The blue Rider

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Franz Marc: The Tower of the Blue Horses , 1913. The painting has been lost since 1945.

Der Blaue Reiter is a term used by Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc for their exhibition and publication activities, in which both artists acted as sole editors of the almanac of the same name, first published in mid-May 1912 . The editorial team organized two exhibitions in Munich in 1911 and 1912 in order to demonstrate their art theoretical ideas on the basis of the works of art on display. Traveling exhibitions followed in German and other European cities. The Blue Rider disbanded at the beginning of the First World War in 1914.

The artists working in the area around the Blue Rider were important pioneers of modern art of the 20th century; they formed a loose network of relationships, but not an artist group in the narrower sense like the bridge in Dresden. The work of the affiliated artists is assigned to German Expressionism .


From the New Artists' Association to the Blue Rider

Wassily Kandinsky, around 1913

The forerunner of the Blue Rider was the Neue Künstlervereinigung München (NKVM), co-founded by Wassily Kandinsky in 1909 , and as its first chairman he organized the exhibitions of 1909 and 1910. Even before the first exhibition, Kandinsky introduced the so-called "four square meter clause" into the statutes of the NKVM due to a difference of opinion with the painter Charles Johann Palmié . In 1911 she offered him and Franz Marc the opportunity to leave the association and organize the first Blauer Reiter exhibition. Der Blaue Reiter was therefore a fork ( Secession ) from the NKVM

August Macke: Portrait of Franz Marc , 1910

When the conservative forces in the NKVM repeatedly came up with disputes that sparked off due to Kandinsky's increasingly abstract painting, he resigned his chairmanship on January 10, 1911, but remained a simple member of the association. His successor was Adolf Erbslöh . In June Kandinsky developed plans for his own activities outside the NKVM. He intended to publish a "kind of almanac", which could possibly be called The Chain . On June 19, he informed Marc of his idea and won him over by offering him the joint editing of the book.

From a letter from Marc dated September 10th to Reinhard Piper it emerges that it had now been renamed Der Blaue Reiter . Kandinsky commented on the naming in 1930 in his retrospect: “ We invented the name Der Blaue Reiter on the coffee table in the gazebo in Sindelsdorf . We both loved blue, Marc - horses, I - riders. So the name came by itself. "

Portrait of Gabriele Münter, painted in 1905 by Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky: Portrait of Gabriele Münter , 1905

Marc wrote to August Macke on August 10th , complaining about the divergent artistic intentions of Kanoldt and Erbslöh in the NKVM and tried to get Macke to join in order to strengthen his own position. He foresaw a "horrific argument [...] split, or one party or the other leaving". On September 8, the ruin of the NKVM was a done deal. Marc spoke of a "quick funeral for the association". Macke was a confidante. Gabriele Münter was privy to the plan from the start, as can be seen from a letter from Kandinsky on August 6, 1911: “I paint and paint now. Lots of sketches for the Last Judgment. But I am dissatisfied with everything. But I have to find how to go about it! Only patience."

In October Kandinsky secretly painted the four-square-meter abstract painting for the coup, which he completed on November 17, 1911. Kandinsky called it Composition V and gave it the very symbolic subtitle The Last Judgment . He submitted this painting to the jury on December 2, 1911 for the upcoming winter exhibition based on Palmié's example - knowing full well the statutes of the NKVM. There was the hoped-for scandal, the majority rejected Kandinsky's picture in accordance with the statutes. Together with Münter and Marc, Kandinsky left the NKVM after heated discussions. On the same evening, Maria Marc wrote to their friends, the Macke, and quoted Marianne von Werefkin with the words: “Well, gentlemen, now we are losing the two most worthy members, plus a wonderful picture , and we ourselves will soon have sleepyheads on our heads. ”Werefkin and Alexej von Jawlensky later left the NKVM, but were on the side of those who had left artistically. The as yet nameless new group published a short newspaper advertisement on December 8th of that year: "The following artists have left the New Artists' Association in Munich: Hartmann , Kandinsky, Kubin , Fauconnier , Marc, Münter."

The Arco-Palais in Munich, location of the modern gallery Heinrich Thannhauser
On the spiritual in art , cover of the first edition

It was not until more than twenty years later that Kandinsky revealed his and Marc's plan for the first time: "Since we both sensed the noise earlier, we had prepared another exhibition." Kandinsky became even clearer on November 22, 1938 in a letter to Galka Scheyer , who wrote to him represented in America within the exhibition community Die Blaue Vier . For the writing of art history, he explained how the first exhibition of the editorial staff of the Blauer Reiter came about:

“My job [at the NKVM] ended with a nice row that led to the establishment of the Blue Rider . The NKVM was founded in 1908. I resigned at the end of 1911. Immediately afterwards, with the help of Franz Marc, I organized an exhibition for the editorial staff of the BR [Blue Rider] at Thannhauser . Our halls were close to the rooms of the NKVM exhibition. It was a sensation. Since I foresaw the 'noise' in good time, I had prepared a wealth of exhibition material for the BR. So the two exhibitions took place at the same time. The first specimens of the spiritual in art lay on the tables of the Thannhauser Gallery . The revenge was sweet! "


Marc and Kandinsky did not intend to create a new artists' association in the sense of a community with "fixed statutes" or to propagate a certain direction, rather they wanted to bundle the variety of art expressions in an editorial context. Looking back, Kandinsky wrote in 1935: “In reality there was never a 'Der Blaue Reiter' association or a 'group', as it is often mistakenly described. Marc and I took what seemed right to us [...] without worrying about any opinions or wishes. "

Macke , Münter , von Werefkin , Jawlensky , Alfred Kubin , Paul Klee and Hanns Bolz felt closely connected to the Der Blaue Reiter editorial team and exhibited with them repeatedly. Composers like Arnold Schönberg , who was also a painter, also belonged to the Blue Rider. The members united their interests in medieval and primitive art and the contemporary movements of Fauvism and Cubism .

August Macke and Franz Marc were of the opinion that every person has an inner and an outer experience reality that should be brought together through art . Kandinsky supported this idea theoretically. The aim was to achieve equality between art forms.

Exhibitions 1911–1912

Wassily Kandinsky: Composition V / The Last Judgment , 1911

The first of the two exhibitions of the Blue Rider took place under the title "The first exhibition of the editorial staff of the Blue Rider" from December 18, 1911 to January 1, 1912 in the modern gallery Heinrich Thannhauser in the Arco-Palais , Theatinerstraße 7, in Munich , parallel to the third exhibition of the NKVM in the same building. It showed "43 listed in the catalog as well as at least 5 other works besides the catalog by the following artists: Henri Rousseau , Albert Bloch , David and Wladimir Burljuk , Heinrich Campendonk , Robert Delaunay , Elisabeth Epstein , Eugen von Kahler , Wassily Kandinsky , August Macke , Franz Marc , Gabriele Münter , Jean-Bloé Niestlé and Arnold Schönberg ”.

Franz Marc: The yellow cow , 1911

In addition to the works listed in the catalog, such as Kandinsky's composition V - the starting point of the jury dispute in the NKVM - Mackes The Storm and Indians on Horses and Marc's The Yellow Cow and Deer in the Forest I , his monkey frieze , which was not listed in the catalog, was hung there Bernhard Koehler had made it available from his collection at short notice. The music that was modern at the time was also included in the exhibition, for example publications by Alban Berg , Arnold Schönberg and Anton Webern . The French painter Henri Rousseau , who died a year ago and whom Kandinsky admired as a “great realist”, was honored with a laurel wreath with mourning ribbon, which stood under his image of the chicken yard . Schönberg, who was also a painter, had shown his painting Nocturnal Landscape (not included in the catalog) and his self-portrait (from behind) in the exhibition. The Swiss animal painter Jean-Bloé Niestlé removed his realistic animal pictures again, as these works were not given equal status in relation to the abstract ones. Schoenberg had at least considered this step.

The first exhibition, which has become legendary, is documented by six preserved photos by Gabriele Münter, which together with the catalog list and the works shown made a reconstruction of the show possible. Delaunay, who did not live in Munich - the contact was made through Kandinsky's pupil Epstein - was the most successful artist, of the three of four exhibited pictures to Bernhard Koehler, the collector and patron of Macke and Marc, to Adolf Erbslöh and to Alexej von Jawlensky could sell. The exhibition then went on tour to other cities, including the Gereonsklub in Cologne and Herwarth Walden's newly opened gallery Der Sturm in Berlin . The traveling exhibition also featured works by Jawlensky and Werefkin, who in the meantime had also left the NKVM and joined the Blue Rider. Further stations up to 1914 were Bremen, Hagen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Budapest, Oslo, Helsinki, Trondheim and Gothenburg.

In the exhibition - as later in the Almanac - the principle of confrontation prevailed “in order to show an inner commonality in the differences. Nevertheless, a staging was carried out with the hanging that emphasized the spectacular pictures by Delaunay, Marc and Kandinsky, around which the more modest pictures of the co-exhibitors were grouped. "

The second exhibition followed from February 12 to March 18, 1912 on the 1st floor of the Munich book and art dealer Hans Goltz at Briennerstraße 8. The title of the catalog was "The second exhibition of the editorial staff of Der Blaue Reiter Black and White" " . Among the 315 exhibits, however, there were not only monochrome works, as the title suggests. It only showed works on paper: watercolors, etchings , drawings and woodcuts , including works by Hans Arp , Georges Braque , André Derain , Paul Klee , Alfred Kubin , Kasimir Malewitsch and Pablo Picasso in addition to the works of Marc, Mackes, Kandinsky and - originally against the will of Kandinsky - the Brücke artists. In contrast to the first, this exhibition was limited to a one-off date and did not lead to irritation among the participating artists as with the first exhibition.

The Almanac "The Blue Rider"

Cover illustration by Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky: The Blue Rider , 1903
The Münter House in Murnau has been open to the public as a museum since the renovation in 1998/99.
Subscription prospectus for the Almanac Der Blaue Reiter , 1912

In Murnau , where Wassily Kandinsky and his partner Gabriele Münter had lived since 1909, and in neighboring Sindelsdorf , where Franz and Maria Marc and Heinrich Campendonk lived, decisive parts of the preparatory work and editorial discussions for the edition of the almanac took place in autumn 1911. Münter's house, which the locals called the “ Russenhaus ”, quickly developed into a meeting place for the artists in the area around the Blue Rider.

August Macke: Portrait of Bernhard Koehler , 1910

The name of the editorial community was continued in Kandinsky's woodcut from 1911, which served as the cover illustration for the almanac with the same title The Blue Rider in 1912 . The final motif after eleven drafts showed St. George for the first time . Kandinsky had already painted a picture with this title in 1903. Kandinsky wrote about the color blue, which dominates the picture:

“The deeper the blue becomes, the deeper it calls people into the infinite, arouses in them a longing for the pure and ultimately the supernatural. It is the color of the sky. "

The project's patrons were the art collector Bernhard Koehler and the publisher Reinhard Piper , who promised financial support. Another benefactor of the project, the art historian and museum expert Hugo von Tschudi , died before the book was published. At the publisher's request, however, the word “almanac” was dropped shortly before going to press. Kandinsky had to remove it from his already completed title woodcut. The work dedicated to Tschudi with 141 [mostly monochrome] reproductions, 19 articles and three music supplements was published by Piper in Munich in May 1912, edited by Kandinsky and Marc.

The Piper Verlag took over advertising and sales, the production costs Bernhard Koehler; Kandinsky and Marc had to forego a fee. The first edition was 1200 copies, the printing plates should be kept for further editions.

An advertising slip from the publisher, the publication of which is estimated to be in March 1912, showed an illustration of Rousseau's chicken farm and named a selection of the contributors and the editors Kandinsky and Marc. Three editions were reported: The price for the general stapled edition was supposed to be 10 marks , for a bound edition of 14 marks. The luxury edition at a price of 50 marks was to consist of 50 copies and also contain two woodcuts colored and hand-signed by the artists themselves. The last thing that was offered was a museum edition for 100 marks in an edition of 10 copies, which should contain an original work by one of the participating artists. The original graphics of the special editions were glued in by hand and protected by glassine paper.

The programmatic work encompassed, in Marc's words, “the latest painterly movement in France, Germany and Russia and shows its fine threads of connection with the Gothic and the primitive, with Africa and the great Orient, with the expressive original folk art and children's art, especially with the modern musical movement in Europe and the new stage ideas of our time ”. Marc wrote three short introductory chapters, Intellectual Property , The “Wild” of Germany and Two Pictures . Kandinsky wrote the basic article on the question of form and an obituary for Eugen von Kahler , and August Macke wrote The Masks . In addition to texts and images, Arnold Schönberg contributed the composition Herzgewächse to this font as a music supplement. Alban Berg set to music From the Glowing by Alfred Mombert and Anton von Webern Stefan Georges You came to the herd . The Russian composer Thomas von Hartmann wrote the article On Anarchy in Music and was responsible for setting the music for Kandinsky's stage composition The Yellow Sound , which concluded the book. In addition to the members of the group, works by the Brücke members, Arp , Cézanne , Delaunay , Gauguin , El Greco , Matisse , Picasso and Rousseau were included in the almanac.

August Macke: Persiflage on the Blue Rider , 1913, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus

A planned second almanac no longer appeared, relationships with one another had cooled down due to Kandinsky's dominant position. Especially Macke withdrew and advised his friend Marc, "to work without thinking of the 'Blue Rider' and Blue Horses." He painted in 1913, a painting titled parody of the Blue Rider , which points to his distance. The watercolor shows Marc on the driver's seat to the left of the middle, Kandinsky sitting on the right, elegantly in the carriage, and Herwarth Walden's profile at the top right . At the bottom right Macke is small and insignificant. The picture is covered with flowing lines and patches of color and caricatures Kandinsky's abstract style. Significantly, the reprint of the first edition appeared in 1914 with separate forewords from the two editors. Further editions followed later, and it was translated into all world languages.

Participation in exhibitions in Cologne and Berlin

The artists of the Blue Rider took part in the exhibition of the Sonderbund of West German Art Friends and Artists in Cologne in 1912 and then in 1913 in Berlin at the First German Autumn Salon , which was organized by Herwarth Walden and his Sturm-Galerie .


With a few exceptions, the contemporary public and art critics did not understand the new language of painting. Anton von Werner , director of the Berlin Art Academy , for example, saw the Blue Rider as “an interesting object for a psychiatric study”, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung recorded “a mild horror”. On the other hand, the art historian Hans Tietze expressed himself positively in the journal Kunst für alle (XXXVII / 1911/12), in which he formulated: "that imitating nature, depicting reality, is not the task of art".

The end of the Blue Rider

The Almanac series project ended not only because of the growing discrepancies between the artists involved, but also because of the political circumstances. When the First World War broke out in 1914 , Kandinsky and Gabriele Münter initially fled to Switzerland. A short time later they parted ways there: Kandinsky went back to his native Russia. Münter initially stayed in Switzerland and later moved on to Scandinavia. There the two met for the last time in 1916, after which Kandinsky refused contact because he had found a new love in Russia. The Russian citizens Jawlensky and von Werefkin also left Germany. Marc and Macke fell on the battlefields in France.

Even after the war, Kandinsky did not want to risk a new edition of the Blue Rider and found a noble reason for this: “The Blue Rider - there were two: Franz Marc and me. My friend is dead and I don't want to do it alone. "


Influences of the Blue Rider

Galka Scheyer with Feininger, Kandinsky, Klee and Jawlensky, collage on a newspaper page of the “ San Francisco Examiners ” dated November 1, 1925

Paul Klee taught from 1921 and Wassily Kandinsky from 1922 at the Bauhaus in Weimar and later in Dessau . Furthermore, with Kandinsky, Klee and Alexej von Jawlensky, three of the artists involved in the Blue Rider, together with Lyonel Feininger, under the direction of Galka Scheyer, formed the exhibition group Die Blaue Vier - a reminiscence of the Blue Rider - in Weimar, the Scheyer mainly in the USA represented.

Munich as a place of the avant-garde in modern art ended with the dissolution of the Blue Rider. His ideas were forgotten, and during the National Socialist era , numerous works by their artists were denigrated as " degenerate ", destroyed or sold abroad. The sale had an unintended consequence: The Blue Rider's pictures became known to the international public and after 1945 the artists' concepts were more widely received abroad than in Germany. Artists from Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands such as Asger Jorn or the CoBrA group continued ideas from Kandinsky and Marc.

It was not until 1949 that the Munich House of Art, under the direction of Ludwig Grote , showed “The Blue Rider. Munich and the art of the 20th century. The Path from 1908–1914 “Works by the participating artists. Gabriele Münter was a member of the honorary committee and was able to attend the rediscovery of abstract painting, which Kandinsky had consistently continued. Among many other collectors, she was one of the lenders of the exhibits, as were artist widows Nina Kandinsky and Sonia Delaunay . Pictures from the collection of Hildebrand Gurlitt , Hitler's former art dealer, were also represented. The organizers were the Bavarian State Painting Collections , the Münchner Städtische Galerie and the “Cultural Affairs Branch”, a department of the American occupation authorities responsible for cultural exchange. At the same time as this memorial exhibition, the Stangl Gallery showed the Franz Marc exhibition on August 30, 1949 . Watercolors and drawings , for which a catalog was published with a foreword by Klaus Lankheit .

From today's point of view, the Blue Rider is one of the most important stations of Classical Modernism .

The Blue Rider in the Lenbachhaus

The Lenbachhaus, garden view 2013

After Wassily Kandinsky's separation from Gabriele Münter, a legal dispute over the ownership of his Murnau paintings developed in the 1920s, which in 1926 largely ended in Münter's favor. During the Nazi era, she hid many of Kandinsky's and other members of the Blue Rider in the basement of her house. On the occasion of her 80th birthday in 1957, she bequeathed a large part of her estate to the city of Munich. These included 25 of Kandinsky's own paintings, 90 oil paintings and more than 300 of his watercolors, tempera sheets, reverse glass paintings and drawings. With this, Münter created the prerequisite for Der Blaue Reiter to be represented in the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus in Munich. In 1965, the Bernhard and Elly Koehler Foundation was added to Münter's donation, adding pictures by Franz Marc and August Macke in particular to the holdings. Since the Lenbachhaus was closed for renovation work for a long time until spring 2013, many works by the artists of the Blauer Reiters were made available to other exhibitions. Since May 7, 2013, the day of the reopening, they have been shown to visitors in daylight. Further exhibitions on the topic followed, for example from 2021 Group Dynamics - The Blue Rider and Group Dynamics - Collective of Modernism .

The blue year 2011

Postage stamp from Deutsche Post from 2012 with Marc's motif Blue Horse I.

The Free State of Bavaria celebrated two anniversaries in 2011, the 125th anniversary of the death of the “fairy tale king” Ludwig II and at the same time the 100th birthday of the Blue Rider. Many exhibitions in museums showed the works of the participating artists in special shows, for example the Murnau Castle Museum , the Franz Marc Museum in Kochel am See, the Buchheim Museum in Bernried and the Penzberg City Museum .

The German Post AG was a 100th anniversary commemorative stamp out the value of 145 euro cents. The date of issue was February 9, 2012. The stamp shows the work Blue Horse I from 1911 by Franz Marc, the design was made by the communication designer Nina Clausing from Wuppertal.

Artists in the area of ​​the Blue Rider

  • Paul Klee felt very close to the Blauer Reiter, but did not have a leading role in the group, especially since he had not yet found his artistic focus at this point in time. However, he took part in the exhibitions and received important impulses for his later work.
  • Robert Delaunay was associated with the group and the most successful artist in the first exhibition of the Blue Rider.
  • During his time in Munich, Hanns Bolz was one of the inner circle of friends of the Blue Rider and was the main illustrator of the satirical magazine Komet (1911/12).

Works (selection)

  • Albert Bloch: Head , 1911
  • Robert Delaunay: Fenêtre sur la ville, 1914
  • Alexej von Jawlensky: The Spaniard, 1913
  • August Macke: The Storm, 1911
  • August Macke: Indians on Horses , 1911
  • August Macke: Zoological Garden I, 1913
  • Franz Marc: Deer in the Forest I, 1911
  • Franz Marc: Monkey Frieze, 1911
  • Franz Marc: The yellow cow , 1911
  • Wassily Kandinsky: Impression IV (Gendarme) , 1911
  • Wassily Kandinsky: Composition V / The Last Judgment , 1911
  • Wassily Kandinsky: With the Sun (1911)
  • Gabriele Münter: Kandinsky and Erma Bossi at the table, 1912 Fig.
  • Arnold Schönberg: Self-Portrait (from behind), 1911 Fig.

See also


  • Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc: The Blue Rider. Original edition 1912. New edition with commentary by Klaus Lankheit , Piper, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-24121-2 , ( digitized 2nd edition 1914 )
  • Wassily Kandinsky: About the Spiritual in Art. Especially in painting. Original edition 1912. Revised new edition, Benteli Verlag Bern 2004, ISBN 3-7165-1326-1 .
  • The second exhibition of the editorial team Der Blaue Reiter Black and White . Issued by Hans Goltz / Kunsthandlung München / Briennerstrasse 8. Hans Goltz and Putze Nachhaben, Munich, printed by F. Bruckmann A.-G., Munich, 1912.

Secondary literature

  • The blue cavalry charges forward . Image sources for the almanac Der Blaue Reiter. The collection of Wassily Kandinsky and Gabriele Münter. Published by Helmut Friedel and Isabelle Jansen, Gabriele Münter- and Johannes Eichner-Stiftung, Munich on the occasion of the exhibition The blue cavalry storms ahead from May 10, 2012 to autumn 2013 in the Münter House in Murnau. Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-9815164-0-1 .
  • Sybille Engels / Cornelia Trischberger: The Blue Rider. The artists, their lives, their time . Prestel, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7913-8127-5 .
  • Bernd Fäthke, Annegret Hoberg , Brigitte Salmen (arrangement): Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin im Murnau , Murnau 2008, ISBN 978-3-932276-29-3 .
  • Bernd Fäthke: Marianne Werefkin - "the blue rider" . In: Exhibition catalog Marianne Werefkin, From the Blue Rider to the Big Bear , Städtische Galerie Bietigheim-Bissingen 2014, p. 24 ff.
  • Helmut Friedel , Annegret Hoberg: The Blue Rider in the Lenbachhaus Munich. Prestel, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-7913-2214-1 ; Edition 2004 under the ISBN 978-3-7913-6016-4 ; Edition 2013 under the ISBN 978-3-7913-5311-1 .
  • Norbert Göttler : The Blue Rider . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-50607-9 .
  • Annegret Hoberg, Helmut Friedel (ed.): The Blue Rider and the New Image, From the "New Artists' Association Munich" to the "Blue Rider" , exhibition catalog, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Prestel, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-7913-2065- 3 .
  • Eckhard Hollmann: The Blue Rider. On the trail of the artist group . Prestel, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7913-4527-7
  • Christine Hopfengart: Der Blaue Reiter , DuMont, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-7701-5310-3 .
  • Jessica Horsley: The Almanac of the Blue Rider as a total work of art: an interdisciplinary investigation , Lang, Frankfurt am Main; Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-631-54943-8 (dissertation Uni Tübingen 2004, 493 pages).
  • Brigitte Lühl-Wiese: Georg Trakl - the Blue Rider: Form and Color Structure in Poetry and Painting of Expressionism , Münster 1963 DNB 481959858 (Dissertation Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Philosophical Faculty, July 19, 1963, 192 pages).
  • Magdalena M. Moeller : The Blue Rider . DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1987, ISBN 3-7701-2128-7 .
  • Magdalena M. Moeller (Ed.): The Blue Rider and His Artists , exhibition catalog Brücke-Museum Berlin, October 3, 1998 to January 3, 1999; Kunsthalle Tübingen, January 16 to March 28, 1999, Hirmer, Munich 1998, ISBN 978-3-7774-7960-6 .
  • Susanna Partsch : Marc . 9th edition, Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 3-8228-5585-5 .
  • Birgit Poppe: I am me. The women of the Blue Rider. Dumont, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-8321-9359-1 .
  • Volker Rattemeyer (ed.): The spiritual in art. From the Blue Rider to Abstract Expressionism . Museum Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden 2010, with texts by Herbert Beck, Volker Rattemeyer, Annegret Hoberg, Jelena Hahl-Fontaine, Renate Petzinger, Jörg Daur and others, ISBN 978-3-89258-088-1 .
  • Brigitte Roßbeck : Marianne von Werefkin. The Russian from the circle of the Blue Rider . Siedler, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-88680-913-4 .
  • Brigitte Salmen (ed.): The almanac "Der Blaue Reiter". Images and works of art in originals . Murnau 1998, ISBN 3-932276-03-5 .
  • Sabine Windecker: Gabriele Münter. An artist from the circle of the 'Blue Rider' , 1991, Reimer, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-496-01080-0 .


  • Bavaria and the Blue Rider. Documentary, Germany, 2013, 43 min., Script and director: Antje Harries, production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , series: Lido , first broadcast: July 11, 2013 on Bavarian television , summary by BR , among others. with the art historians Annegret Hoberg, Helmut Friedel, Christian Meyer.
  • The landscape of the "Blue Rider" - Franz Marc in Kochel. Documentary, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987, 43:30 min., Script and direction: Dieter Wieland , production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , series: Topography , summary by ARD .

Web links

Commons : Der Blaue Reiter  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Der Blaue Reiter  - Sources and full texts

Individual references and comments

  1. Klaus Lankheit: The Blue Rider . Edited by Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc, new documentary edition, Munich / Zurich 1984, p. 15 and p. 253 ff.
  2. Dietmar Elger: Expressionism , p. 141
  3. The text reads: "Every full member has the right to exhibit two works without a jury, as long as they do not exceed an area of ​​4 square meters (2 by 2 m) ..."
  4. Bernd Fäthke: Dirt on the stick. Exciting facts about the genesis of the Blue Rider. Handelsblatt, 7./8. April 2000.
  5. ^ Klaus Lankheit (ed.): Wassily Kandinsky / Franz Marc. Correspondence. Munich 1983, p. 40.
  6. Klaus Lankheit: The Blue Rider. Clarifications. in exhibition catalog: Kunstmuseum Bern 1986/1987, p. 222.
  7. Wassily Kandinsky: “The Blue Rider”, (review). in: Das Kunstblatt 14, 1930, p. 59, note.
  8. ^ Letter from Marc to Macke of August 10, 1911 ,, quoted from: Franz Marc: Briefe, Schriften, Aufschriften . Gustav Kiepenheuer, Leipzig 1989, pp. 56–57, accessed on March 21, 2011
  9. Wolfgang Macke (eds.): August Macke / Franz Marc, correspondence. Cologne 1964, p. 65 ff.
  10. Bernd Fäthke: Staging a crash, news from the "Blue Rider". Weltkunst, Volume 70, No. 13, November 1, 2000, p. 2218 f.
  11. Annegret Hoberg: Wassily Kandinsky and Gabriele Münter in Murnau and Kochel 1902–1914, letters and memories. Munich 1994, p. 123.
  12. Bernd Fäthke: Werefkin and Jawlensky with their son Andreas in the "Murnauer Zeit". In the exhibition catalog: 1908–2008, 100 Years Ago, Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin in Murnau. Murnau 2008, ISBN 978-3-932276-29-3 , pp. 60 f.
  13. Magdalena M. Moeller: The Blue Rider. Cologne 1987, p. 80.
  14. Dimensions 190 × 275 cm, the picture is over five square meters, so it is considerably above the admission requirements for the exhibition.
  15. ^ Helmut Friedel, Annegret Hoberg: The Blue Rider in the Lenbachhaus Munich . Prestel, Munich 2013, p. 58
  16. Wassily Kandinsky: Our friendship. Memories of Franz Marc. In: Klaus Lankheit: Franz Marc in the judgment of his time. Texts and Perspectives, Cologne 1960, p. 48.
  17. Kandinsky to Galka Scheyer, November 22, 1938. In: Alexej Jawlensky, correspondence with Emmy Scheyer, Kandinsky and other friends. Transcripts. Private archive for expressionist painting, Wiesbaden undated
  18. Magdalena M. Moeller: The Blue Rider . DuMont, Cologne 1987, p. 11
  19. Wassily Kandinsky: Franz Marc in the judgment of his time , Cologne 1960, p. 49. In: Norbert Göttler: Der Blaue Reiter , p. 8
  20. Annegret Hoberg, Titia Hoffmeister, Karl-Heinz Meißner, anthology, in exh. Cat .: The Blue Rider and the New Image, From the “New Artists' Association Munich” to the “Blue Rider” , Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich 1999, p. 50
  21. ^ Helmut Friedel, Annegret Hoberg: The Blue Rider in the Lenbachhaus Munich . Prestel, Munich 2004, p. 61 f.
  22. ^ Will Grohmann in: Painting of the Occident. A collection of pictures from early Christian to contemporary painting , FA Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin-Grunewald 1955, p. LVII
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