreich-Lexikon aeiou
Arnold and Mathilde Schönberg , accessed on July 17, 2012.
See also Lea Singer's novel : Wahnsinns Liebe . Novel. DVA, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-421-05790-7 .
- On the trail of the Blue Rider
- Haide Tenner (ed.): “I want to live as long as I can be grateful to you”. Alma Mahler - Arnold Schönberg. The correspondence . Residence, St. Pölten 2012.
- Ilona Hanning: July 24, 1933: Schönberg reconverted to the Jewish faith ( memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), BR-Klassik , July 23, 2013; see. also Constantin Floros: New ears for new music. Forays through the music of the 20th and 21st centuries , Schott Musik International, Mainz 2006, p. 37 f .; Stefan Strecker: The God of Arnold Schönberg: Looks through the opera Moses and Aron . Lit, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-8258-3855-2 , p. 100. Restricted preview in Google book search
- Schönberg, Arnold , p. 11. In: The music in history and present , digital library volume 60, p. 67405 (cf. MGG vol. 12, p. 23).
- Francis Nenik / Sebastian Stumpf: Seven Palms. The Thomas Mann House in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles . Spector Books, Leipzig 2018, ISBN 978-3-95905-180-4 , pp. 67-68 .
- Francis Nenik / Sebastian Stumpf: Seven Palms. The Thomas Mann House in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles . Spector Books, Leipzig 2018, ISBN 978-3-95905-180-4 , pp. 105 .
- Thomas Mann, in his correspondence with Schönberg, took a sympathetic position on what he believed to be unfounded allegations, which he said he had made without knowing the text of the novel. In order to counteract any possible misunderstanding among the audience, Thomas Mann added a comment to all further editions of the novel in which he explicitly referred to Arnold Schönberg as the real author of the compositional technique depicted in the text of the novel.
- rx: Schönberg estate comes to Los Angeles . In: The world . February 26, 1974 (Issue B).
- The typewritten letter contains further errors in the original (typing errors and missing word spacing), cf. Copy of the letter side.
- ISCM Honorary Members
- Helmut Friedel, Annegret Hoberg: The Blue Rider in the Lenbachhaus Munich. Prestel, Munich 2013, p. 62 ff.
- Arnold Schönberg's moves. Dodecaphony and game constructions , special exhibition of the Arnold Schönberg Center, 7 May - 13 September 2004.
- Linus Schöpfer: Let's play 12-tone chess . In: Tages-Anzeiger , November 19, 2013.
- Minor Planet Circ. 16886
- In: Kandinsky / Franz Marc: Der Blaue Reiter . Piper, Munich 1912, pp. 27-33
- Article in Deutschlandradio ( memento from August 3, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ). The recording was posthumously awarded the ECHO Klassik Prize in 2009.
- Irene Netta, Ursula Keltz: 75 years of the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau Munich . Ed .: Helmut Friedel. Self-published by the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-88645-157-7 , p. 227 .
- from [Andres Briner]: A comprehensive Schoenberg representation: on Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt's Schoenberg book , in: Neue Zürcher Zeitung No. 428 (remote edition No. 254), September 15, 1974, p. 51.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schoenberg, Arnold|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian-American composer, music theorist, composition teacher, painter, poet and inventor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 13, 1874|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna , Austria-Hungary|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 13, 1951|
|Place of death||Los Angeles , United States|