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Poison gas attack
In the Second Battle of Flanders , the German Empire opens the gas war in the First World War .
Austrian trenches across from Italy on the Isonzo
Italy announces the Triple Alliance with the German Reich
and Austria-Hungary
and enters the war on the side of the Triple Entente .
The Ottoman deportation law
The Ottoman Tehcir law presented by Interior Minister Talât Pascha ushers in the genocide of the Armenians .
Drawing for the British magazine "The Sphere" of the sinking of the Lusitania
The German submarine SM U 20 sinks the
British luxury steamer RMS Lusitania .
1915 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1363/64 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1907/08 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 71/72 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1320/21 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2458/59 (southern Buddhism); 2457/58 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the wooden rabbit乙卯 ( since February 14th , before that wooden tiger甲寅)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 4
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1277/78 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4248/49 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1293/94 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1333/34 (November 8/9)
Japanese calendar Taishō 4 ( 大 正 元年);
Kōki 2575
Jewish calendar 5675/76 (September 8/9)
Coptic calendar 1631/32 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1090/91
Minguo calendar (China) Year 4 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1330/31 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2225/26 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2226/27 (New Year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2457/58 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1661
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1971/72 (April)


Politics and world events

First World War

Political and diplomatic developments
Benedict XV 1915
The Wehrmann in Eisen as a war nail from 1915 in Vienna
  • Starting in Vienna, the custom of war nailing spread through Austria-Hungary and the German Empire.
"Home front"
Rosa Luxemburg 1915
Western front
The Western Front 1915/16
Sacrifice on the Neuve-Chapelle battlefield
  • March 10th : The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle begins. It is the first major independent and planned offensive of the British Expeditionary Force in the trench warfare of the First World War and aims to take possession of a high area east of Neuve-Chapelle, in the Arrondissement of Béthune, but ends on March 12 with a defensive victory of the Germans. British and Indian troops suffer losses of around 11,650 for a relatively minor front shift. The British Commander-in-Chief John French blames a lack of ammunition for the artillery for the poor result, thus solving the ammunition crisis of 1915 in Great Britainout. In response to this, after the formation of the liberal-conservative coalition government in May, an ammunition ministry will be set up under David Lloyd George .
  • April 17th : With the conquest by the Allies after a large-scale attack, the more than two-year battle for height 60 on the western front in the Wijtschatebogen near Ypres begins .
German barrage on allied trenches near Ypres, probably recorded during the Second Battle of Flanders (1915)
British infantry advancing on Loos
Eastern Front / Balkans
The Eastern Front 1915
A badly damaged fortress in Przemyśl
Kaiser Wilhelm II. With General von Seeckt and Generaloberst von Mackensen on the Eastern Front in April
Breakthrough battles on the Eastern Front in 1915
German cavalry in Warsaw
French soldiers in Salonika
Mountain war between Italy and Austria-Hungary
The Italian front 1915–1917
The fronts of the Ottoman Empire
Battle of Gallipoli
The sinking HMS Irresistible
Liman von Sanders as Ottoman commander
Beach section V after landing
Field Marshal Kitchener and General Birdwood inspect the front
Palestine Front and Mesopotamia
Caucasian Front and genocide of the Armenian minority
Armenian militias in a defensive trench during the battle for Van
Order of the Ministry of the Interior dated April 24
Naval warfare
Skirmish on the Dogger Bank
Blockade zone of the German submarines in 1915
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania - German illustration
  • May 7 : The German submarine U 20 under the command of Walther Schwieger sinks the British luxury steamer RMS Lusitania . 1,198 people are killed, 128 of them from the then officially neutral United States . The protests of the USA cause the German Empire to temporarily stop the unrestricted submarine war.
  • May 23 : The Austrian Navy attacked the port of Ancona on the day that Italy declared war . The next day, a large part of the Austro-Hungarian Navy leaves Pula for the Adriatic . The attack on Ancona cost 63 lives in the city and caused serious damage.
  • August 13 : The German submarine UB 14 under the command of Heino von Heimburg sinks the British troop transport ship Royal Edward in the Aegean Sea . Of the 1,639 men on board, 935 are killed.
  • August 19 : In the Baralong incident , the German submarine SM U 27 is sunk by the British submarine trap HMS Baralong in the waters south of the Irish city of Queenstown. After that, all surviving crew members of the German submarine are killed by the crew of the British submarine trap, resulting in an exchange of notes between the German Reich government and the United Kingdom government that lasts for months .
  • August 19 : A German submarine sinks the British passenger ship Arabic of the White Star Line , killing 44 people. Since two Americans are also among the dead, tensions arise again between the United States and the German Empire.
  • September 4 : The German submarine U 20 sinks the British passenger ship Hesperian of the Allan Line off Ireland . 32 people are killed. In contrast to the sinking of the Lusitania , Captain Walther Schwieger is not congratulated on his successful patrol after his return to Wilhelmshaven. He is ordered to Berlin to justify his act and to officially apologize.
  • October 23 : The British submarine E 8 torpedoed the German warship Prinz Adalbert in the Baltic Sea . The large cruiser lost a crew of 672; only three survived the ship's sinking a few nautical miles from Libau .
  • November 5 : The German submarine SM U 35 sinks the British steamer Tara and attacks the port of Sollum in Egypt.
  • November 8 : A German submarine sinks the Italian transatlantic passenger steamer Ancona south of Sardinia , killing 208 people.
  • December 30th : The German submarine U 38 under the command of Max Valentiner torpedoed the British passenger ship Persia south of Crete, which sank within just five minutes. Of the 519 people on board, only 175 survive.
Air war
The war in the colonies
East Africa
Rubens Route
  • February 18 : The blockade breaker Rubens leaves Wilhelmshaven with a supply cargo for German East Africa, where he arrives at the beginning of April. There the ship was so badly damaged by the British cruiser HMS Hyacinth on April 14th that it had to be set aground. A large part of the cargo can nevertheless be recovered and delivered to the German protection force under Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck .
  • March 1 : The Royal Navy imposes a sea ​​blockade off the entire coast of German East Africa.
  • June 21 : British-Indian units capture Bukoba .
  • July 11th : SMS Königsberg is sunk by its own crew after several battles with British cruisers.
  • At the end of the year, German East Africa is the only German colony that can be held almost entirely against the Allies, as both the British and Belgians are still in the process of drawing together larger troop contingents.
  • End of the year: Iyasu V , Emperor of Ethiopia , joins the Central Powers in the “holy war” against the British colonial empire.
Southern Africa
The South West Africa campaign in 1915
Baster Council with Cornelius van Wyk
German troops in a defensive position near Garoua


  • January 25 : Conservative officers perform in Portugal a coup against the 12 only since December of last year in the Official Government located Victor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho and behind it Democratic Party of Afonso Costa . The triggers are the negotiations that the government is conducting with the Entente powers about Portugal's entry into the First World War, and the government's anti-clerical policy. The putschists dissolve parliament. The First Republic thus remains chronically unstable.
General Joaquim Pimenta de Castro
  • January 28 : President Manuel José de Arriaga appoints the leader of the putschists, General Joaquim Pimenta de Castro, as the new Prime Minister. The government formed by him, consisting primarily of the military, the so-called "dictatorship of swords" , governs without a parliament through decrees countersigned by the president. It ends the negotiations with the Entente and the anti-church policies of the previous government. The Castro government relies on two smaller parties that split off from the Democrats in 1912, the evolutionists and the unionists , and particularly the conservative section of the officers' corps.
  • May 14 : Officers close to the Democratic Party launch a counter-coup against the de Castro government. The ruling military junta resigns, a "constitutional junta" temporarily takes over the government, which Afonso Costa offers the office of head of government, which the latter refuses. President Arriaga also has to resign, Teófilo Braga is re-elected as transitional president.
  • May 17 : Former Prime Minister João Pinheiro Chagas is re-elected Prime Minister, but does not take office, José de Castro becomes the new Prime Minister.
  • October 9 : Bernardino Machado is elected President of the Republic by Parliament.
  • Afonso Costa will become Prime Minister for the second time on November 29, following the Democratic Party's victory in the June elections .

Other events in Europe

Constantine I and Eleftherios Venizelos 1913/14


Constitutionalist planes at El Ébano



Yuan Shikai 1915



War economy

Bread menu
  • In the German Reich the " pig murder ", the slaughter of around five million pigs, is ordered.

International exhibitions

View of the pavilions in the floodlights: Left the Tower of Jewels , right the Italian Tower

Patents and company formation


science and technology

Antarctic exploration

The Endurance expedition , which is in the drift ice of the Weddell Sea, is delayed during the first few days of the year , but a period of good travel during January 7th and 10th brings the Endurance close to the coast of Coats Land . On January 17th, the expedition discovered land that Ernest Shackleton named after his main patron, the Caird Coast . The Endurance is now near Prinzregent-Luitpold-Land , at the southern end of which is its destination, the Vahsel Bay .

The endurance in pack ice

The next day the ship is stuck in the pack ice. After several passive days, Shackleton sends men with ice chisels, awls, saws and hoes onto the ice to clear a passage on February 14th, but the efforts remain in vain.

On February 21, the Endurance reaches its southernmost latitude, 76 ° 58 ′ S, under the grip of the pack ice, and then begins to move north with the ice. When it was clear they would not be released until spring, Shackleton orders on February 24th to abandon the ship routine. The dogs are brought off board while the ship's equipment is converted into suitable winter quarters for the men.

Shackleton and Wild between the pack ice piled up by the pressure

In February and March, the endurance slowly drifts north. However, as winter sets in, the speed of the drift increases and the state of the surrounding ice changes and the ship is in danger of being crushed by the ice masses.

The dark winter months of May, June and July pass without any major events. At the beginning of September, however, the ice begins to squeeze violently again and continues to squeeze periodically. When the starboard side of the Endurance is pressed against a large ice floe on October 24, the ice pressure on the side of the ship increases until the side of the ship begins to bend and splinter and water begins to run into the ship. On October 27th, Shackleton is forced to evacuate the ship. The wreck remains afloat, and the crew can rescue additional supplies and materials over the next few weeks.

Dogs that watch the endurance at the end of the drift just before it goes down

On October 30th, the expedition will begin the march to Paulet Island , where Shackleton set up an extensive food depot 12 years earlier, but the condition of the pack ice makes it almost impossible to move forward. On November 1st, Shackleton breaks off the march and decides to wait for the ice to break up. The Endurance wreck , still stuck in the ice nearby, continues to be visited by small groups of men to retrieve supplies until the ship finally slides under the ice on November 21.

After another unsuccessful attempt between December 23 and 29 to reach Paulet Island and a rebellion by the ship's carpenter Harry McNish , Shackleton gives up the effort. The men set up their tents on a stable ice floe and set up in what is known as the Patience Camp , which will remain their home for over three months.

Members of the Ross Sea Party aboard the Aurora

The so-called Ross Sea Party , which is supposed to support the endurance expedition by setting up depots, does not arrive until January 16, around a month late, off Ross Island , where the men under the leadership of Aeneas Mackintosh at Cape Evans their coastal base build in the former headquarters of Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery Expedition . There there is a first dispute between Mackintosh and the expedition member Ernest Joyce about how to proceed. After Mackintosh prevailed, the team set out on January 24th to find the first depots at Minna Bluffand put on at 80 ° south. Due to the lack of acclimatization due to the hasty departure, only part of the supplies can be deposited. In addition, all sled dogs taken with them die on the way back, and the men are so exhausted when they arrive on March 25th on the Hut Point Peninsula that they cannot return to Cape Evans for the time being. The expedition ship Aurora finally brings the expedition members back to the base, is anchored there and allowed to freeze in the pack ice. In a storm on May 7th, however, it tears itself loose and ends up on the Ross Seadriven out and cannot return to Cape Evans. Fortunately, most of the supplies are already on land and the men are preparing to stay in Antarctica for several years. In this situation, expedition leader Mackintosh shows leadership qualities that win him back the trust of the crew during the first winter. On September 1, the men begin new depot facilities. The depot at Minna Bluff will be completed on December 28th.

Natural sciences


The first NACA meeting in 1915
The Equitable Building under construction



Visual arts


The official movie poster of The Birth of a Nation


Music and theater


Postcard from the Mosque of the Crescent Camp


Avezzano after the earthquake
The capsized Eastland

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

Bierstadt Lake in the national park
Explosion and ash cloud from Lassen Peak
  • May 22nd : During a period of increased volcanic activity, Lassen Peak erupts in northern California. A pyroclastic flow forms the so-called devastated area , which is still practically tree-free .


Entries of athletics world records can be found under the respective discipline under athletics .

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics William Henry Bragg
United Kingdom 1801United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom "For their services in researching crystal structures using X-rays" William Henry Bragg
William Lawrence Bragg
United Kingdom 1801United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom (born in Adelaide , Australia ) AustraliaAustralia  William Lawrence Bragg
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Richard Martin Willstätter
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire "For his studies of the dyes in the plant kingdom, especially the chlorophyll " Richard Martin Willstätter
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine not awarded
Nobel Prize in literature Romain Rolland
(awarded 1916)
FranceFrance France "As an homage to the sublime idealism of his authorship and to the compassion and truth with which he depicts various types of people" Romain Rolland
Nobel Peace Prize not awarded




Lorne Greene, 1942


JCR Licklider
Rudolf Kirchschläger


Billie Holiday, 1947
Anthony Quinn, 1988


Orson Welles, 1937



Charles H. Townes, 2007 (right) with Roderic Pettigrew


Ingrid Bergman, 1945


Franz Josef Strauss (1982)
Helmut Schön (right), 1974



Augusto Pinochet, 1990


Frank Sinatra, 1960
Édith Piaf, 1951

Exact date of birth unknown


First quarter

Armand Peugeot

Second quarter

Friedrich August Johannes Loeffler
Emil Rathenau

Third quarter

Paul Ehrlich

Fourth Quarter

Theodor Boveri
Alois Alzheimer

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1915  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files