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Handover of the emperor Napoleon III.  to King Wilhelm of Prussia in Sedan on September 2, 1870
After the Battle of Sedan , the French army surrenders
in the Franco-Prussian War . Napoleon III is captured , the 3rd republic is proclaimed in Paris .
Francisco Solano López
The Triple Alliance War ends with the death of
Francisco Solano López .

Ludwig II., 1870
Ludwig II of Bavaria sends the letter of Kaiser formulated by Otto von Bismarck to Prussia.

1870 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1318/19 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1862/63 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 26/27 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1275/76 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2413/14 (southern Buddhism); 2412/13 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Horse庚午 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Snake 己巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1232/33 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4203/04 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1248/49 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1286/87 (April 2-3)
Japanese calendar Meiji 3 ( 明治 3 年) (from February 1st)
Jewish calendar 5630/31 (25/26 September)
Coptic calendar 1586/87 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1045/46
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1285/86 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2180/81 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2181/82 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1926/27 (April)


Politics and world events

German unification and war against France

“Emser Audienz”, a meeting between the French ambassador and King Wilhelm , holder of the Federal Presidium
Destruction of a French cuirassier regiment in the battle of Wörth ; Drawn by H. Merte
The Franco-German surrender negotiations on September 2, 1870
Germany's future , caricature in the Austrian satirical magazine “ Kikeriki ” on the
November treaties

Risorgimento in Italy



Ignaz Freiherr von Plener
  • January 15 : The Cisleithan Prime Minister Eduard Taaffe is removed from his office at his own request after remaining in the minority in his cabinet with his intention to better meet the demands of non-German nationalities. His successor in the so-called Citizens' Ministry is temporarily Ignaz von Plener .
  • February 1 : The centralist Leopold Hasner von Artha becomes Prime Minister of Cisleithania . He submitted his resignation on April 4th after the Kaiser rejected his proposal to dissolve uncooperative state parliaments. He will be released on April 12th . This ends the so-called Citizens' Ministry .
  • April 7th : The Austrian government lifts the so-called coalition ban from 1864. This allows unions in Austria-Hungary. Despite everything, the state continues to do its utmost to fight the unions and keep their influence low.
Alfred Józef Potocki
  • April 12 : Alfred Józef Potocki is appointed Prime Minister. He tries in vain to achieve a federal balance in Cisleithanien.
  • July 4 : In the beginning of the Viennese high treason trial , fourteen people responsible for organizing a rally for political and trade union rights of workers , attended by around 20,000 people last year, are on trial . The defendants include Heinrich Oberwinder , Johann Most and Andreas Scheu .
  • July 19 : In the Viennese high treason trial against the responsible organizers of a rally for the political and trade union rights of the workers, the verdicts are passed: Despite the lack of evidence, the organizers are sentenced to prison sentences of up to six years. After this process, the authorities dissolve most of the workers' education associations. The closings trigger new protests and riots lasting several days, prompting the government to pass a new coalition law. Subsequently, however, the convicts are given amnesty.



Triple Alliance War in South America

The situation after the war
Paraguayan prisoners of war

With the death of the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López , who does not want to be captured by Allied soldiers , the fighting in the Latin American Triple Alliance War ends on March 1st after more than five years .

In the peace treaty of June 20, Paraguay had to cede around 144,000 km², around 50 percent of its national territory, to Brazil and Argentina. Argentina is appropriating the Misiones region, previously occupied by Paraguay, and part of the Chaco region between the Bermejo and Pilcomayo rivers . Brazil strikes the won territories of its province of Mato Grosso .

The war of Paraguay against the Triple Alliance was - measured by the victims of Paraguay in relation to its total population - one of the war with the most losses in world history. It is estimated that Paraguay's population was reduced from just over 500,000 to around 221,000 in the course of the war. Information about the pre-war population is disputed. Paraguay, which was one of the most economically advanced and powerful states in the region before the war, can never regain this status.

United States of America

15. Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fifteenth Amendment , a poster from 1870 celebrating the passing of the 15th Amendment and the resulting benefits for people of color



Business start-ups

Title page from January 4, 1870

Other economic events

science and technology


Old Faithful


Interior of the Tower Subway car in 1870



Architecture and fine arts

Henri Fantin-Latour, Un atelier aux Batignolles


music and dance

Musikverein building Vienna, keystone laying on March 1st , drawing by Vinzenz Katzler


Proclamation of infallibility, contemporary representation


  • January 28 : After casting off in Halifax , the British passenger liner City of Boston of the Inman Line disappears without a trace on the North Atlantic with 191 people on board.
  • June 5 : A large fire rages in Constantinople in the Pera district, killing at least 3,000 houses and around 1,300 residents.
  • June 7th : An earthquake in the Mexican state of Oaxaca kills 110 people.
  • September 6th : On its maiden voyage, the British ironclad HMS Captain sinks in a hurricane off the Spanish coast, killing 474 people. Only 18 men of the crew survive.
  • October 19 : The British passenger steamer Cambria crashes into a storm off the Irish coast on the rugged rocky shore of the island of Inishtrahull and sinks. Only one of the 180 people on board survived.
  • October 26th : A hurricane over North Baden lifts the platform roof of the Mannheim main station, interrupts all telegraph lines, sinks five ships in the Neckar and almost destroys an omnibus. Further damage occurs in Baden-Baden, where the platform hall is completely demolished, as well as in Karlsruhe, Pforzheim and the surrounding area.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .


Panathenaic Stadium, drawing by Ziller, 1870

Historical maps and views

Brixen 1870

Largest cities in the world around 1870

Metropolitan areas
rank Surname region Residents year
1. London United Kingdom 3,840,595 1871
2. Paris France ≈2,300,000 1870
3. New York City United States 1,469,045 1870
4th Vienna Austria-Hungary 900.998 1869
5. Beijing Empire of China ≈875,000 1870
6th St. Petersburg Russian Empire 842,900 1873
7th Berlin Prussia 826.341 1871
8th. Istanbul Ottoman Empire ≈800,000 ≈1870
9. Bombay British India 644.605 1872
10. Moscow Russian Empire 601,969 1871
11. Tokyo Empire of Japan 595,900 1872



Ernst Barlach
Gustav Bauer, 1920


Hugo Stinnes, around 1900



Mina Benson Hubbard
Lenin as a youth (ca.1887)
Franz Lehár


Juana la Macarrona


Clara Forever



Marianne Weber
Gustav Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach (1931)
Maria Montessori at the age of ten, 1880


Luise as a child, painted by Georg Decker , 1875
Georges Claude, 1926
The Danish Crown Prince Christian with his mother Louise of Sweden-Norway 1870/71




Rhoda Erdmann (around 1930)
Karl Renner (around 1905)

Exact date of birth unknown


January to March

April to June

Emma Willard
Charles Dickens

July to September

Louise Lehzen
Amalie of Saxony

October to December

Alexandre Dumas the Elder, 1855

Exact date of death unknown

Individual evidence

  1. Freiburg newspaper of June 10, 1870
  2. ^ Albert Kuntzemüller : The Baden Railways in the Franco-German War 1870/71 in: Report of the Realgymnasium with Realschule Mannheim, Lessing School - school year 1913/14 , Masur, Mannheim 1914, p. 39

Web links

Commons : 1870  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files