Anton von Werner

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Self-portrait in the studio, 1885
Illustration to Scheffel's poem Der Aggstein (with a reference to Joseph Kyselak )

Anton Alexander von Werner (born May 9, 1843 in Frankfurt (Oder) , † January 4, 1915 in Berlin ) was a German painter . He left behind historical pictures of events of his time, painted in a photographic manner and reproduced to this day. The busy artist and art politician is considered to be the main representative of Wilhelminism in German art history, also because of his rejection of modern art .

Origin, years of apprenticeship and traveling

Anton von Werner grew up as the son of the master carpenter Friedrich Alexander von Werner and his wife Maria Magdalena Kayser in Frankfurt / Oder. The father came from a family of officials and officers who had lived in East Prussia since the 16th century and were ennobled in 1701 . Anton von Werner's versatile musical talents were encouraged early on. In the years 1857 to 1860 he completed an apprenticeship as a room painter , in which he learned techniques of wall and decorative painting, the design of typefaces, ornaments and illustrations.

Prepared in this way, he began studying at the Berlin Academy of the Arts in 1860 . But as early as 1862 Werner moved to the art academy in Karlsruhe , a center of modern art development that led from the Biedermeier late romanticism to realism . His teachers were Johann Wilhelm Schirmer , Ludwig des Coudres , Adolph Schroedter and Carl Friedrich Lessing . Their houses were places of conviviality for local and traveling artists such as Eduard Devrient , Hans Gude , Johannes Brahms , Clara Schumann and Paul Heyse . Werner made friends here with the poet Joseph Victor Scheffel , who introduced him to Grand Duke Friedrich von Baden and his wife Luise , the sister of the Prussian Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm . Werner had his first successes as an illustrator of the much printed works of Scheffel.

In 1865 he visited Paris, where he was fascinated by modern French painting. From March 1867 to July 1868 Werner stayed again in Paris, first as a representative of the southern German states for the 1867 World's Fair , then as a freelance painter. Werner studied the work of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix intensively , but especially Ernest Meissonier and Léon Cogniet , whose close acquaintance he made. In addition to smaller works, the large-format history painting The Abduction of Heinrich IV by Archbishop Anno of Cologne in Kaiserswerth was created in 1868 . At the world exhibition, Werner had shown the paintings Konradin von Staufen and Friedrich von Baden and Luther in front of Cajetan , for which he had received the prize for history painting from the Michael Beer Foundation of the Berlin Academy of the Arts. The award enabled Werner to go on a study trip to Italy from November 1868 to the end of November 1869. In Rome, he made contact with the German artist colony, to which the prominent Anselm Feuerbach belonged, who clearly influenced Werner's figure painting in the following years.

Turning point in France 1870/71

Werner with his fiancée Malvine (1869)

From the middle of October to the end of November 1870 Werner experienced the final phase of the Franco-German War in the headquarters of the III. Army commanded by Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm. In January 1871, the latter asked him to travel from Karlsruhe to the German headquarters in Versailles in order to be able to record the proclamation of the German Empire there for posterity. The Prussian officers at the headquarters saw Anton von Werner as a comrade and supported his work. Werner became known to the federal princes and the representatives of the Hanseatic cities whom he portrayed. An almost friendly relationship developed with the Crown Prince, which later also included the families. Friedrich Wilhelm established personal relationships with Werner, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and Chief of Staff Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke, as well as with Kaiser Wilhelm , who from then on preferred Werner as an advisor on art issues. With his stay in Versailles, Werner's rise to one of the busiest and most influential artists in the empire began. In 1871, fully aware of future successes, he went to the new imperial capital Berlin. On August 22 of the same year he married Malvine Schroedter (1847–1901), the daughter of his teacher Adolph Schroedter and the painter Alwine Schroedter .

The artist

Anton von Werner's house at Potsdamer Strasse 113, today 81 A
Ars (Die Kunst), color sketch for a mosaic frieze at Palais Pringsheim, 1872; the largely preserved mosaics fell victim to the demolition of the war-damaged building in 1950
The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , first version (for the Berlin Palace), 1877

In 1871, Werner created one of the five velariums that spanned Unter den Linden when the victorious troops entered Berlin . Thereupon he received the order for the mural in the pillared hall of the victory monument , where he used the motif of the velarium modified under the title fight and victory as cardboard . This work began in 1872. Werner thus created something new by "using painting for the cityscape by transferring the ephemeral decorations for the victory celebration of 1871 to the permanent technique of glass mosaic" . The Franco-German War also thematized commissioned works such as Moltke and the General Staff before Paris 1873, for the Schleswig-Holsteinischer Kunstverein , and the " Saarbrücken City Hall Cycle ", the u. a. the entry of King William of Prussia in the liberated from French occupation city and General Bruno François at the storming of the heights Spicherer shows shortly before his death.

Anton von Werner (date of recording unknown)

Werner had decorated his apartment, which he moved into in 1871, and, with an expanded range of images, his house built in 1874, Villa VI on Potsdamer Strasse , in a new way with wall paintings. This resulted in orders in 1872 to design large-format murals for the house of the banker Jacob Landau in Wilhelmstrasse and the Palais Pringsheim , also in Wilhelmstrasse. Werner designed the first polychrome facade in Berlin with the up-and-coming architect duo Ebe and Benda and added a frieze of eight glass mosaics with representations of the ages , which he had Antonio Salviati made in Venice. Werner's large-format murals in Café Bauer in 1877 on the subject of Roman life and in 1882 on A Roman Day were Baedekerreife . In Berlin's race to catch up with other European metropolises, Werner's innovations meant an increase in the level of Berlin architecture.

Werner was part of the society in the new capital that had come to power and money after the establishment of the empire. Werner did not know any class or religious differences in his personal dealings; the decisive factor for him was success - whether as an artist, industrialist, politician, banker or newspaper man. He called the anti-Semitism cultivated around court preacher Adolf Stoecker "disgusting and dirty". His house was a social meeting place. Politically, Werner was close to the national liberal camp, which saw the establishment of the empire as a success, the preservation and expansion of which was a national task. In Werner's opinion, this also applied to the artists. As a responsible social force, they were obliged to cooperate with the state, in the service of an aesthetic that preferred a realism that should elevate or entertain, not shy away from narrative or didactic elements, but never shock .

In addition to private commissions such as the 1874 mural La Festa for the staircase of Villa Behrens Hamburg and Martin Luther at a family festival , where the “family” was that of the client, as well as the Pringsheim family portrait in Renaissance costumes in 1879 , Werner was increasingly concerned with depictions of ceremonial events of Prussian court and state life. The most famous picture was 1877 after six years of work The Proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) for the White Hall of the Berlin Palace , a gift from the German princes and Hanseatic cities to the Kaiser on the occasion of his 80th birthday. This was followed by murals for the Hall of Fame of the Zeughaus in Berlin: in 1882 a reduced repetition of the imperial proclamation and in 1887 the coronation of Frederick I as king in Prussia in the palace chapel in Königsberg (January 18, 1701) . After Emil Hünten had painted the panorama picture Sturm auf St. Privat in Berlin in 1881 , Werner received two requests to realize a competing round picture . The result was his Sedan Panorama in 1883 .

The Berlin Congress (final session of the Berlin Congress, July 13, 1878) , 1881
The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) : The third version that Chancellor Bismarck received from the Prussian royal family on his 70th birthday.

As an artist, Werner grew into the role of court and society writer. He painted in an almost photographically realistic style without any deeper expressive content. Werner was evidently worried that photography could replace painting, especially in the subject he preferred , the depiction of historical events. Werner saw the strength of painting over photography in the possibility of dignified staging of the events to be depicted by weighting certain groups of figures as well as exaggerating an individual by freely grasping the spatial situation and guiding the light . He therefore demanded from painting the strictest observance of the laws of composition , perspective , anatomy as well as attention to detail and faithfulness to the image in the coloring and representation of the material.

In order to accurately reproduce the participants in the events he logged, Werner made detailed portraits and studies of movement and clothing of them in sketches, drawings and oil paintings. Since the occasions included the celebrations of the European nobility, the Berlin Congress , the opening of the Reichstag in 1888 and communal and private events in Berlin, Werner left the portraits of hundreds of his contemporaries at home and abroad.

Since the late 1980s, numerous portraits of princes, soldiers, diplomats, politicians and artists have been commissioned, including several well-known Bismarck portraits, of which the one from 1888, Bismarck at the Bundesrat table , is in the Berlin Reichstag building in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany. He did not accept orders for the description of historical events, such as the foundation of the [Black Eagle] Order , because he could not portray the portrayed himself. Years later he used the sketches he made during the war for his genre painting : In 1886 he painted prisoners of war and in 1894 in the stage quarter before Paris - both scenes from soldiers' life longing for peace, which were widely used in reproductions.

In 1900 Werner designed the eight mosaic fields in the dome for the Berlin Cathedral , which represent the Beatitudes of the Sermon on the Mount , the mosaic portraits of the four evangelists in the conical niches of the vaulted pillars and the three altar windows in the apse with the associated apse-cap windows .

Werner had friendly relations with Adolph von Menzel , whom he admired as the greater one , and, since Karlsruhe days, with the folk writer Emil Frommel .

The art politician

Anton von Werner in Adolph Menzel's studio, Berlin 1895

As early as 1874, the Prussian Academy of the Arts elected Werner as a full member . Your department for the fine arts , which was complemented by elections and appointments and whose members elected its chairman and the Senate of the Arts , was the most influential institution in Prussian art life with its great influence all over Germany. The most important task of the Senate was the participation in the state art commission of the government, such as in the tenders for competitions for state building and monument tasks, the organization of the annual art exhibitions , the purchases for museums and in the award of state contracts, prizes and grants and the appointment in state teaching posts . Already with the intention of fundamentally renewing himself, the Senate appointed Werner in 1874 as director of the newly founded University for the Fine Arts .

The following year Werner took up his post, which he would hold for forty years until his death. The fact that Werner did not see himself as a court painter and value independence was emphasized when he was appointed director of the art academy by renouncing the associated position in life. Instead of the usual civil service , he enforced a fixed-term employment contract that could be extended every five years.

Werner drew up a statute for the university in 1882 , regulating the three-year course. He himself taught composition and drawing from nature . He made it possible for particularly talented students to improve themselves while they were still studying by introducing master workshops . Werner took a decidedly conservative position with regard to the controversial admission of women to study painting. He stipulated in the statute not to accept any pupils. In the first year of his administration, the number of students doubled to 138 and rose to almost three hundred by the turn of the century. Between 1898 and 1902, the new university building on Hardenbergstrasse, which is still in use today, was built in Charlottenburg in collaboration with the architects Kayser & von Großheim .

At Bismarck's request, Werner, as "General Commissioner", together with Lorenz Gedon, organized the German department at the Paris World Exhibition of 1878 , where he placed the focus on Adolph Menzel's iron rolling mill .

In the 1880s Werner saw himself at the height of his work and his social position. He expressed this in his self-portrait in his studio in 1885 . For the background he chose the two oil paintings The Proclamation of the German Empire (Friedrichsruher version) and the colored sketch for the coronation of Frederick I , both commissions from the royal family and the Prussian state, on which he was working that year. The art critic Ludwig Pietsch wrote that from Werner's eyes and mines the clarity, decisiveness and determination of the will, in one word the "dashing" speaks, which is revealed in his artistic creations, as in all his actions and actions, in his whole life ...

In 1887, the private association of Berlin artists had elected Werner as chairman. The election took place annually. Werner held the office until 1895 and held it from 1899 to 1901 and finally from 1906 to 1907. At the same time he was chairman of the Berlin section of the General German Art Cooperative . In these functions Werner worked on insurance and pension plans for the members in line with his understanding of the social function of artists. Werner increased the importance of the association for the artists' income by modernizing its exhibition and sales program and by having the government build a new gallery building at a central location in Bellevuestrasse. The association's presence in official commissions and committees grew at the expense of the academy, the tool of the absolutist government . The artist festivals organized by Werner as the association's chairman caused a sensation , of which the one from 1886 on the occasion of the presentation of the Pergamon Altar with 1300 antique-clad Berlin artists called on conservative moral guards.

Werner deliberately acted as a professional representative of Berlin and German artists, which in view of his rigid conception of art endangered the unity of the association. The first conflict in the association arose in 1892 when the Elf , a modern-oriented group of artists, was founded, supported by well-known artists such as Max Liebermann , which exhibited separately in addition to the annual salon organized by the association and the academy . When the artists' association made it possible for the pre-expressionist painter Edvard Munch to have an exhibition in November 1892 , this immediately provoked severe criticism from members. At their hastily convened general assembly, a narrow majority voted for the closure of the exhibition and the removal of the exhibition commission, whereupon part of the minority spontaneously founded the Free Artists' Association . Werner did not take part in the vote as chairman, but used the conflict following the implementation of the resolution to remove his opponents Hugo Vogel , Franz Skarbina and August von Heyden from the teaching staff of the art college. In the years that followed, Werner's exhibition policy led to the creation of the Berlin Secession .

During his second term as chairman of the Department of Fine Arts of the Academy of Arts from 1902 to 1906, Werner acted in 1904 as an “advisor” to the Allgemeine Deutsche Kunstgenossenschaft in the design of the German art department at the St. Louis World's Fair . This was the solution to a nationwide conflict about the sole right of the art cooperative in the selection of the pictures to be exhibited. It led to the establishment of the German Association of Artists under the patronage of the Grand Duke of Saxony-Weimar and the chairmanship of Count Kalckreuth and thus to the organizational division of German artists. In February 1904, the opponents of the politics of the Reich government won a moral victory over Werner and the behind him Kaiser Wilhelm II in a debate in the Reichstag when choosing the pictures for St. Louis .

Hugo von Tschudi , director of the Nationalgalerie since 1896 , was open to the impressionist painting that Werner disregarded when he bought it . Because of the question of the preferred hanging of works by the Barbizon School , the Tschudi affair broke out in 1908 . As a result, the Kaiser took Tschudi on leave and appointed Werner acting director of the National Gallery.

In all of these struggles Werner could rely on the support of the emperor, who had known him personally since he had taught him drawing in his childhood and who had similar views on modern art as he did and who did not shy away from vehement interventions in art life. At the same time, behind Werner stood the mass of organized German artists who saw in him the guarantor of their regular income and their social recognition and whose works at the same time corresponded to the general public taste.

public perception

Werner's strictly conservative conception of art has met with increasing public criticism since he took sides against modern art in the 1890s. For Cornelius Gurlitt in 1899 Werner was a “skilful reporter” whose pictures were not “actual works of art”. The progressive loss of reputation of Werner contributed to the fact that he adhered to the ban on women despite public criticism. In 1904, well-known artists Käthe Kollwitz and Paula Modersohn-Becker were among those who signed a petition to the Prussian House of Representatives to lift the ban . When in 1913 the Academy wanted to honor Werner with a retrospective on his 70th birthday , he refused because the Reich government wanted to prescribe the exhibition program for him, fearing that the presentation of his pictures on the Franco-Prussian War could be seen as a provocation in France . Werner's social support decreased, only the chauvinist press supported him. In caricatures that were published in Simplicissimus , the Kladderadatsch and the youth , Werner appeared as a figure of joke and the respected art critic also distantly named his "dry, artistically meaningless and unsatisfactory, even if down to the last detail accurate rendering of reality" Werner's contributions to the Berlin Cathedral criticized as "Berlin bigotry and holy eye rolling".

The art of the Wilhelmine era represented by Werner fell victim to unanimous and radical rejection in German art criticism after the November Revolution. One of the spokesmen, Werner Hegemann , called for the "removal" of the Berlin Cathedral and other works of art.

The National Socialist view of art valued the official art of the empire despite its figurative and objective language of forms as a phenomenon of decay and ignored Werner because of his ties to the monarchy and the - also Jewish - upper class.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, Golo Mann placed him in a row with Paul Heyse , Felix Dahn and Karl von Piloty in 1958 , to whom he attested "epigonism", "belated classicism", "false renaissance" and "no independent style".

According to the GDR art history , Werner glorified the chauvinist Reich unification policy and the reactionary Reich policy in an academic-pseudorealist manner .

What remained undisputed by Werner are "painted reports of documentary value that should not be underestimated", such as the still widely known imperial proclamation , although the content of the messages, which have changed in the various versions, have now been forgotten.


Honorary grave of Anton von Werner in Berlin-Schöneberg

The highest of his very numerous domestic and foreign orders was the Red Eagle Order, 1st class with ribbon .

On the occasion of the inauguration of the Berlin Cathedral in 1905, Werner was given the title of First Class Councilor with the (exalting) title of Excellence . According to him, are Wernerstraße in Berlin-Grunewald , the Wernerstraße in Berlin-Zehlendorf and Anton von Werner-Straße in Berlin-Kaulsdorf named.

Anton von Werner's grave in the Old Twelve Apostles Cemetery in Berlin-Schöneberg has been dedicated as an honorary grave of the State of Berlin since 1956 . The dedication was extended in 2016 by the usual period of twenty years.

Works (selection)

Donchery surrender negotiations (September 1-2, 1870, midnight) , diorama, 1885
Man with a newspaper , 1893, private property
In the quarter before Paris (October 24, 1870) , 1894
Unveiling of the Richard Wagner memorial in the Tiergarten , 1908
  • 1860s: Illustrations for Scheffel's works , pen drawings, black, widely used e.g. B. to the trumpeter of Säckingen
  • 1866: Konradin von Staufen and Friedrich von Baden, hearing the death sentence , oil on canvas, 2.86 × 2.37 m, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe
  • 1870: Luther in front of the Reichstag in Worms and the national uprising of 1813 for the auditorium of the Kiel school of scholars , wax paints, 3.5 × 7 m, above semicircular wall paintings, destroyed in the war in 1944 ( Luther in front of the Reichstag in Worms , 1877, as a replica in the State Gallery Stuttgart )
  • 1870: Head stable master Fedor von Rauch , portrait study, oil on canvas, lost
  • 1871: Kampf und Sieg Velarium for the entry of the troops into Berlin, oil on fabric, 5.6 × 6.6 m, formerly in the Humboldt-Gymnasium (Berlin-Tegel) , (a preliminary study for the mosaic on the Victory Column in Berlin), Academy of the arts (Berlin)
  • 1871: The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , oil, 78 × 158 cm, preliminary study, private property in Saxony, lost
  • 1871: two friezes for his apartment in Berlin: God protect us from storm and wind / and guests who are boring and work during the day, evening guests / acid weeks, happy celebrations , oil on canvas, each 89 × 499 cm, private property, Stadtmuseum Berlin Foundation (SMB), deposit
  • 1872: Count Moltke in his study in Versailles , oil on canvas, 99 × 71 cm, Doorn House
  • 1873: Cardboard for the victory memorial frieze , oil on canvas, 3.94 × 23.45 m, SMB, deposit
  • 1873: Moltke with his staff in front of Paris , oil on canvas, 1.90 × 3.60 m, Kunsthalle zu Kiel
  • 1874: Count Moltke in a Russian field marshal's uniform , oil on canvas, 2.68 × 1.63 m, Hermitage (Saint Petersburg)
  • 1877: The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , oil on canvas, 4.34 × 7.32 m, last in the picture gallery of the Berlin Palace , destroyed in the war
  • 1878: Christ and the interest penny , oil on canvas, altar painting for the St. Gertraudkirche in Frankfurt (Oder), missing since 1945
  • 1881: Foundation of the Order , and Frederick I , oil on canvas, 3.24 x 3.83 m, mural in the Chapter House of the Black Eagle redesigned Old Chapel lost Palace in Berlin, since 1945
  • 1881: The Congress of Berlin (final session of the Berlin Congress, July 13, 1878) , oil on canvas, 3.60 × 6.15 m, mural in the ballroom of the Berlin City Hall , SMB, deposit from the Senate of Berlin
  • 1881: July 19, 1870 (King Wilhelm on the sarcophagus of his mother, Queen Luise, in the mausoleum in Charlottenburg) , oil on canvas, 1.69 × 2.21 m, acquired from the Silesian Museum of Fine Arts in Breslau, today in National Museum Warsaw
  • 1882: The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , wax paints, canvas, 5.0 × 6.0 m, mural for the hall of fame of the Berlin armory , loss of war
  • 1883: Sedan panorama , oil on canvas and mixed media, 15.0 × 115.0 m, round picture in the Sedan panorama at Alexanderplatz station in Berlin, Panoramastraße, after the demolition of the building in 1908 in the private property of the emperor, later deposit in the Berlin National Gallery , lost
  • 1884: Bismarck's meeting with Napoleon (September 2, 1870, 6 a.m.), oil on canvas, 3.80 × 6.00 m, diorama in the Sedan panorama , lost
  • 1885: The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , oil on canvas, 1.67 × 2.02 m, Otto von Bismarck Foundation , Friedrichsruh
  • 1885: The Donchery surrender negotiations (September 1-2, 1870, midnight) , oil on canvas, 3.20 × 4.20 m, diorama in the Sedan panorama , lost
  • 1885: Self-portrait in the studio , oil on canvas, 119 × 87 cm, Museum Viadrina , Frankfurt / Oder
  • 1886: Prisoner of War (October 1870) , oil on canvas, 106 × 157 cm, Berlin, Berlinische Galerie
  • 1887: The 70th birthday of Kommerzienrat Valentin Manheimer , 1887 , oil on canvas, 101 × 143 cm, Berlin, Deutsches Historisches Museum
  • 1889: Engagement of Prince Heinrich on the 90th birthday of Kaiser Wilhelm I (March 22, 1887) , oil on canvas, 2.03 × 2.61 m, London, owned by Queen Elisabeth II.
  • 1890: Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm on the corpse of General Abel Douay (Weißenburg, 4th August 1870) , oil on canvas, 1.17 × 1.67 m, Hechingen, Hohenzollern Castle
  • 1893: The opening of the Reichstag in the White Hall of the Berlin Palace by Wilhelm II (June 25, 1888) , oil on canvas, 3.87 × 6.42 m, Berlin, German Historical Museum (permanent loan from the Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation in Berlin -Brandenburg )
  • 1893: Man with newspaper , oil on panel, 23 cm × 33 cm, private collection
  • 1894: In the Etappenquartier before Paris (October 24, 1870) , oil on canvas, 1.20 × 1.58 m, Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
  • 1895: Kaiser Friedrich as crown prince at the court ball in 1878 , oil on canvas, 118 × 95 cm, Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
  • 1899: The feast of the Mosse family , large mural in the dining room of the " Mosse-Palais " on Leipziger Platz in Berlin, loss of the war; reduced version, oil on canvas, 46 × 89 cm, in the Jewish Museum Berlin
  • 1900: Council of War in Versailles (November / December 1870) , oil on canvas, 2.98 × 4.00 m, Hamburger Kunsthalle
  • 1908: The unveiling of the Richard Wagner monument (October 1, 1903) , oil on canvas, 2.30 × 2.80 m, mural for Ludwig Leichner's villa in Dahlem , Berlinische Galerie
  • around 1911: The proclamation of the German Empire (January 18, 1871) , mural for the auditorium of the Realgymnasium Frankfurt / Oder, which was also intended as a municipal event hall, oil on canvas, 5 × 7.5 m. Lost / destroyed after 1945, only preserved as a sketch and on a black and white photograph of the auditorium.


  • (Ed.) For the jubilee celebration 1696–1896. History of the Royal Academic University for the Fine Arts in Berlin. Berlin 1896.
  • Addresses and speeches by the director Anton von Werner to the students of the Royal Academic University for the Fine Arts in Berlin and a list of teachers, officials and students of the same since 1875. Schuster, Berlin 1896.
  • Speech at the royal memorial service. Academy of Arts for Adolph von Menzel on March 6, 1905, held by Anton von Werner. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1905.
  • Experiences and impressions 1870–1890. Ernst Siegfried Mittler and Son, Berlin 1913 ( ).
  • “Jugenderinnerungen 1843–1870”, edited by Dominik Bartmann, commented by Karin Schrader. DVf Kunstwissenschaft, Berlin, 1994 (= sources on German art history from classicism to the present, volume 3), ISBN 3-87157-165-2 .


  • Friedrich Freiherr von Khaynach: Anton von Werner and the Berlin court painting . J. Schabelitz, Zurich 1894.
  • Adolf Rosenberg : A. von Werner (= H. Knackfuß [Hrsg.]: Artist Monographs. Volume IX). Verlag von Velhagen & Klasing, 2nd edition Bielefeld / Leipzig 1900, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 6: 1-108349
  • Dominik Bartmann : Anton von Werner. On art and art politics in the German Empire. Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-87157-108-3 .
  • Frank Becker : Images of War and Nation. The wars of unification among the bourgeois public in Germany 1864–1913 (= systems of order - studies on the history of ideas in the modern age 7). Oldenbourg, Munich 2001.
  • Thomas W. Gaehtgens: Anton von Werner, the proclamation of the German Empire; a history picture in the change of Prussian politics. Fischer, Frankfurt / M. 1990, ISBN 3-596-10325-8 .
  • Dominik Bartmann (Ed.): Anton von Werner. Story in pictures. Hirmer, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7774-6140-7 (exhibition catalog).
  • Ralph Melcher (Ed.): "Men and Deeds". Moritz Gotze. Anton von Werner (catalog for the exhibition in the Saarland Museum Saarbrücken from August 25 to October 7, 2007 with contributions by Paul Kaiser and Mona Stocker). Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2007.

Web links

Commons : Anton von Werner  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Anton von Werner: Jugenderinnerungen (1843-1870). Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, Berlin 1994, p. 18.
  2. ^ Siegmar Holsten (Red.): Art in the Karlsruhe Residence between Rococo and Modernism. Braus Verlag, Heidelberg 1990, ISBN 3-925835-58-X , p. 216 f.
  3. ^ Peter Paret : Art as History. Culture and politics from Menzel to Fontane . Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 978-3-406-34425-1 , p. 194
  4. Thomas W. Gaethgens: Anton von Werner and French painting. In: Dominik Bartmann (Ed.): Anton von Werner. Story in pictures. Hirmer, Munich 1993, pp. 49-51.
  5. ^ Helmut Börsch-Supan : The official art in Berlin 1875–1890. In: Johannes Kunisch (Ed.): Bismarck and his time, research on Brandenburg and Prussian history. New series, supplement 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1992, p. 336.
  6. The mostly preserved murals were restored after their rediscovery in 1988, but are not open to the public, cf. Andreas Bekiers: The Villa VI - Anton von Werner's residential and studio building. History and rediscovery . In: Dominik Bartmann: Anton von Werner. On art and art policy in the German Empire , pp. 139–153 (see lit.); A weblog provides information on the current status: What did we bid for?
  7. On Jacob Landau see: Digital Library - Munich Digitization Center
  8. On Werner's share in the “colorful house” see Laurenz Demps : Berlin-Wilhelmstrasse. A topography of Prussian-German power . Links, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-86153-080-5 , pp. 112-114; for demolition 1950 p. 302.
  9. ^ Anton von Werner: Experiences and impressions 1870-1890. ( Memento from December 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Ernst Siegfried Mittler and Son, Berlin 1913, p. 270.
  10. ^ Peter Paret: Art as History. Culture and politics from Menzel to Fontane. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-406-34425-9 , p. 193.
  11. ^ Peter Paret: The Berlin Secession. Modern art and its enemies in Imperial Germany. Severin and Siedler, Berlin 1981, p. 28.
  12. ^ Peter Paret: The Berlin Secession. Modern art and its enemies in Imperial Germany. Severin and Siedler, Berlin 1981, p. 26.
  13. For the Villa Behrens see: Ralf Lange : Architekturführer Hamburg . Edition Axel Menges , 1995, ISBN 3-930698-58-7 ( limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed November 16, 2010]).
  14. His portrait from 1883 is now in the possession of the Karlsruhe Literary Society .
  15. ^ Peter Paret: The Berlin Secession. Modern art and its enemies in Imperial Germany. Severin and Siedler, Berlin 1981, p. 31.
  16. Ulrike Krenzlin : On women's training in the artistic profession. In: Dieter Fuhrmann, Susanne Jensen and Jörn Merkert (among others): Profession without tradition. 125 years of the Association of Berlin Women Artists . Kupfergraben, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-89181-410-0 , p. 82.
  17. ^ Adolf Rosenberg: Anton von Werner. Verlag von Velhagen and Klasing, Bielefeld and Leipzig 1900, p. 47.
  18. ^ On the history of construction (together with the University of Music) and Werner's share: Michael Bollé: Art schools and academies. In: Berlin and its buildings, part V, volume B, universities. Michael Imhoff Verlag, Petersberg 2004, pp. 159-185; here: pp. 170–175.
  19. Quoted in Bartmann 1993, p. 190.
  20. ^ Peter Paret: The Berlin Secession. Modern art and its enemies in Imperial Germany. Severin and Siedler, Berlin 1981, pp. 28–29.
  21. Cornelius Gurlitt: The German art of the nineteenth century. Your goals and actions. In: Theobald Ziegler (ed.): The intellectual and social currents of the nineteenth century. Georg Bondi, Berlin 1899 (= The nineteenth century in Germany's development, Volume 2), p. 514, cited above. with Thomas W. Gaethgens, Uwe Fleckner (Ed.): History of the classical picture genres in source texts and comments. The history painting. Reimer, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-496-01138-6 , p. 65.
  22. ^ Information from the Berlin University of the Arts .
  23. ^ So Friedrich Haack 1912 in: The art of the XIX century. Paul Neff Verlag (Max Schreiber), Esslingen a. N. 1918 (fifth unchanged edition 1918, = ground plan of the history of art by Wilhelm Lübke , sixteenth edition, V.)
  24. Khaynach, p. 43.
  25. ^ Werner Hegemann : The stone Berlin. History of the largest tenement city in the world. Published by Gustav Kiepenheuer in Berlin, 1930, p. 235 f.
  26. ^ Golo Mann : German history of the 19th and 20th centuries. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1966, p. 462.
  27. So in the author collective (ed.): Lexicon of Art in five volumes. Architecture. Visual arts. Applied Arts. Industrial design. Art theory , VEB EA Seemann Verlag, Leipzig 1968–1978, Volume V: T – Z, keyword Werner 2.
  28. ^ So Hans Vollmer in: Anton von Werner . In: Hans Vollmer (Hrsg.): General lexicon of fine artists from antiquity to the present . Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker . tape 35 : Libra-Wilhelmson . EA Seemann, Leipzig 1942, p. 403 .
  29. ↑ On this: Thomas W. Gaehtgens: Anton von Werner, the proclamation of the German Empire. A history picture in the change of Prussian politics. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-596-10325-8 , p. 9.
  30. ^ Karl-Heinz Klingenburg: The Berlin Cathedral. Buildings, ideas and projects from the 15th century to the present. Union Verlag Berlin , Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-372-00113-3 , p. 193. His rank thus corresponded to that of a major general or a bishop.
  31. Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection: Honorary Graves of the State of Berlin (as of November 2018) (PDF, 413 kB), p. 92 (accessed on March 15, 2019). Recognition and further preservation of graves as honor graves of the State of Berlin (PDF, 205 kB). Berlin House of Representatives, printed matter 17/3105 of July 13, 2016, p. 1 and Annex 2, p. 17 (accessed on March 15, 2019).
  32. see also detailed views on Commons.
  33. Description in the Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung , No. 12, March 22, 1884, p. 114, accessed on October 7, 2013.
  34. Information on the building . Monument topography Frankfurt (Oder). Volume 3, 2002, p. 329 f. on the Monuments in Brandenburg page .